Australian Bureau of Statistics

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Topics @ a Glance - Labour
Using Labour Statistics
Glossary A - H
 
 


Active steps to find work
Includes writing, telephoning or applying in person to an employer for work; answering an advertisement for a job; checking factory noticeboards or the touchscreens at Centrelink offices; being registered with Centrelink as a jobseeker; checking or registering with any other employment agency; advertising or tendering for work; and contacting friends or relatives.


Actual hours worked
The hours actually worked during the reference week, not necessarily hours paid for.


Adult employees
Adult employees are those employees 21 years of age or over and those employees who, although under 21 years of age, are paid at the full adult rate for their occupation.


Aggregate (actual) hours worked
The total number of hours a group of employed persons has actually worked during the reference week, not necessarily hours paid for.


Attending full-time education
Persons aged 15-24 years who were enrolled full-time at secondary school, high school, Technical and Further Education (TAFE) college, university, or other educational institution in the reference week.


Average compensation per employee
National Accounts. The total compensation of employees divided by the number of employees.


Average earnings (National Accounts basis)
See average compensation per employee.


Average hours worked
Aggregate hours worked by a group divided by the number of persons in that group.


Average weekly earnings
Average weekly earnings represent average gross (before tax) earnings of employees and do not relate to average award rates nor to the earnings of the 'average person'. Estimates of average weekly earnings are derived by dividing estimates of weekly total earnings by estimates of number of employees.


Civilian population aged 15 years and over
All usual residents of Australia aged 15 years and over except members of the permanent defence forces, certain diplomatic personnel of overseas governments customarily excluded from census and estimated population counts, overseas residents in Australia, and members of non-Australian defence forces (and their dependants) stationed in Australia.


Commonwealth government employees
Employees of all departments, agencies and authorities created by or reporting to the Commonwealth Parliament. Those bodies run jointly by the Commonwealth Government and state governments are classified to Commonwealth.


Compensation of employees
National Accounts measure.The total remuneration, in cash or in kind, payable by enterprises to employees in return for work done by the employees during the accounting period. Compensation of employees comprises wages and salaries (in cash and in kind) and employers' social contributions. Compensation of employees is not payable in respect of unpaid work undertaken voluntarily, including the work done by members of a household within an unincorporated enterprise owned by the same household. Compensation of employees excludes any taxes payable by the employer on the wage and salary bill (e.g. payroll tax, fringe benefits tax). See Australian System of National Accounts: Concepts, Sources and Methods (cat. no. 5216.0) for further information.


Contributing family worker
A person who works without pay, in an economic enterprise operated by a relative.


Country of birth
Classified according to the Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC) (cat. no. 1269.0).


Couple families
A family based on two people who are in a registered or de facto marriage and who are usually resident in the same household.


Dependants
All family members under 15 years, and all children aged 15-24 years attending full-time education (except those who have a partner or child of their own usually resident in the household).


Dependent child
Any child in a family under 15 years of age or aged 15-24 years who is attending full-time education (except those who have a partner or child of their own usually resident in the household).


Dependent student
A child who is 15-24 years of age, who is attending full-time education, and who has no partner or child of his or her own usually resident in the same household.


Discouraged jobseekers
People with marginal attachment to the labour force who wanted to work and were available to start work within the next four weeks but whose main reason for not actively looking for work was that they believed they would not find a job for any of the following reasons:

  • considered to be too young/too old by employers
  • lacked necessary schooling, training, skills or experience
  • difficulties because of language or ethnic background
  • no jobs available in their locality or line of work
  • no jobs available at all.

Duration of unemployment
Under the redesigned LFS questionnaire, implemented in April 2001, the definition of duration of unemployment is the period of time from when an unemployed person began looking for work, until the end of the reference week; or the period of time since an unemployed person last worked in any job for two weeks or more, until the end of the reference week; whichever was the shorter period.

Prior to April 2001, duration of unemployment was defined in the LFS as the period of time from when an unemployed person began looking for work, until the end of the reference week; or the period of time since an unemployed person last worked full-time for two weeks or more, until the end of the reference week; whichever was the shorter period.


Employed
Employed persons include all persons aged 15 years and over who, during the reference week:

  • worked for one hour or more for pay, profit, commission or payment in kind in a job or business, or on a farm (comprising employees, employers and own account workers); or
  • worked for one hour or more without pay in a family business or on a farm (i.e. contributing family workers); or
  • were employees who had a job but were not at work and were:
      • away from work for less than four weeks up to the end of the reference week; or
      • away from work for more than four weeks up to the end of the reference week and received pay for some or all of the four week period to the end of the reference week; or
      • away from work as a standard work or shift arrangement; or
      • on strike or locked out; or
      • on workers' compensation and expected to return to their job; or
  • were employers or own account workers, who had a job, business or farm, but were not at work.

Employed full-time
See full-time employed.


