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Working Paper No. 2001/10 - A Statistical Analysis of Australia's Exports: A paper presented by Ivan King to the Strategic Management for Exports Market Conference, Sydney October 3-4 2001
 
 


A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF AUSTRALIA'S EXPORTS

Ivan King
Assistant Statistician
International and Financial Accounts Branch


SYNOPSIS

The paper presents the latest statistics on exports of goods and services, and considers how they have grown over the past five years in both value and volume terms. Trends in exports to various countries are then explored - to major trading partners, as well as those to which exports are growing quickly and to those which are slow-growing or declining. Commentary then turns to trends in Australia's major export commodities and those commodities which are growing more rapidly.


LATEST EXPORTS DATA

1. Detailed exports data are released by the ABS about four weeks after the end of the relevant month, and quarterly data are released about two months after the relevant quarter. The latest quarterly figures, on a balance of payments basis, for the June quarter 2001, show:
  • Australia exported goods valued at $31.7 billion and imported goods worth $29.5 billion;
  • the surplus of goods exports over imports, at $2.2 billion for the quarter, was the largest on record;
  • services exports were valued at $7.3 billion compared with imports of $8.2 billion. This resulted in a service exports deficit of $0.9 billion; and
  • the surplus of goods and services exports (in seasonally adjusted volume terms) contributed 0.2 percentage points to the GDP growth in the June quarter 2001.

2. While the monthly data are subject to more irregular influences, the monthly graphs of exports over the past four years are instructive, particularly of recent growth patterns.

EXPORTS OF GOODS, Monthly data


EXPORTS OF SERVICES, Monthly data


3. The monthly and quarterly data can be quite volatile and are affected by various seasonal influences. The more detailed data by commodity and country are not provided by the ABS in seasonally adjusted form. Accordingly, this presentation concentrates on annual data, particularly during the past five years, to highlight some of the longer-term trends and factors affecting Australia's export performance.

4. The latest available figures for the 2000-01 financial year show:
  • exports of goods and services were $153.1 billion, with a surplus over imports of goods and services of $707 million. This compares with a $14.4 billion deficit in 1999-2000;
  • there was a small surplus in goods trade of $146 million, with exports and imports of goods both worth, in round terms, $120 billion. This was the first financial year goods surplus since 1996-97; and
  • exports of services were $32.8 billion, leading to a services surplus of $561 million, significantly influenced by the Olympic Games.


TRENDS IN EXPORTS

EXPORTS, CURRENT PRICES


EXPORTS, CHAIN VOLUME MEASURES
Reference year for CVM is 1999-2000.


5. Over the last five years total goods and services exports, in current price terms, have grown by 55%, to reach a record high of $153 billion in 2000-01. Goods exports have grown by 58% and services exports by 43% over those five years. After the effects of price changes have been removed, the volume of exports of goods and services over that period grew by 37%. Goods exports in volume terms increased by 40% and services by 28%.


EXPORT MARKETS FOR GOODS

6. The top five Australian export destinations in 2000-01 were (in order), Japan, USA, Korea, New Zealand and China. Since 1995-96, the USA has moved from fourth to second position. These five countries accounted for almost half (49%) of Australia's exports at the beginning and end of the period, declining slightly in 1998-99 to 47% partly as a result of the Asian economic downturn. Exports to ASEAN and the EU together accounted for another 25% of Australia's exports last year.

EXPORTS OF GOODS BY COUNTRY/GROUPS

EXPORTS OF GOODS BY COUNTRY


7. Other highlights were:
  • in the past 12 months, exports to 18 of Australia's top 20 export destinations reached record highs. The exceptions were Indonesia and Hong Kong;
  • exports to Japan have risen by $7 billion in five years, despite Japan's slowing economic growth during that period. Increases have occurred in the quantity of most major exports as well as the value. Japan accounted for about 20% of Australia's exports last year;
  • exports to the USA have more the doubled in the past five years, having the greatest rate of growth (152%) among the top 10 export destinations. They accounted for 10% of Australia's exports last year. The growth has been driven by increases in a range of commodities but principally beef (recovering from a severe slump in the mid-1990s), crude petroleum and wine;
  • almost 40% of the rise in exports to ASEAN in the past five years was due to increased exports of crude and refined petroleum, particularly to Singapore. Of course there were also significant imports of crude from ASEAN too. There was also strong growth in exports of cotton, milk and cream products and non-ferrous metals; and
  • the UK and Italy were Australia's major export destinations within the European Union, together accounting for almost half the exports to that region. Exports to the Netherlands more than doubled (to $1.7 billion), and to Greece quadrupled (to $160 million) in the past five years. Major growth has come from exports of coal, wool and wine.

