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Topics @ a Glance - Labour
Using Labour Statistics
Glossary I - Z
 
 


Industrial dispute
An industrial dispute is defined as a state of disagreement over an issue or group of issues between an employer and its employees, which results in employees ceasing work. Industrial disputes comprise strikes, which are a withdrawal from work by a group of employees; and lockouts, which are a refusal by an employer or group of employers to permit some or all of their employees to work.


Industry
An industry is a group of businesses or organisations that perform similar sets of activities in terms of the production of goods and services. Industry is classified according to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 1993 (cat. no. 1292.0). The industry assigned to an employed person is the industry of the organisation in which the person's main job is located. Unemployed persons who had worked for two weeks or more in the last two years are classified according to the industry of their most recent job.


Job leavers
Unemployed people who have worked for two weeks or more in the past two years and left that job voluntarily - that is, because (for example): of unsatisfactory work arrangements/pay/hours; the job was a holiday job or they left the job to return to studies; or their last job was running their own business and they closed down or sold that business for reasons other than financial difficulties.


Job losers
Unemployed people who have worked for two weeks or more in the past two years and left that job involuntarily: that is, they were laid off or retrenched from that job; left that job because of their own ill-health or injury; the job was seasonal or temporary; or their last job was running their own business and the business closed down because of financial difficulties.


Job vacancy
A job vacancy is an employee job available for immediate filling on the survey reference date and for which recruitment action has been taken. Recruitment action includes efforts to fill vacancies by advertising, by factory notices, by notifying public or private employment agencies or trade unions and by contacting, interviewing or selecting applicants already registered with the enterprise or organisation. Excluded are vacancies:

  • for jobs which became vacant on the survey date and were filled that same day
  • for jobs of less than one day's duration
  • to be filled by persons already hired, or by promotion or transfer of existing employees
  • to be filled by employees returning from paid or unpaid leave or after industrial dispute(s)
  • not available for immediate filling on the survey reference date
  • for work to be carried out by contractors
  • for which no recruitment action has been taken
  • where a person has been appointed but has not yet commenced duty
  • to be filled by staff from contract labour agencies
  • for jobs available only to persons already employed by the enterprise or organisation.


Labour force
The labour force is the labour supply available for the production of economic goods and services in a given period, and is the most widely used measure of the economically active population. Persons in the labour force are classified as either employed or unemployed according to their activities during the reference period by using a specific set of priority rules.


Labour force status
A classification of the civilian population aged 15 years and over into employed, unemployed or not in the labour force, as defined. The definitions conform closely to the international standard definitions adopted by the International Conferences of Labour Statisticians.


Labour force underutilisation rate
The unemployed plus the underemployed, as a percentage of the labour force.


Local government employees
Employees of municipalities and shires and other local authorities created by or subject to the provisions of local government legislation, such as county councils in New South Wales.


Lone parent
A person who has no spouse or partner present in the household but who forms a parent-child relationship with at least one dependent or non-dependent child usually resident in the household.


Lone person
A person who makes provision for their food and other essentials for living, without combining with any other person to form part of a multi-person household. They may live in a dwelling on their own or share a dwelling with another individual or family.


Long-term unemployed
Persons unemployed for 12 months or more. See duration of unemployment for details of the calculation of duration of unemployment.


Long-term unemployment rate
The number of long-term unemployed persons expressed as a percentage of the labour force.


Marginal attachment to the labour force
Persons who were not in the labour force in the reference week, wanted to work, and:

  • were actively looking for work but did not meet the availability criteria to be classified as unemployed or
  • were not actively looking for work but were available to start work within four weeks or could start work within four weeks if child care was available.

The criteria for determining those in the labour force are based on activity (i.e. working or looking for work) and availability to start work during the reference week. The criteria associated with marginal attachment to the labour force, in particular the concepts of wanting to work and reasons for not actively looking for work, are more subjective. Hence, the measurement against these criteria is affected by the respondent's own interpretation of the concepts used. An individual respondent's interpretation may be affected by their work aspirations, as well as family, economic and other commitments.


Marital status
See social marital status.


Mean age
The sum of the ages of all the persons in a group, divided by the total number of persons in that group.


Mean duration of unemployment
The sum of the duration of unemployment of all the unemployed persons in a group, divided by the total number of unemployed persons in that group.


Median age
The age which divides a group of persons into two equal groups: one comprising persons whose age is above the median; and the other, persons whose age is below it.


Median duration of unemployment
The duration which divides unemployed persons into two equal groups: one comprising persons whose duration of unemployment is above the median; and the other, persons whose duration is below it.


Non-dependent child
A child of a couple or lone parent usually resident in the household, aged over 15 years and who is not a dependent student aged 15-24 years, and who has no partner or child of their own usually resident in the household.


Non-family member
A person who is not related to any other member of the household in which they are living.


Not in the labour force
Persons who were not classified as employed or unemployed.


Occupation
An occupation is a collection of jobs that are sufficiently similar in their main tasks to be grouped together for the purposes of classification. Occupation is classified according to the ASCO Australian Standard Classification of Occupations, Second Edition (cat. no. 1220.0). The occupation assigned to an employed person relates to the person's main job. Unemployed persons who had worked for two weeks or more in the last two years are classified according to the occupation of their most recent job.


One-parent family
A family consisting of a lone parent with at least one dependent or non-dependent child (regardless of age) who is also usually resident in the household.


Ordinary time earnings
See weekly ordinary time earnings.