Employed part-time
See part-time employed.


Employee
Labour Force Survey and other household surveys. A person who works for a public or private employer and receives remuneration in wages, salary, a retainer fee from their employer while working on a commission basis, tips, piece rates, or payment in kind, or a person who operates their own incorporated enterprise with or without hiring employees.

Employees (excluding Owner Managers of Incorporated Enterprises) with paid leave entitlements. People who worked in someone else's business, and were entitled to paid holiday leave and/or sick leave.
Employees (excluding Owner Managers of Incorporated Enterprises) without paid leave entitlements. People who worked in someone else's business, and were not entitled to either paid holiday leave or sick leave.

Employer surveys. Employees are wage and salary earners who received pay for any part of the reference period. For information about scope exclusions applying to employer surveys.

Employee job
Wage Price Index. A job for which the occupant receives remuneration in wages, salary, payment in kind, or piece rates. All employee jobs in all employing organisations (except those excluded from all ABS labour employer surveys) are in scope of the WPI, except the following:

  • 'non-maintainable' jobs (i.e. jobs that are expected to be occupied for less than six months of a year)
  • jobs for which wages and salaries are not determined by the Australian labour market (e.g. working proprietors of small incorporated enterprises, most employees of Community Development Employment Programs, jobs where the remuneration is set in a foreign country).


Employer
Labour Force Survey and other household surveys. A person who operates their own unincorporated economic enterprise or engages independently in a profession or trade, and hires one or more employees.

Employer surveys. A business with one or more employees.

Employment type. A reclassification of the 'status in employment' group of people into alternative paid employment and self-employment groups. These groups include employees with any leave entitlements; self identified casuals; employees without leave entitlements; owner managers of incorporated enterprises; and owner managers of unincorporated enterprises. Three of these groups are then further classified as follows: employees with any leave entitlements as either holding a fixed-term employment contract or not; and both owner managers of incorporated enterprises and owner managers of unincorporated enterprises as either working on a contract basis or not.

Employers' social contributions
National Accounts. Contributions by employers to pension and superannuation funds; and premiums paid by employers to workers' compensation schemes for occupational injuries and diseases.


Extended labour force underutilisation rate
The unemployed, plus the underemployed, plus two groups of marginally attached to the labour force:

      (i) persons actively looking for work, not available to start work in the reference week, but available to start work within four weeks and
      (ii) discouraged jobseekers
as a percentage of the labour force augmented by (i) and (ii).


Family
Two or more persons, one of whom is at least 15 years of age, who are related by blood, marriage (registered or de facto), adoption, step or fostering; and who are usually resident in the same household. The basis of a family is formed by identifying the presence of a couple relationship, lone parent-child relationship or other blood relationship. Some households will, therefore, contain more than one family.


Family reference person
In families which are not couple families or one-parent families, as defined, the family reference person is the eldest person in the household.


Former workers
Unemployed persons who have previously worked for two weeks or more but not in the last two years.


Full-time educational attendance
Persons aged 15-19 who, during the reference week were enrolled full-time at secondary or high schools, and those aged 15-24 who, during the reference week, were enrolled full-time at a Technical and Further Education (TAFE) college, university, or other tertiary educational institution.


Full-time employed
Household surveys. Persons employed full-time are those employed persons who usually worked 35 hours or more a week (in all jobs) and those who, although usually working less than 35 hours a week, worked 35 hours or more during the reference week.


Full-time employees
Employer surveys. Full-time employees are permanent, fixed term and casual employees who normally work the agreed or award hours for a full-time employee in their occupation and received pay for any part of the reference period. If agreed or award hours do not apply, employees are regarded as full-time if they ordinarily work 35 hours or more per week.


Gross domestic product (GDP)
National Accounts. The total market value of goods and services produced in Australia within a given period after deducting the cost of goods and services used up in the process of production but before deducting allowances for the consumption of fixed capital. Thus gross domestic product, as here defined, is at 'market prices'. It is equivalent to gross national expenditure plus exports of goods and services less imports of goods and services. See Australian System of National Accounts: Concepts, Sources and Methods (cat. no. 5216.0) for further information.


Gross mixed income (GMI)
National Accounts. The owners of unincorporated enterprises, or other members of their households, may work without receiving any wage or salary. Mixed income includes both gross operating surplus for the unincorporated enterprises and returns for the proprietors' own labour (akin to wages and salaries). See Australian System of National Accounts: Concepts, Sources and Methods (cat. no. 5216.0) for further information.


Gross operating surplus (GOS)
National Accounts. The amount of gross output remaining after subtracting costs incurred in producing that output, but before any deductions for consumption of fixed capital. See Australian System of National Accounts: Concepts, Sources and Methods (cat. no. 5216.0) for further information.


Household
One or more persons usually resident in the same private dwelling.



Commonwealth of Australia 2008

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