Rapidly growing export markets for goods

8. Australian exporters have developed a range of new markets in the last five years. In 2000-01, there were 60 countries to which Australian exports exceeded $100 million, with 24 of these countries exceeding $1 billion. New markets have been developed across many parts of the globe including the Middle East and Africa, as well as in the more traditional destinations in Asia, Europe and North America.

EXPORTS OF GOODS BY COUNTRY


EXPORTS OF GOODS BY COUNTRY


9. Examples of export growth since 1995-96 are:
  • a fivefold increase in exports to Saudi Arabia, most notably motor vehicles but including almost $1 billion in exports of other commodities in the past year. There was smaller but still significant growth in exports to the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait and Bahrain. Exports to these three countries totalled $1.6 billion in 2000-01 (up 126% in the past five years);
  • exports to Iraq up from $14 million to $734 million in five years, having been severely affected by UN trade sanctions in the mid 1990s. As a result of the trade sanctions, the main exports to Iraq were food and humanitarian items, particularly wheat;
  • new markets developed in Mozambique, Tanzania, Sudan and Kenya, with exports to each of these countries exceeding $100 million for the first time in 2000-01, although South Africa remains the major African export market for Australia, with exports valued at $1.3 billion in 2000-01;
  • exports to India rose by 30% last year, following a small slump in 1999-2000 (mainly due to reduced exports of coal and non-monetary gold). Exports grew by 76% over the last five years, due to a wide range of commodities including coal, copper ore, wool, cotton and dried legumes;
  • an almost fourfold increase in the past five years in exports to Mexico to over $350 million in 2000-01, mainly agricultural goods and coal; and
  • exports to Viet Nam continued to rise each year reaching $500 million in 2000-01, mainly food, aluminium and copper.

Slow growing or declining export markets for goods

10. Australian exports to some countries and regions have had relatively small increases and, in some cases, have declined in recent years. These include:
  • Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, where exports have declined for four of the past five years. The major decline came from lower exports of refined petroleum and industrial machinery. Conversely, refined petroleum has been the major commodity contributing to increased exports to other Pacific nations such as Fiji and French Polynesia. Exports of most other commodities to this region have remained flat or declined in recent years;
  • exports to South America have increased only slightly, with increased exports to Brazil (up 40% in the past five years) being partly offset by a reduction in exports to Chile (down 15%) and Argentina (down 4%). Coal accounted for over 50% of exports to that region. Other exports mainly comprised machinery, motor vehicles and a range of other manufactured goods;
  • exports to Indonesia have only recently shown signs of recovering from the Asian economic downturn. While exports increased by 30% in 2000-01, they have not yet recovered to the levels achieved in 1996-97 ($3.3 billion in that year); and
  • exports have also declined to Turkey (down 16%), Switzerland (down 48%) and Sweden (down 7%) since 1995-96.


EXPORT MARKETS FOR SERVICES

11. The ABS takes longer to compile services data by counterparty country. The latest information is for 1999-2000 (though calendar year 2000 data will be released on 2 October).

EXPORTS OF SERVICES BY COUNTRY/GROUPS


EXPORTS OF SERVICES BY COUNTRY


12. The main countries to which we export services are (in order), USA, Japan, UK, New Zealand and Singapore. Together these accounted for over half (52%) of Australia's services exports in 1999-2000.

13. The largest growth in the four years to 1999-2000 was to China (up 74%), USA and UK (both up by just over 50%).

14. In the period between 1995-96 and 1999-2000, exports of services to Indonesia, Japan and Hong Kong all declined by between 7% and 14%. There has been minimal growth in exports to Malaysia (up 3%).


