A – D
E – N
O – Z
People who identify as being of Aboriginal origin. May also include people identified as being of both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin. See also Indigenous people, Torres Strait Islander people and Indigenous status.
Data that are routinely collected in the course of general administration. Includes data from the Registrars of Births, Deaths and Marriages, hospital morbidity data, housing assistance data and child protection data.
A method of removing the influence of age when comparing populations with different age structures. Where appropriate, estimates in this publication are age standardised to the age composition of the total estimated resident population of Australia as at 30 June 2006. The age standardised rate is that which would have prevailed if the studied population had the standard age composition.
Alcohol consumption risk level
Alcohol risk levels were derived from the average daily consumption of alcohol in the seven days prior to interview and are grouped into relative risk levels as defined by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) as follows:
Alcohol Consumption per day
| Low risk|| less than 50ml|| Less than 25ml|
| Risky|| 50-70ml|| 25-50ml|
| High Risk|| More than 75ml|| More than 50ml|
|Note: One standard drink contains 12.5ml of alcohol|
It should be noted that risk level as defined by the NHMRC is based on regular consumption levels of alcohol, whereas indicators derived in the NATSIHS do not take into account whether consumption in the reference week was more, less or the same as usual.
Drinking status information was also collected for those who did not consume any alcohol in the seven days prior to interview. Categorised as:
- Last consumed more than one week to less than 12 months ago;
- Last consumed 12 months or more ago;
- Never consumed.
The Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO) has been developed for use in the collection, analysis and dissemination of occupation statistics in Australia and New Zealand.
ANZSCO was developed jointly by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), Statistics New Zealand (Statistics NZ) and the Australian Government Department of Employment and Workplace Relations (DEWR) to improve the comparability of occupation statistics between the two countries and the rest of the world.
The Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) has been developed for use in the compilation and analysis of industry statistics in Australia and New Zealand.
Average equivalised gross household income
The Australian Bureau of Statistics and Statistics New Zealand jointly developed this classification to improve the comparability of industry statistics between the two countries and with the rest of the world.
Average equivalised gross household income is applicable to occupied private dwellings. It excludes households where at least one member aged 15 years and over did not state an income and households where at least one member aged 15 years and over was temporarily absent on Census Night. It excludes 'Visitors only' and 'Other not classifiable' households.
Average number of persons per bedroom
Applicable to occupied private dwellings only. It excludes 'Visitors only' and 'Other not classifiable' households
Average household size
Applicable to number of persons usually resident in occupied private dwellings. It includes partners, children, and co-tenants (in group households) who were temporarily absent on Census Night. A maximum of three temporary absentees can be counted in each household. It excludes 'Visitors only' and 'Other not classifiable' households.
Body Mass Index (BMI)
This index is calculated from reported height and weight information, using the formula weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in meters) squared. To produce a measure of the prevalence of overweight or obesity in adults, BMI values are grouped according to the table below which allows categories to be reported against both the World Health Organization and National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines.
Classification of Body Mass Index
| ||BMI range|
Canadian National Occupancy Standard for housing appropriateness
A standard measure of housing utilisation that is sensitive to both household size and composition. Based on the following criteria used to assess bedroom requirements, households requiring at least one additional bedroom are considered to be overcrowded:
- there should be no more than two persons per bedroom
- a household of one unattached individual may reasonably occupy a bed-sit (i.e. have no bedroom)
- couples and parents should have a separate bedroom
- children less than five years of age, of different sexes, may reasonably share a room
- children five years of age or over, of different sexes, should not share a bedroom
- children less than 18 years of age and of the same sex may reasonably share a bedroom
- single household members aged 18 years or over should have a separate bedroom.
A census is a count of a whole population. The Census of Population and Housing measures the number of people and dwellings in Australia and their key characteristics, at a given point in time. The ABS conducts a Census every five years.
Clan, tribal group or language group
A group of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people who share a common language or tribal membership.
Clerical and Administrative Worker
Includes Office Managers & Program Administrators; Personal Assistants and Secretaries; Clerical Workers and Receptionists, (see page 545 of ANZSCO).
Community and Personal Service Worker
Includes Health and Welfare Support Workers; Carers and Aides; Hospitality Workers; Protective Service Workers; Sport and Personal Service Workers, (see page 472 of ANZSCO).
Community Development Employment Projects (CDEP) scheme
The CDEP scheme enables participants (usually members of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander communities) to exchange unemployment benefits for opportunities to undertake work and training in activities which are managed by local Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander community organisation. Participants in the program are classified as employed.