Original series
Estimates produced directly from the survey data, before seasonal adjustment or trend estimation takes place.


Other family
Related individuals residing in the same household who do not form a couple or parent-child relationship with any other person in the household and are not attached to a couple or one parent family in the household. If two brothers, for example, are living together and neither is a spouse, a lone parent or a child, then they are classified as other family.


Overtime earnings
See weekly overtime earnings.


Own-account worker
A person who operates his or her own unincorporated economic enterprise or engages independently in a profession or trade, and hires no employees.

Owner manager of an incorporated enterprise (OMIE)
A person who works in his or her own incorporated enterprise, that is, a business entity that is registered as a separate legal entity to its members or owners (also known as a limited liability company). OMIEs are technically employees although they are more similar in characteristics to owner managers of unincorporated enterprises (ie. self-employed people).

Owner manager of an unincorporated enterprise (OMUE)
A person who operated their own unincorporated enterprise, that is, a business entity in which the owner and the business are legally inseparable, so that the owner is liable for any business debts that are incurred. This includes those engaged in a trade or profession.


Participation rate
The labour force participation rate for any group within the population is the labour force component of that group, expressed as a percentage of the population in that group.


Part-time employed
Household surveys. Persons employed part-time are those employed persons who usually worked less than 35 hours a week (in all jobs) and either did so during the reference week, or were not at work in the reference week.


Reason for leaving last job
Unemployed persons who had worked for two weeks or more in the past two years classified by whether they left that job voluntarily, that is, job leavers; or left that job involuntarily, that is, job losers.


Seasonally adjusted series
A time series of estimates with the estimated effects of normal seasonal variation removed.

Social marital status
Social marital status is the relationship status of an individual with reference to another person who is usually resident in the household. A marriage exists when two people live together as husband and wife, or partners, regardless of whether the marriage is formalised through registration. Individuals are, therefore, regarded as married if they are in a de facto marriage, or if they are living with the person to whom they are registered as married.


State capital cities
The areas determining the six state capital cities are the Statistical Divisions for those capital cities defined in the Statistical Geography: Volume 1 - Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) (cat. no. 1216.0).


State government employees
Employees of all State government departments and authorities created by, or reporting to, State Parliaments, including organisations for which the Commonwealth has assumed financial responsibility. Following self-government, the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory administrations have been classified to State Governments. Employees of State Governments employed interstate are included in the estimates of the State in which they are based.


Status in employment
Employed persons classified by whether they were employees, employers, own account workers or contributing family workers.


Total earnings
See weekly total earnings.


Total hourly rates of pay index excluding bonuses
Wage Price Index. This index measures quarterly change in a weighted combination of ordinary time and overtime hourly rates of pay. See Labour Price Index, Australia (cat. no. 6345.0) for more information.


Trend series
A smoothed seasonally adjusted series of estimates. See paragraphs 7-13 of the Explanatory Notes for more detail.


Underemployed workers
Underemployed workers are employed persons who want, and are available for, more hours of work than they currently have. They comprise:

  • persons employed part-time who want to work more hours and are available to start work with more hours, either in the reference week or in the four weeks subsequent to the survey
  • persons employed full-time who worked part-time hours in the reference week for economic reasons (such as being stood down or insufficient work being available). It is assumed that these people wanted to work full-time in the reference week and would have been available to do so.

Underemployment rate
The number of underemployed workers expressed as a percentage of the labour force.


Unemployed
Persons aged 15 years and over who were not employed during the reference week, and

  • had actively looked for full-time or part-time work at any time in the four weeks up to the end of the reference week and were available for work in the reference week, or
  • were waiting to start a new job within four weeks from the end of the reference week and could have started in the reference week if the job had been available then.

Unemployed looking for first full-time job
Unemployed persons looking for full-time work who had never worked full-time for two weeks or more.


Unemployed looking for first job
Unemployed persons who had never worked for two weeks or more.


Unemployed looking for full-time work
Unemployed persons who:

  • actively looked for full-time work, or
  • were waiting to start a new full-time job.

Unemployed looking for part-time work
Unemployed persons who:
  • actively looked for part-time work only, or
  • were waiting to start a new part-time job.

Unemployment rate
The number of unemployed persons expressed as a percentage of the labour force.


Unemployment to population ratio
For any group, the number of unemployed persons expressed as a percentage of the civilian population aged 15 and over in the same group.


Usual hours worked
The hours usually worked per week by an employed person.


Wage and salary earners
See employee.


Weekly ordinary time earnings
Weekly ordinary time earnings refers to one week's earnings of employees for the reference period attributable to award, standard or agreed hours of work, calculated before taxation and any other deductions (e.g. superannuation, board and lodging) have been made. Included are piecework payments and one week's portion of regular production and task bonuses and commissions. Excluded are overtime payments and payments not related to the reference period, e.g. bonus payments for earlier periods of work.


Weekly overtime earnings
Weekly overtime earnings refers to payment for hours worked in the reference week in excess of award, standard or agreed hours of work, calculated before taxation and any other deductions (e.g. superannuation) have been made.


Weekly total earnings
Weekly total earnings of employees is equal to weekly ordinary time earnings plus weekly overtime earnings.


Working days lost
Refers to working days lost by employees directly and indirectly involved in the dispute.


Working days lost per thousand employees
Calculated for a quarterly period by dividing the total number of working days lost in the period by the total number of employees in the Australian labour force in the period (obtained from the ABS Labour Force Survey) and multiplying by 1,000.



Commonwealth of Australia 2008

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