EXPORT COMMODITIES

15. There are a number of ways to aggregate goods exports to give meaningful pictures. The following are common:

(a) Rural/non-rural

EXPORTS OF GOODS, CURRENT PRICES


EXPORTS OF GOODS, CHAIN VOLUME MEASURES
Reference year for CVM is 1999-2000.


16. Metals, ores and minerals (including gold) accounted for 46% of goods exports in 2000-01, slightly higher than in 1995-96 (44%). Rural products such as meat, cereals and wool have comprised about 25% of Australia's exports of goods for the past five years. There have been rises in exports of both rural (particularly meat and cotton) and non-rural goods (particularly crude and refined petroleum, iron ore, aluminium and motor vehicles).

(b) Industry of Origin

EXPORTS OF GOODS, BY INDUSTRY OF ORIGIN



17. Australia's goods exports may be analysed according to the industry with which they are primarily associated. In 2000-01, almost 60% of Australia's exports were of manufactured goods, declining slightly from 64% in 1995-96. Non-ferrous metals and meat products were the major components, accounting for over one third of manufactured goods exports, while exports of motor vehicles and parts also rose sharply. The mining industry's share of exports increased over the period from 22% to 27% following increased prices and exports of coal, crude petroleum and iron ore. Agriculture has remained relatively flat at around 10%.

(c) Stage of Transformation

EXPORTS OF GOODS, BY STAGE OF TRANSFORMATION
Source: Dept of Foreign Affairs & Trade


18. Exports may also be viewed according to the degree of transformation, or manufacturing valued added, which the goods have undergone. Elaborately transformed manufactures (ETMs) are identified as finished goods. Over the last five years:
  • the major growth has been in exports of unprocessed primary products (up 65%) following a recovery in exports and prices of some ores and fuels. Exports of processed primary products (other than gold) also increased by over 60%. Gold exports were lower in 2000-01 than in 1995-96 (down 8%);
  • exports of simply transformed manufactures (STMs) increased by 58% due mainly to price increases for non-ferrous metals such as aluminium, copper and nickel; and
  • exports of ETMs increased by 41%.

Major goods exports

EXPORTS BY COMMODITY


EXPORTS BY COMMODITY


19. The top five export commodities in 2000-01 were all mineral and fuel based products, namely coal, crude petroleum, non-monetary gold, iron ore and aluminium. These five commodities accounted for 28% of Australia's exports in the last financial year compared with 27% of exports in 1995-96.

20. There has been a recovery in exports of Australia's major agricultural commodities of wheat, wool and beef, which all suffered downturns during the mid to late 1990s. Together these three commodities accounted for 10% of Australia's exports in 2000-01.

21. Major commodity exports that have shown the strongest growth since 1995-96 are:
  • crude petroleum (with the volume of exports rising by 55% and the value up almost 400%), and refined petroleum (volume up 12% and value up 100%) due to increased world oil prices and production, particularly in the past two years;
  • alumina (up 66%) and aluminium (up 74%) following a recovery in world prices. There was a modest increase in demand with the volume of sales rising for both alumina (up 15%) and aluminium (up 29%); and
  • meat and meat products, mainly beef (up 67%) and lamb (up 104%). Exports of both products rose following a recovery in demand and increased world prices. Beef comprises over 70% of total meat exports. Live animal exports have also risen (up 32% in five years, and up fourfold in ten years) mainly due to rises in exports of beef cattle (55% of total live animal exports in 2000-01) and horses.

Rapidly growing goods exports

EXPORTS BY COMMODITY


EXPORTS BY COMMODITY


22. While Australian exports continue to be dominated by agricultural and mineral raw materials, there has been a broadening in commodities exported in the past five years, particularly of manufactured goods. Sizeable markets have emerged in the following commodities:
  • exports of passenger motor vehicles and parts more than trebled to almost $4 billion in 2000-01. The number of vehicles exported climbed to over 129,000 in the last year with major markets in the Middle East and the USA. There were also substantial quantities of motor vehicle components exported to overseas car assembly plants, particularly in Korea and the USA;
  • alcoholic beverage exports, predominantly wine, have more than trebled since 1995-96 and are now worth almost $2 billion annually. While volumes rose by 55%, values increased by 240% in the past five years. Major export growth was to the UK and North America;
  • export sales of copper, nickel and zinc all rose substantially, particularly in the past two years. This followed substantial increases in metal prices which were depressed in the late 1990s. Total exports of those commodities were worth over $4 billion in 2000-01; and
  • exports of pharmaceuticals more than doubled to $1.8 billion. This includes products that were imported into Australia and further processed and packaged before being re-exported.

