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Explanatory Notes 2007-2011
 

Introduction

Economy
Includes: Business Counts; Labour Force; Youth Engagement; Taxation Statistics; Selected Government Pensions and Allowances; Estimates of Personal Income; Wage and Salary Earners; Rent and Mortgage Payments; Building Approvals.

Population/People
Includes: Estimated Resident Population; Working Age Population; Median Age; Births; Deaths; Population Density; Other Census 2011 data including overseas born.

Industry
Includes: Motor Vehicle Census; Agricultural Commodities; Value of Agricultural Production; Employed by Industry.

Environment/Energy
Includes: Land Area; Water Use on Australian Farms; Land Use; Dynamic Land Cover.

Statistical Geography
Includes: Geographic Correspondences; Geographic Regions.


INTRODUCTION

1 The National Regional Profile presents a standard set of data for a range of geographies, including state/territory and Australia. This is the first release of the National Regional Profile using the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS). Below state/territory, data is available for the following regions of the ASGS: Statistical Areas 2, 3 and 4; Greater Capital City Statistical Areas; Local Government Areas. See Statistical Geography (paragraphs 123 to 125) for further information about the regions in the ASGS.

2 There is a standard set of data for each region type, depending on the availability of data at that region scale. A summary data set can be viewed from the map page, and also exported as an Excel file. Users interested in creating their own customised tables for one or more regions can do this by accessing a larger data set in cat. no. 1379.0.55.001.

3 Data in the National Regional Profile are sourced from a wide variety of collections, both ABS and non-ABS. When analysing data care needs to be taken as time periods, definitions, methodologies, scope and coverage differ between collections. Where available, data have been presented as a time series. Time series data enable users to assess changes over time. However, looked at on a period to period basis, these series may be volatile. When analysing the data, users are encouraged to consider the longer term behaviour of the series, where this is available. This edition provides data for the period 2007-2011, where available. All information about the data in these Explanatory Notes are relevant for the period 2007-2011.

4 While information on the datasets and terms used in the National Regional Profile are included below and in the accompanying Glossary, more detailed information about the data can be obtained by referring to the relevant source listed for each dataset. Further information about statistical terms can be found in Statistical Language! (cat. no. 1332.0.55.002).

5 All data presented in the National Regional Profile are on geographic boundaries as described in the 2011 edition of the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS 2011). For further information see the Statistical Geography page of the ABS website, or the following: Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): Volume 1 - Main Structure and Greater Capital City Statistical Areas, July 2011 (cat. no. 1270.0.55.001); Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): Volume 3 - Non ABS Structures, July 2012 (cat. no. 1270.0.55.003). For further information on how data have been presented on ASGS 2011, see Geographic Correspondences at paragraphs 126 to 129 of these Explanatory Notes.

6 This is the eighth release of the National Regional Profile. The previous releases are available via the 'Past & Future Releases' tab of this product. Care should be taken in comparing data within the previous and current releases of the National Regional Profile as:

  • some data will have been subject to revision; and
  • previous releases refer to different geographical boundaries, based on the previous statistical geography, the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC), and different releases of the NRP used different editions of the previous statistical geography (ASGC).

7 In some cases, a profile has not been produced for every region. This is usually because there is insufficient data for that region. For example, there are no profiles produced for Other Territories (Jervis Bay, Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands).

8 Some values in the data in the NRP have been randomly adjusted or suppressed to avoid the release of confidential data. Care should be taken when interpreting cells with small numbers. In some cases small cells have been randomly altered to zero. Caution should be exercised in deducing that there are no people or units with particular characteristics in a given area.

9 These Explanatory Notes have been presented under the following topics: Economy (paragraphs 11 to 70), Population/People (paragraphs 71 to 99), Industry (paragraphs 100 to 115) and Environment/Energy (paragraphs 116 to 122).
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Changes From Previous Issue

10 In addition to the changes in statistical geography (paragraph 1), there have been a number of changes to the data items and series included in this issue of the profiles. These changes are summarised in the following table. Please see the relevant sections in these Explanatory Notes for more detailed descriptions.