Contributing Family Member
Is a person who works without pay in an economic enterprise operated by a relative.
In Australia, crimes are punishable by the state, and recorded in accordance with the Australian Standard Offence Classification (ASOC).
Current daily smoker
A person who was smoking one or more cigarettes (or cigars or pipes) per day, on average, at the time of interview. See also Smoker status.
Days away from work or study
Refers to days where the respondent was away from work, school or other educational institution (as appropriate) for at least half the day. Absences included days away due a respondent's own illness or injury, or to care for another person with illness or injury. Data in the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (NATSIHS) 2004–05 (cat no. 4715.0) only refer to days away due to own illness or injury.
Discrete Indigenous community
A geographical location with a physical or legal boundary that is inhabited or intended to be inhabited predominantly by Indigenous people, with housing and infrastructure that is either owned or managed on a community basis.
A building or structure which is intended to have people live in it, and which is habitable on Census Night. Some examples of dwellings are houses, motels, flats, prisons, tents, and houseboats.
The highest level of education attained. Includes both primary and secondary school, and non-school qualifications.
Persons aged 15 years or over who, during the week prior to survey, worked for payment or profit; who had a job from which they were on leave or otherwise temporarily absent; were on strike or stood down temporarily; or worked as unpaid helpers in a family business. See also Labour force status.
Employed full time
A person aged 15 years or over who worked 35 hours or more, in all jobs, during the week prior to Census night. See also Employed.
Employed part time
A person aged 15 years or over who worked less than 35 hours, in all jobs, during the week prior to Census night. See also Employed.
An employee is a person who works for a public or private employer and receives remuneration in wages or salary; or is paid a retainer fee by his/her employer, while working on a commission basis; or works for an employer for tips, piece-rates or payment in kind; or, is a person who operates his/her own incorporated enterprise with or without hiring employees.
The number of employed persons expressed as a percentage of the population aged 15 years and over, excluding persons whose labour force status is unknown. See also employed.
Estimated Resident Indigenous Population
The official ABS experimental estimate of Australia's Indigenous population. The estimates are based on the Census usual residence counts, adjusted for undercount and non-response, and are compiled as at 30 June. Further information is available in Population Distribution, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (cat. no. 4705.0).
Estimated Resident Population
Estimated resident population (ERP) is the official measure of the population of Australia, based on the concept of usual residence within Australia.
Equivalised disposable household income
To calculate the equivalised disposable income of a household, each member of the household is allocated 'equivalence points'. Taking the first adult in the household as having a weight of 1 point, each additional person aged 15 years or older is allocated 0.5 of a point, and each child under the age of 15 years is allocated 0.3 of a point. Equivalised disposable household income is then derived by dividing disposable household income by a factor equal to the sum of the 'equivalence points' allocated to the household members.
The equivalised disposable income of a single person household is the same as its unequivalised disposable income.
Equivalised gross household income
Equivalised household income is a measure used to take differences in household size and composition into account for comparison purposes.
Two or more persons, one of whom is at least 15 years of age, who are related by blood, marriage (registered or de facto), adoption, step or fostering, who are usually resident in the same household.
A household containing two or more persons, one of whom is at least 15 years of age, who are related by blood, marriage (registered or de facto), adoption, step or fostering. There may be more than one family living in a single household therefore the total number of families may exceed the total number of family households. See also Household.
Gross household income per week
The sum of the personal incomes of each resident aged 15 years or over who was present in the household on Census night. Persons who were temporarily absent on Census night, or had nil or negative income, or did not state their income, do not contribute to household income. See also Equivalised gross household income per week.
Gross individual income per week
The usual gross weekly income of persons aged 15 years or over. Gross weekly income is income before tax, superannuation, health insurance, or other deductions are made. Income includes: family payments, pensions, unemployment benefits, student allowances, maintenance (child support), superannuation, wages, overtime, dividends, rents received, business or farm income (less operating expenses) and workers' compensation received.
Health related actions
Refers to specific health related action(s) respondents reported they had taken in the two weeks prior to interview (except for admitted to hospital which had a 12 month time frame), including:
- Admitted to hospital;
- Visits to casualty/emergency units at hospitals;
- Visits to outpatients department at hospital;
- Consultation with general practitioner (GP) and/or specialist;
- Consultation with dentist;
- Consultations with other health professionals (OHP): see separate reference;
- Days away from work or study (due to own illness or injury);
- Other days of reduced activity (days other than days away from work or school/study) due to own illness or injury.
Health risk factors
Health risk factors are those behaviours or environments which can increase the chance of developing a disease.