23. There has also been an increase in some smaller value exports during recent years. These exports are across a range of products, mainly agricultural and manufactured goods. Examples are:
  • several new markets for fertilisers have been developed in the past two years, including Viet Nam and Bangladesh. Total sales tripled last year over the previous year, to $134 million;
  • cheese exports to a range of countries have grown, e.g. sales of unripened cheeses to Japan rose from $1 million to $130 million in the past five years; over $300 million of processed cheese was exported to the Middle East last year; and exports of ripened cheese (e.g. Cheddar, Gouda and Parmesan) to Japan, Netherlands and Korea exceeded $700 million last year; and
  • exports of contact lenses, spectacles and their parts were valued at over $85 million last year, which is an increase of almost $20 million on the previous year. Growth has been 75% in the past five years.

Services exports

EXPORTS OF SERVICES BY COMMODITY


EXPORTS OF SERVICES BY COMMODITY


24. Total services exports rose by 43% in the past five years, with travel and transportation services accounting for over 70% of services exports in 2000-01. Major growth in services exports since 1995-96 has come from:
  • Travel services (up 36%) which increased by over $4 billion. This includes a 56% increase in education-related services, i.e. the fees and living costs of overseas students studying in Australia, which were worth $4 billion in 2000-01;
  • Computer and information services (up 250%), with the value exceeding $750 million in 2000-01: and
  • Communication services (up 70%) and Other business services (such as research & development and engineering) which rose by 82%.

25. There was a one-off rise in Personal, cultural and recreation services in 2000-01 due to the Olympic Games.

26. Slower growing services exports were:
  • Transportation services which increased by 24%, reflecting increased competition on air routes and a reduction in Australian shipping operations; and
  • Financial and insurance services (up 19%).


SUMMARY

27. Exports of goods and services have grown substantially over the past five years in both value terms (up 55%) and volume terms (up 37%). The greatest growth in exports occurred in the past 12 months (up 22% on 1999-2000) with exports reaching a record high of $153.1 billion. This led to a surplus over goods and services imports of $0.7 billion, compared with a $14.4 billion deficit in the previous year. This turnaround was driven by:
  • the sharp devaluation of the Australian dollar;
  • a rise in demand and prices of some of Australia's key commodity exports; and
  • the influence of the Olympic Games which provided a surge in services exports.

28. Exports to almost all of Australia's major trading partners reached record highs in 2000-01, reflecting buoyant world trading conditions. There has also been the emergence of important new markets in recent years, particularly in the Middle East and Africa, and well as in the more traditional markets of Asia, Europe and North America.

29. Although Australia's goods exports continue to be dominated by agricultural and mineral raw materials, exports of manufactured goods have become more prominent, particularly passenger motor vehicles and parts, reaching $4 billion in 2000-01.

30. Travel and transportation services dominated services exports, accounting for over 70% of service exports in 2000-01, with the major growth in travel services which reached over $15 billion in 2000-01.


KEY ISSUES TO BE AWARE OF WHEN USING EXPORT STATISTICS

a) Confidentiality

31. The data on some export commodities may be confidentialised to prevent the identification of the activities of individual exporters. Confidentiality is achieved by combining the sensitive information with data from other cells. In general, confidentiality restrictions do not affect the figures for total Australian trade, or total trade by partner country, but will affect the release of data at finer levels of commodity detail.