Data SeriesChange
Estimates of UnemploymentIn this issue, data from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing is used (previously estimates from Department of Employment, Education and Workplace Relations were used).
Selected Government Pensions and AllowancesIn this issue, Service Pensions and Income Support Supplement payments from Department of Veteran's Affairs have been included for the first time. Youth Allowances data have been provided by the Department of Employment, Education and Workplace Relations and by the Department of Innovation, Industry Science, Research and Tertiary Education, and have been shown separately.
Counts of Australian Business Entries and ExitsData on business counts, entries and exits has been included in this issue.
Estimates of Household WealthNot available for the reference years in this issue, and so not included.
Estimated Resident PopulationMedian age and Working age population (15-64 years) are new data in this issue.
Estimated Resident Population for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoplesNot in this issue - data not available until August 2013. Census 2011 data has been included in this issue.
Census 2011In this issue, new data are Youth engagement; Average number of usual residents per private dwelling; rent and mortgage payments; Labour force; Method of travel to work; Average family size; Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.
Tourist Accommodation EstablishmentsNot in this issue - data on ASGS is available from the June 2012 quarter, not for the reference years in this issue.
Land UseIn this issue, Land Use data from the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences (ABARES) has been included for the first time.
Dynamic Land CoverIn this issue, Land Use data from Geoscience Australia has been included for the first time.


ECONOMY

Counts of Businesses, Entries and Exits

11 Counts of Australian Businesses, Entries and Exits data are based on snapshots of actively trading businesses as at June in each reference year, from the Australian Bureau of Statistics Business Register (ABSBR).

12 Most businesses in Australia need to obtain an Australian Business Number (ABN). These businesses are then included on the whole of government register of businesses, the Australian Business Register (ABR). The results of these studies are based, in part, on tax data supplied by the ATO under the Taxation Administration Act 1953 and ABR data supplied by the Registrar under A New Tax System (Australian Business Number) Act 1999. The Taxation Administration Act 1953 requires that such data is only used for the purpose of administering the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and the Australian Business Number Act 1999 requires that such data is only used for the purpose of carrying out functions of the ABS. Further information about the two Acts can be found at http://www.comlaw.gov.au. Information about the ABR can be obtained from the ABR website http://www.abr.gov.au or the ATO website http://www.ato.gov.au/business. The ABS uses information from the ABR to populate its internal register of businesses, the Australian Bureau of Statistics Business Register (ABSBR), which is used as a source for business survey frames and business counts.

13 Counts of businesses produced from the ABSBR comprise actively trading businesses in the Australian economy. The population includes employing and non-employing, single location and multiple location businesses. It should be noted that it is not currently possible to account for those businesses which operate out of multiple locations, other than at their main location. This is particularly relevant for larger businesses, which commonly establish outlets in numerous states and regions across Australia. The reason for this is that data for individual business locations are not currently available from the ABSBR. Users should therefore be aware of this limitation when using counts of businesses.

14 Excluded from these counts are entities which are not considered to be actively trading in the market sector such as Reserve Bank of Australia, General Government and Not for profit institutions serving households. Examples of some of the other excluded entities are: Social and sporting clubs, Charitable institutions; Trade Unions and other associations; Other unincorporated entity; Police services; Fire protection and other emergency services; Religious services; Business and professional associations; Labour association services; Other interest group services; and Private households employing staff. Businesses which have not submitted a Business Activity Statement (BAS) and/or have reported zero dollar amounts over five consecutive quarters (or three consecutive years for annual BAS remitters) have been excluded.

15 The data published has been confidentialised so as not to release the identity of any business units. The confidentialising process used in this release also means that data presented at these detailed levels will not always be additive. For example, opening stock from the beginning of the financial year, plus entries, minus exits, may not equal the closing stock for the end of the financial year. This is due to the fact that each of those components are individually rounded.

16 The Local Government Area data used in the National Regional Profile has been estimated from published data at the SA2 level, and also rounded and confidentialised. The final estimates therefore should not be assumed to reflect exact numbers of business counts in any region, and in particular no reliance should be placed on very small counts.

17 Further information can be found in Counts of Australian Businesses, including Entries and Exits, Jun 2007 to Jun 2011 (cat. no. 8165.0).
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Labour Force

18 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing. Data are for persons aged 15 or more, and are derived from the questions about whether the person had a job in the week before Census Night, whether they actively looked for work in the last four weeks before Census Night, and if they could have started work in the last week before Census night.

Youth Engagement in Work or Study

19 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing. Data are for persons aged 15-19 and are derived from questions about whether the person was working or attending a school or any other educational institution.

Taxation Statistics

20 Taxable income data are sourced from the Australian Taxation Office's (ATO) Individual Income Tax Return Database and provided to the ABS by the ATO in aggregated form only. Information about individual taxpayers has not been released to the ABS. The statistics are based on individual income tax returns lodged for the financial year ended 30 June, and processed within sixteen months of the financial year to which they relate.