Highest year of schooling
This refers to the recorded highest level of primary or secondary school a person has completed. It is classified to the Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED) (see cat. no. 1272.0). This classification has changed since the 2001 Census. In 2001 it included a category 'Still at school'. The 'Still at school' category is excluded from the 2006 classification. This allows the highest level of education attainment to be determined for people still at school.
A person who is purchasing or owns the dwelling in which he/she was enumerated on Census Night.
An area of land with which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have ancestral and/or cultural links.
The ABS uses the cultural definition of homelessness to enumerate the homeless population. The cultural definition contends that 'homelessness' and 'inadequate housing' are cultural concepts that only make sense in a particular community at a given historical period. Cultural standards are embedded in the housing practices of a society. The minimum community standard is considered to be a small rental flat with a bedroom, living room, kitchen, bathroom and some security of tenure. Exceptions to this definition include prisons, student halls of residence, seminaries, etc.
See the Chris Chamberlain and David MacKenzie definition in Australian Census Analytic Program: Counting the Homeless, Australia, 2006 (cat no 2050.0).
A household is defined as one or more persons, of whom is at least 15 years and over, usually resident in the same private dwelling. Under this definition, all occupants of a dwelling form a household and complete one form. Therefore, for Census purposes, the total number of households is equal to the total number of occupied private dwellings as a Census form is completed for each household from which dwelling information for the household is obtained. See also Family household, Lone person household, and Other household.
Offenders are held in prisons and additionally persons pending court hearings may be held in prisons, detention centres or other custodial facilities.
See Gross household income per week, Gross individual income per week, Income quintiles and Equivalised gross income.
Groupings that result from ranking all households or people in the population in ascending order according to their income and then dividing the population into five equal groups, each comprising 20% of the population.
Any household that had at least one person of any age as a resident at the time of the Census who identified as having Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origins.
Indigenous housing organisations
Any Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander organisation which is responsible for managing housing for Indigenous people. This includes community organisations, such as Resource Agencies and Land Councils, that amongst their range of functions, manage housing for Indigenous people.
People who identified themselves, or were identified by another household member, as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin. See also Indigenous status.
The Census asks, for each person in a household or non-private dwelling, whether they are of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin and the response(s) to this question determines their Indigenous status. People may identify, or be identified, as being in one of four categories:
Where this question is unanswered, Indigenous status is coded as 'not stated'.
- Torres Strait Islander;
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander; or
- not Indigenous (non-Indigenous).
Industry of employment
The industries in which employed people aged 15 years and over work, coded according to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 2006 (cat. no. 1292.0).
Whether or not the Internet can be accessed from a dwelling and if so, what type of connection. The options are:
- Broadband connection including ADSL, Cable, Wireless, and Satellite connection;
- Dial-up connection including analog modem and ISDN connection; and
- Other including Internet access through mobile phones, set-top boxes, games machines or connections other than dial-up or broadband.
Includes Cleaners, Laundry, Construction and Mining Workers; Factory Processors; Farm, Forestry and Garden Workers; Food Preparation Assistants and other Labourers, (see page 695 of ANZSCO).
Comprises employed and unemployed people aged 15 years and over.
Labour force participation
The number of persons in the labour force expressed as a percentage of the population aged 15 years and over, excluding persons whose labour force status was unknown.
Labour force status
Classifies people aged 15 years and over as employed working full-time, part-time or away from work, unemployed looking for full-time work, unemployed looking for part-time work, or not in the labour force.
Labour Force Survey (LFS)
The LFS contains estimates of employed and unemployed persons classified by sex, full-time/part-time status, states and territories and some age groups; and persons not in the labour force.
Life expectancy may be compiled for any particular age or age group. Thus, life expectancy at birth refers to the average number of years a group of new-born babies could expect to live if the age-specific death rates of the given period, e.g. 2005-2007, were to continue throughout his or her remaining lifetime. This does not equate to the number of years of life any one person or group of persons will actually live.
Long term health condition
A medical condition (illness, injury or disability) which has lasted 6 months or more, or which the respondent expects to last for six months or more. Some reported conditions were assumed to be long-term, including:
- rheumatic heart disease;
- heart attack; and
Geographical areas within the 'Major cities of Australia' category of the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) Remoteness structure. See also Remoteness Areas.