32. Confidentiality restrictions apply to a range of commodities but some of the more important are sugar, wheat, aluminium ores and concentrates, woodchips and liquefied natural gas. In 2000-01, approximately 4% of the value of Australia's merchandise exports was subject to a confidentiality restriction. An Information Paper on the confidential restrictions applied is available on the ABS web site.

b) Country attribution

33. When goods are exported from Australia the declared country of destination may in some cases be the country of discharge rather than the country of final destination. This occurs most commonly when the country of final destination is unknown to the exporter and the country of discharge has a port which provides transit services for its neighbours. Rotterdam, for example, is a major port of discharge for goods going to the countries in Europe. Care should be exercised when using the statistics for individual countries as there may be some overstatement, or understatement, of the true level of trade.

c) Australia's exports vs counterparty imports

34. Australia's reported exports to individual countries may not be the same as the partner country's reported imports from Australia. The discrepancy between the partner country statistics are mainly due to timing, valuation and methodological differences. For example, some countries report imports on a 'cost, insurance and freight' (c.i.f.) basis, whereas Australia reports exports on a 'free on board' (f.o.b.) basis; the value threshold requiring Customs documents may also be different - Australia requires export documents for goods with a value greater than $500, but for example the USA excludes all imports less than $US1,251. More details on ABS bilateral trade reconciliation studies are available on the ABS web site.

d) Trade in services provided offshore

35. The definition of exports of services used by the ABS is based on the concept of residency. The ABS records all service transactions between residents of Australia and residents of other countries. However, there is increasing interest in alternative definitions of services exports.

36. One area of interest is the "exports" of services by Australian-owned companies operating in other countries (these are residents of the other country, not Australia) - such statistics are called "Foreign-affiliates trade in services" (FATS). These services may be sold into the host country or exported from the host country, but in neither case are they counted as Australian production or exports (although the Australian ownership of the companies and the income earned by Australia are measured in international investment statistics). Nevertheless, the production and sale of these services is of interest from policy and industry points of view, and the ABS is developing ways to measure them.

Source material

ABS publications:

37. International merchandise trade statistics are compiled by the ABS on a monthly basis and are released in two publications:
  • International Merchandise Imports, Australia (Cat. no. 5439.0), issued monthly
  • International Merchandise Trade, Australia (Cat. no. 5422.0), issued quarterly.

38. Data for exports and imports on a balance of payments basis are included in:
  • International Trade in Goods and Services (Cat. no. 5368.0), issued monthly
  • Balance of Payments and International Investment Position, Australia (Cat. no. 5302.0), issued quarterly.
39. More detail on the concepts and methods used in compiling exports data can be found in:
  • International Merchandise Trade, Australia: Concepts, Sources and Methods (Cat. no. 5489.0)
  • Balance of Payments and International Investment Position, Australia: Concepts, Sources and Methods (Cat. no. 5331.0).

40. These Concepts, Sources and Methods publications are available free on the ABS web site.

ABS Web site:

41. The ABS Web site contains summary data from the latest publications, information about the ABS, advice about upcoming releases, the ABS catalogue and Australia Now - a statistical profile.

ABS information consultants:

42. ABS information consultants can help access the full range of ABS information, including very detailed exports and imports data, either one-off or on subscription - ABS user-pays services can be tailored to individual needs, time frame and budget. Specialists are on hand to help with analytical or methodological advice. Contact them on 1300 135 070 or email to client.services@abs.gov.au.

Other useful sources of information are:
  • Australian Commodities Forecasts and Issues, ABARE, issued quarterly;
  • Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade - www.dfat.gov.au;
  • Department of Industry Science and Resources - www.isr.gov.au;
  • A Portrait of Australian Exporters', (ABS & Austrade) (ABS Cat. no. 8154.0) - www.austrade.gov.au or www.abs.gov.au; and
  • Austrade Discussion Paper, 'Why Australia Needs Exports: The Economic Case for Exporting - www.austrade.gov.au.


Australian Bureau of Statistics

September 2001


APPENDIX 1

AUSTRALIA'S EXPORT MARKETS FOR GOODS, 1995-96 TO 2000-01

Change
from
1995-96
to 2000-01
Country/ Country group
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
%
%