21 The main functions and responsibilities of the ATO are to administer taxation legislation and to collect a wide variety of taxes. The ATO therefore collects data from its reporting population as part of its processes to calculate income tax liability for those persons who are required to lodge an income tax return.

22 Individuals who submit an individual income tax return (Taxable Individuals) report their total income from various sources over a financial year. Their taxable income is the amount remaining after deducting from assessable income all deductions allowed under the Income Tax Assessment Act and is the amount to which tax rates are applied. Non-taxable Individuals are those individuals who submit a tax return, but for whom no tax is payable.

23 Data items include:
  • non-taxable individual: Personal (or individual) taxpayers with net tax payable equal to $0.
  • taxable individual: Personal (or individual) taxpayers with net tax payable greater than $0.
  • taxable income: Income as reported on the individual income tax return, less deductions and less prior year losses for primary production and non-primary production.
  • net tax: Net tax for individuals is calculated from Total income less deductions and losses, applying marginal tax rates, adding complementary tax, less tax offsets and adding the Medicare levy and surcharge.
  • net tax as % of taxable income.

24 For further information, refer to 'Taxation Statistics' 2009-10 at www.ato.gov.au on their 'Our statistics centre' page.

25 Averages presented are calculated by dividing the total reported for an area by the total number of taxable taxpayers. For example, average taxable income is the total taxable income reported for an area divided by the total number of taxable individuals in that area.

26 The statistics are based on individual income tax returns lodged for the financial year ended 30 June, regardless of the year in which they were processed.

27 A geographic correspondence has been used in order to present the original data on Australian Statistical Geography Standard 2011. Further general information on Geographic Correspondences can be found in paragraphs 126 to 129.
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Selected Government Pensions and Allowances

28 Data on the number of individuals receiving selected Government pensions and allowances has been provided by the Department of Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR), the Department of Innovation, Industry, Science, Research and Tertiary Education (DIISRTE); the Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (FaHCSIA), and the Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA).
  • Age pension data has been provided by FaHCSIA for those individuals receiving an Age pension through Centrelink, while DVA has provided data for those individuals receiving an Age Pension through DVA;
  • FaHCSIA has provided data on Disability Support Pension, Carer Payment, Family Tax Benefit (A, B, A or B) and Baby Bonus;
  • DEEWR has provided data on Newstart Allowance, Youth Allowances (Other), and Parenting Payment;
  • DIISRTE has provided data on Youth Allowances for apprentices and students.

29 Selected Government Pensions and Allowances Data has been provided to the ABS on an aggregate basis (at Local Government Area and/or Statistical Area 2 or 3 level). Totals are available for Australia, States and Territories. All data has been provided to the ABS in confidentialised form.

30 Age pension is a payment for persons who have reached Age Pension age. Age Pension age depends on the individual's date of birth:

For men:
  • if born before 1/7/52, Age Pension age is 65.

For women:
  • if born before 1/7/35, Age Pension age is 60
  • if born between 1/7/35 and 31/12/36, Age Pension age is 60.5
  • if born between 1/1/37 and 30/6/38, Age Pension age is 61
  • if born between 1/7/38 and 30/12/39, Age Pension age is 61.5
  • if born between 1/1/40 and 30/6/41, Age Pension age is 62
  • if born between 1/7/41 and 31/12/42, Age Pension age is 62.5
  • if born between 1/1/43 and 30/6/44, Age Pension age is 63
  • if born between 1/7/44 and 31/12/45, Age Pension age is 63.5
  • if born between 1/1/46 and 30/6/47, Age Pension age is 64
  • if born between 1/7/47 and 31/12/48, Age Pension age is 64.5
  • if born between 1/1/49 and 30/6/52, Age Pension age is 65.

For men and women:
  • if born between 1/7/52 and 31/12/53, Age Pension age is 65.5
  • if born between 1/1/54 and 30/6/55, Age Pension age is 66
  • if born between 1/7/55 and 31/12/56, Age Pension age is 66.5
  • if born 1/1/57 or later, Age Pension age is 67.

31 The majority of Age Pensions are paid by Centrelink. Age pensioners who also receive a Disability Pension from the Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA) have the choice of having their Age Pension paid by either the DVA or Centrelink. There are therefore two separate data items - Age Pension (Centrelink) and Age Pension (DVA) - are published in the National Regional Profile. The Centrelink Age Pension data has been provided by FaHCSIA and includes overseas pension recipients in the total for Australia. Both Age Pension totals for Australia include persons whose address could not be coded to a specific region.