Machinery Operators and Drivers
Machinery operators & drivers operate machines, plant, vehicles and other equipment to perform a range of agricultural, manufacturing and construction functions, move materials, and transport passengers and freight (see p 644 ANZSCO, 2006)
Includes Chief Executives, General Managers and Legislators, Farmers and Farm Managers, Specialist, Hospitality, Retail and Service Managers, (see page 70 of ANZSCO)
The mean is a summary number that measures one type of midpoint in a range of numbers. In statistical terms determining the midpoint in a range of numbers is called the Measure of Central Tendency. The mean is also known as the arithmetic average. It equals the sum of all values, divided by the number of values.
The total income received, divided by the number of contributory units.
Median is one of the three measures of central tendency. A median is the middle score that separates the higher half of a data set from the lower half. If all numbers were put into order from lowest to highest value, the median is the middle value.
Median age of persons is the middle value in a series of ages placed in ascending or descending order.
Median housing loan repayment
Applicable to occupied private dwellings being purchased and includes dwellings being purchased under a rent/buy scheme. It excludes 'Visitors only' and 'Other not classifiable' households.
Applicable to occupied private dwellings being rented. It excludes 'Visitors only' and 'Other not classifiable' households.
Median gross weekly individual income
Median income is the level of income which divides the units in a group into two equal parts, one half having incomes above the median and the other half having incomes below the median. Medians have been established for each income range using data from the Survey of Income and Housing.
A non-private dwelling is a dwelling that provides communal or transitory type of accommodation. Examples include hotels, motels, prisons, hospitals, boarding schools, etc.
Geographical areas within the 'Major cities of Australia', 'Inner regional Australia' and 'Outer regional Australia' categories of the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) Remoteness structure. See also Remoteness Areas.
Despite the efforts of question designers and Census collectors, not all of the questions on the Census form are answered for every person. Unanswered questions are generally referred to as non-response.
Any post-school qualifications. A non-school qualification is awarded for post-school educational attainment. Includes Certificates, Diplomas, Bachelor degrees, Graduate certificates, Graduate Diplomas and Postgraduate degrees. Non-school qualifications may be attained concurrently with school qualifications.
For detailed information please refer to Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED) (cat. no. 1272.0).
Not in the Labour force
Persons who, during the week prior to being asked, were neither employed nor unemployed. They include persons who were keeping house (unpaid), retired, voluntarily inactive, permanently unable to work, in gaol, trainee teachers, members of contemplative religious orders, and persons whose only activity during the week prior to Census Night was jury service or unpaid voluntary work for a charitable organisation.
Occupied private dwellings
A privately owned dwelling which is inhabited on Census Night. Some examples are houses, flats and houseboats. All occupied dwellings are counted in the Census.
Other health professionals
Includes consultation, for own health reasons, in the two weeks prior to interview with one or more of the following:
- Aboriginal health worker;
- Accredited counsellor;
- Alcohol and drug worker;
- Occupational therapist;
- Social worker/welfare officer;
- Speech therapist/pathologist; or
- Traditional healer.
Households in which there were no residents identified as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin on Census night. These households may include residents whose Indigenous status was unknown.
Geographical areas within the 'Outer Regional Australia' category of the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) Remoteness structure. See also Remoteness areas.
Place of enumeration
This is used for Census counts. The place of enumeration is the place at which a person is counted on Census night, i.e. where he/she spent Census Night, which may not be where he/she usually lives.
Place of usual residence
Census counts based on where people usually lived at the time the Census was conducted. 'Usual residence' refers to the place where the person has lived or intends to live for a total of six months or more. Counts on this basis are used to minimise the effect of seasonal fluctuations in holiday/resort areas and, in remote areas, the effect of visitation and mobility issues and events such as festivals, funerals, hunting or other cultural activities.
Includes Arts and Media, Business, Human Resource, Marketing, Design, Engineering, Science, Transport, Education, Health, Information and Computer Technology, Legal, Social and Welfare Professionals, (see page 140 of ANZSCO).
Professional, Scientific and Technology Services
Includes units mainly engaged in providing professional, scientific and technical services.
Units in this division specialise and sell their expertise. These services include scientific research, architecture, engineering, computer systems design, law, accountancy, advertising, market research, management and other consultancy, veterinary science and professional photography.
Post Enumeration Survey
A survey following shortly after each Census which aims to estimate the extent of undercount or overcount in the Census. In 2006, remote areas, including discrete Indigenous communities, were included in the scope of the survey for the first time.
A private dwelling is a structure which is intended to have people live in it, and which is habitable on Census night. It includes houses, flats, residences in caravan /residential parks, tents, houseboats, rooms above shops and self-contained retirement village dwellings.
Prime working age group
The working population can be divided into 3 groups: youth (15–24), prime working age (25–44) and older working age (45–66).