Japan
16,429
15,377
17,580
16,566
18,822
23,479
19.6
43
United States of America
4,619
5,526
7,794
7,984
9,602
11,654
9.7
152
Korea, Republic of
6,615
7,134
6,397
6,320
7,615
9,209
7.7
39
New Zealand
5,609
6,214
5,662
5,838
6,739
6,872
5.7
23
China
3,781
3,584
3,872
3,948
4,966
6,846
5.7
81
Singapore
3,556
3,410
3,697
3,417
4,855
5,997
5.0
69
Taiwan
3,452
3,620
4,180
4,203
4,696
5,871
4.9
70
United Kingdom
2,829
2,357
3,040
4,473
4,158
4,639
3.9
64
Hong Kong (SAR of China)
3,052
3,105
4,138
3,071
3,211
3,904
3.3
28
Indonesia
2,716
3,305
2,751
2,199
2,408
3,119
2.6
15
Malaysia
2,289
2,332
2,097
1,859
2,141
2,506
2.1
9
Thailand
1,779
1,693
1,390
1,306
1,703
2,219
1.9
25
Saudi Arabia
452
448
545
1,060
1,334
2,196
1.8
386
Italy
1,282
1,354
1,752
1,564
1,575
2,100
1.8
64
India
1,185
1,493
1,852
1,837
1,588
2,086
1.7
76
Canada
1,267
1,178
1,276
1,274
1,175
1,768
1.5
40
Netherlands
695
584
829
866
1,378
1,738
1.5
150
Philippines
1,075
1,226
1,163
1,207
1,304
1,495
1.2
39
Germany
1,152
1,058
1,243
1,409
1,245
1,490
1.2
29
South Africa
776
1,014
1,093
944
1,039
1,296
1.1
67
United Arab Emirates
542
665
1,006
835
872
1,162
1.0
114
France
727
799
856
914
871
1,079
0.9
48
Papua New Guinea
1,048
1,272
1,152
1,014
927
1,050
0.9
0
Belgium-Luxembourg
668
923
1,154
1,085
1,089
1,003
0.8
50
Iran
541
925
274
450
410
755
0.6
40
Iraq
14
143
318
267
456
734
0.6
5,143
Spain
292
328
514
562
714
713
0.6
144
Fiji
479
524
526
556
591
642
0.5
34
Egypt (a)
343
519
343
588
504
600
0.5
75
Brazil
389
333
408
447
470
546
0.5
40
Viet Nam
198
211
325
349
385
499
0.4
152
Finland
335
303
295
191
371
477
0.4
42
Pakistan
259
304
467
475
532
403
0.3
56
Kuwait
148
160
178
274
299
402
0.3
172
Bangladesh
172
263
252
289
296
368
0.3
114
Mexico
99
122
216
314
254
368
0.3
272
Sri Lanka
196
199
179
242
221
345
0.3
76
Turkey
366
384
636
349
231
309
0.3
-16
Switzerland
519
237
1,097
443
319
268
0.2
-48
Russian Federation
86
101
224
170
193
264
0.2
207
Israel
102
105
122
159
192
248
0.2
143
New Caledonia
191
220
183
184
200
243
0.2
27
French Polynesia
82
91
120
102
172
242
0.2
195
Sweden
200
220
157
160
169
187
0.2
-7
Oman
112
123
196
131
203
179
0.1
60
Other (a)
3,287
3,446
4,219
4,096
4,791
6,032
5.0
84
Total exports of goods
76,005
78,932
87,768
85,991
97,286
119,602
100.0
57
Total exports - chain volume
measures (b)
74,218
83,387
86,802
88,308
97,655
103,614
40
APEC
57,925
59,678
64,210
61,355
71,210
87,353
73.0
51
ASEAN
11,739
12,273
11,514
10,416
12,867
15,922
13.3
36
European Union
8,464
8,171
10,236
11,629
12,039
13,963
11.7
65

(a) Exports of alumina to Egypt are included in 'Other' as a result of confidentiality restrictions.
(b) Source of chain volume measures (CVM) is Balance of Payments, June quarter 2001 (Cat. no. 5302.0). Reference year for CVM is 1999-2000.


APPENDIX 2

AUSTRALIA'S EXPORT MARKETS FOR SERVICES, 1995-96 TO 1999-00

Change
from
1995-96
to 1999-00
Country/ Country group (a)
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00

$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
%
%

United States of America
2,977
3,220
4,097
4,394
4,588
16.2
54
Japan
3,658
3,688
3,489
3,280
3,353
11.8
-8
United Kingdom
2,040
2,171
2,470
2,864
3,114
11.0
53
New Zealand
1,418
1,666
1,793
1,799
2,046
7.2
44
Singapore
1,241
1,256
1,181
1,337
1,660
5.9
34
Asia n.e.s.
873
994
1,022
1,164
1,184
4.2
36
Hong Kong
1,072
1,054
1,032
972
995
3.5
-7
Europe n.e.s.
674
650
719
770
901
3.2
34
Indonesia
971
1,029
922
845
839
3.0
-14
Malaysia
769
733
773
668
791
2.8
3
Germany
576
665
724
733
774
2.7
34
China
378
396
485
575
657
2.3
74
Korea, Republic of
1,115
927
609
450
608
2.1
-45
America n.e.s.
131
330
254
373
559
2.0
327
Thailand
523
474
353
362
433
1.5
-17
Taiwan
702
570
535
460
428
1.5
-39
Canada
281
309
359
384
401
1.4
43
Papua New Guinea
236
279
335
291
371
1.3
57
Switzerland
261
261
278
308
325
1.1
25
Netherlands
163
211
254
272
297
1.0
82
Italy
184
244
250
294
268
0.9
46
Oceania n.e.s.
264
274
191
223
254
0.9
-4
France
169
207
192
223
249
0.9
47
Fiji
72
62
117
154
202
0.7
181
Philippines
182
189
192
168
185
0.7
2
Sweden
94
99
106
172
182
0.6
94
South Africa
173
177
168
219
173
0.6
0
Ireland
69
77
96
126
164
0.6
138
Africa n.e.s.
106
103
126
121
141
0.5
33
Belgium-Luxembourg
64
105
125
107
100
0.4
56
Greece
52
49
47
31
78
0.3
50
Russian Federation
69
63
56
43
42
0.1
-39
Brunei
25
22
21
22
20
0.1
-20
Central America and Caribbean
11
15
13
18
12
0.0
12
Mexico
4
4
4
15
6
0.0
50
Chile
7
5
5
4
5
0.0
-29
Other (including unallocated)
1,345
1,648
1,813
2,001
1,912
6.8
42
Total exports of services
22,949
24,226
25,206
26,242
28,317
100.0
23
APEC
15,559
15,821
16185
16,183
17550
62.0
13
ASEAN
3,814
3,834
3564
3,541
4,050
14.3
6
European Union
3,706
4,199
4699
5,288
5,737
20.3
55

Note: Data by country are only available to 1999-2000 at this time.


APPENDIX 3

AUSTRALIA'S EXPORT OF GOODS, 1995-96 TO 2000-01


Change
from
1995-96
to 2000-01
Selected SITC code & commodity
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01