Indigenous to non-Indigenous rate ratios are calculated by dividing the proportion of Indigenous people with a particular characteristic by the proportion of non-Indigenous people with the same characteristic.
A rate ratio of 1.0 indicates that the prevalence of the characteristic is the same in the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations.
Rate ratios greater than 1.0 indicate higher prevalence in the Indigenous population, and rate ratios less than 1.0 indicate higher prevalence in the non-Indigenous population.
For example, if the age standardised proportion of Indigenous people with asthma was 18% while the comparable proportion for non-Indigenous people was 15%. Dividing 18% by 15% produces an Indigenous to non-Indigenous age standardised rate ratio of 1.2. That is, after taking into account the age differences between the populations, the asthma rate for Indigenous people is 1.2 times that of non-Indigenous people.
Rate ratios produced for the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (NATSIHS) 2004–05(cat. no. 4715.0) were based on proportions to one decimal place.
Geographical areas within the 'Remote Australia' and 'Very remote Australia' categories of the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) Remoteness structure. See also Remoteness areas.
Within a state or Territory, each Remoteness Area represents an aggregation of non-contiguous geographical areas which share common characteristics of remoteness, determined in the context of Australia as a whole.
The delimitation criteria for Remoteness Areas are based on the Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA) developed by the then Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care and the National Key Centre for Social Applications of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). ARIA measures the remoteness of a point based on the physical road distances to the nearest Urban Centre in each of the five size classes. Therefore, not all Remoteness Areas are represented in each state or territory.
For more information, see Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC), 2006 (cat.no.1216.0). Chapters 2 and 8.
Sales workers sell goods,services and property, and provide sales support in areas such as operating cash registers and displaying and demonstrating goods. ICT and Technical Sales Representatives are excluded from this major group (see p612 ANZSCO, 2006)
A sample is part of a population. It is a subset of the population, often randomly selected for the purpose of studying the characteristics of the entire population.
Self assessed health status
A person's general assessment of their own health against a five point scale from excellent through to poor.
A person who operates his/her own unincorporated economic enterprise or engages independently in a profession or trade.
Technicians and Trade Workers
Includes Engineering, Science Technicians, Automotive and Engineering Trades Workers, (see page 335 of ANZSCO).
Tenure type describes whether a household is purchasing, rents or owns, the dwelling in which it was enumerated on Census Night, or whether the household occupies it under another arrangement.
Torres Strait Islander people
People identified as being of Torres Strait Islander origin. May also include people identified as being of both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal origin. See also Indigenous and Aboriginal people.
Despite the efforts of Census collectors, some people are missed each Census (undercount) and some are counted more than once (overcount). The net effect of overcount and undercount is called net undercount.
Persons aged 15 years and over who, during the week prior to Census night, did not have a job but were actively looking for work (either full-time or part-time) and were available to start work. See also Labour force status.
For any group, the number of unemployed persons expressed as a percentage of the labour force. See also Labour force status.
Usual daily serves of fruit
Refers to the number of serves of fruit (excluding drinks and beverages) usually consumed each day, as reported by the respondent. A serve is approximately 150 grams of fresh fruit or 50 grams of dried fruit. The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) have recommended a minimum of two serves of fruit per day for adults. The number of serves of fruit consumed was not collected in remote areas. In remote areas a general question was asked regarding whether they usually eat fruit each day.
Usual daily serves of vegetables
Refers to the number of serves of vegetables (excluding drinks and beverages) usually consumed each day, as reported by the respondent. A serve is approximately half a cup of cooked vegetables or one cup of salad vegetables — equivalent to approximately 75 grams. The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) have recommended a minimum of five serves of vegetables per day for adults. The number of serves of vegetables consumed was not collected in remote areas. In remote areas a general question was asked regarding whether they usually eat vegetables each day.
Geographical areas within the 'Very Remote Australia' category of the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) Remoteness structure. See also Remoteness Areas.
The provision of unpaid help willingly undertaken in the form of time, service or skills, to an organisation or group, excluding work done overseas. Examples of groups are: an organised sporting group/team; a youth group, such as guides, scouts, a choir; a charity organisation or cause, etc.
Is a concept that describes the life experiences of the individual or group of individuals, that include the interactions with their physical and socio-economic environments. No single measure of wellbeing is adequate to measure change in living conditions over time, rather a range of measures related to specific areas of concern (such as health or work) may be used. In the Australian Indigenous context, those areas of concern to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples may differ somewhat in context or emphasis to those of the non-Indigenous Australian population; for example conceptions of family structure and and kinship.
This page last updated 7 April 2010