$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
%
%

321
Coal, not agglomerated
7,775
7,957
9,557
9,270
8,323
10,819
9.0
39
333
Crude petroleum oils
1,547
1,876
1,973
1,600
4,878
7,607
6.4
392
971
Gold, non-monetary
5,545
4,717
6,263
6,335
5,031
5,110
4.3
-8
281
Iron ore and concentrates
2,865
3,155
3,791
3,844
3,817
4,911
4.1
71
684
Aluminium
2,724
2,415
3,258
3,281
3,801
4,734
4.0
74
285
Aluminium ores and concentrates (a)
2,641
2,542
2,822
2,843
3,397
4,393
3.7
66
041
Wheat (a)
3,363
4,301
3,630
3,399
3,413
4,134
3.5
23
011
Beef
2,457
2,112
2,700
2,935
3,189
4,125
3.4
68
268
Wool and other animal hair (a)
3,263
3,487
3,663
2,461
2,827
3,599
3.0
10
334
Refined petroleum oils
1,611
1,873
1,815
1,487
2,250
3,212
2.7
99
781
Passenger motor vehicles
558
1,121
1,001
1,330
1,918
2,738
2.3
391
343
Natural gas
1,372
1,537
1,599
1,425
1,949
2,671
2.2
95
263
Cotton
765
1,079
1,387
1,563
1,407
1,960
1.6
156
287
Other base metal ores and concentrates (a)
1,048
1,128
1,394
1,540
1,373
1,917
1.6
83
112
Alcoholic beverages
559
686
970
1,158
1,494
1,905
1.6
241
542
Medicaments
670
746
823
987
1,355
1,808
1.5
170
022
Milk and cream
1,022
1,058
1,058
1,229
1,281
1,727
1.4
69
682
Copper
947
720
635
629
1,160
1,642
1.4
73
012
Meat and edible meat offal (excl. beef)
777
789
971
1,008
1,210
1,591
1.3
105
683
Nickel (a)
535
476
466
485
1,247
1,471
1.2
175
764
Telecommunications equipment, nes
689
616
1,047
709
1,144
1,417
1.2
106
759
ADP parts and accessories
1,461
1,221
1,308
1,075
1,021
1,198
1.0
-18
036
Crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic invertebrates
844
798
825
836
1,009
1,096
0.9
30
283
Copper ores and concentrates
486
655
822
968
776
1,041
0.9
114
081
Feeding stuff for animals
458
531
540
598
750
987
0.8
116
024
Cheese and curd
464
476
607
696
807
951
0.8
105
061
Sugars, molasses and honey (a)
1,629
1,631
1,875
1,408
1,142
939
0.8
-42
686
Zinc
386
355
409
446
558
909
0.8
135
784
Motor vehicle parts
452
531
545
603
713
883
0.7
95
001
Live animals (excl.aquatic)
660
706
631
615
734
872
0.7
32
342
Liquefied propane and butane
189
356
367
297
648
830
0.7
339
211
Hides and skins (a)
504
502
572
393
413
794
0.7
58
874
Measuring instruments
321
315
414
535
645
755
0.6
135
246
Wood in chips or particles
544
518
648
587
648
747
0.6
37
222
Oil seeds & oleaginous fruits
195
191
347
674
791
711
0.6
265
054
Vegetables (a)
383
472
475
443
582
707
0.6
85
533
Pigments, paints & varnishes
402
358
457
485
531
640
0.5
59
792
Aircraft and associated equipment
714
629
713
760
587
611
0.5
-14
728
Specialized industrial equipment
463
557
514
708
463
609
0.5
32
667
Pearls, precious and semi-precious stones (a)
387
364
447
410
595
604
0.5
56
713
Internal combustion piston engines
572
596
639
463
703
592
0.5
3
057
Fruit and nuts (a)
405
465
443
466
491
560
0.5
38
284
Nickel ores and concentrates (a)
445
442
406
235
373
560
0.5
26
793
Ships, boats & floating structures
432
1100
930
593
1051
547
0.5
27
611
Leather
421
421
474
418
437
530
0.4
26
772
Elec apparatus used in circuits
392
365
336
405
406
529
0.4
35
043
Barley, unmilled (a)
711
815
545
698
646
402
0.3
-43
Other (including confidential commodities)
27,930
29,229
30,968
30,892
35,317
39,899
33.4
43
Total exports of goods
76,005
78,932
87,768
85,991
97,286
119,602
100.0
57

(a) Excludes export commodities subject to a 'No Commodity Details' or a 'No Value Details' or a 'Broad Commodity Details' restriction.


APPENDIX 4

AUSTRALIA'S EXPORTS OF SERVICES, 1995-96 TO 2000-01


Change
from
1995-96
to 2000-01
Services
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01

$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
%
%

Transportation services
6,526
6,648
6,611
6,803
6,865
8,073
24.6
23.7
Travel services
11,252
11,756
11,540
11,944
13,139
15,344
46.8
36.4
Communication services
896
947
1361
1239
1475
1520
4.6
69.6
Construction services
66
70
31
18
23
50
0.2
-24.2
Insurance services
672
772
840
859
766
741
2.3
10.3
Financial services
577
634
713
716
747
747
2.3
29.5
Computer & information services
217
277
532
676
668
757
2.3
248.8
Royalties and license fees
329
376
449
488
572
594
1.8
80.5
Other business services
1,613
1,882
2,224
2,552
2,852
2,936
9.0
82.0
Personnal cultural & recreational services
248
304
352
388
475
1,412
4.3
469.4
Government services n.i.e.
553
560
553
559
735
620
1.9
12.1
Total exports of services
22,949
24,226
25,206
26,242
28,317
32,794
100.0
42.9

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Commonwealth of Australia 2008

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