32 The purpose of Disability Support Pension (DSP) is to provide income support for people who have a permanent physical, intellectual or psychiatric impairment. DSP is designed to give people an adequate means of support if they are unable to work for at least 15 hours per week at or above the relevant minimum wage, independent of a program or support. DSP data has been provided by FaHCSIA and includes overseas pension recipients and persons whose address could not be coded to a specific region in the total for Australia.

33 Carer Payment is for people who are unable to support themselves through participation in the workforce while caring for someone with a disability, severe medical condition, or who is frail and aged. Carer Payment data has been provided by FaHCSIA and includes persons whose address could not be coded to a specific region in the total for Australia.

34 Newstart Allowance is a payment for people who are looking for work and allows them to participate in activities designed to increase their chances of finding work. In the period covered by these data, persons must have been aged 21 or older but under Age Pension age to qualify. Newstart Allowance data has been provided by DEEWR.

35 Youth Allowance is a payment for young people who are studying, undertaking training or an Australian Apprenticeship, looking for work, or sick. Persons must be aged 15 to 24 to qualify. Youth Allowance (Other) data has been provided by DEEWR, and Youth Allowance data for apprentices and students has been provided by DIISRTE.

36 Parenting Payment is a payment for persons who are primary carers of children. Parenting Payment data has been provided by DEEWR.

37 Family Tax Benefit is paid to help with the costs of raising children. Around 75% of all families with at least one dependent child aged under 16 are eligible to receive Family Tax Benefit. Family Tax Benefit data has been provided by FaHCSIA. The Family Tax Benefit data for 2011 are preliminary data.

38 Family Tax Benefit Part A can be paid to a parent, guardian or an approved care organisation to help with the costs of raising children. There are eligibility requirements involving the age and educational status of the child, residency and income. Family Tax Benefit Part B is an extra payment for single parents and families with one main income to help with the costs of raising children. Part B is limited to families where the primary earner has an adjusted taxable income of $150,000 or less per financial year. There are also additional eligibility requirements. Approximately three-quarters of FTB customers receive both Part A and Part B. Data presented in regard to Family Tax Benefit refer only to fortnightly instalment customers paid directly by Centrelink. It excludes an additional 10% (approximately) who are paid by a lump sum which is claimable at the end of a financial year. The Family Tax Benefit data for 2011 are preliminary only; users should refrain from making direct comparisons with data from earlier years in past issues of the National Regional Profile.

39 Baby Bonus may be paid to families following the birth (including stillbirth) or adoption of a child. Prior to 2008, Baby Bonus was known as Maternity Payment. From 1 January 2009 an income test was introduced for Baby Bonus. Customers must have an estimated income of $75,000 or less in the 6 months following the birth of the child. Also from 1 January 2009, the allowable claim period was extended from 26 weeks to 52 weeks. Baby Bonus data has been provided by FaHCSIA.

40 A Service Pension can be paid to veterans on the grounds of age or invalidity, and to eligible partners, widows and widowers. Service Pension data has been provided by DVA.

41 Income Support Supplement is an income support pension paid to: eligible war widows and widowers under the Veterans’ Entitlements Act 1986 (VEA); and persons receiving wholly dependent partners’ compensation under the Military Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 2004 (MRCA). Income Support Supplement data has been provided by DVA.

42 With the exception of Baby Bonus payments, all Government Pensions and Allowances data refer to a point in time (i.e. the number of persons receiving payment as at the pay period closest to 30 June each year) and therefore do not represent all the customers in receipt of payments during the entire financial year. Customers who have been suspended or not paid at that point of time are not included in these data. Baby Bonus data is cumulative and based on a financial year (i.e. it is year-to-date). Customers may be granted more than one payment during a 12 month period (for two different births at two different ages), however they are counted only once in the total.

43 All data has been provided on ASGS 2011 boundaries. For privacy reasons, all data has been confidentialised before being supplied to the ABS.
- For DEEWR data, all regions that have a value of less than 20 persons have been confidentialised.
- For FaHCSIA, all regions that have a value of less than 5 persons have been confidentialised.
- For DVA data, all regions that have a value of less than 4 persons have been confidentialised.
- For DIISTRE, all regions that have a value of less than 20 persons have been confidentialised.

44 Where a person could not be allocated to a region within a state/territory, they have been included in the totals for the state/territory. Where a person could not be allocated to a state, they have been included in the total for Australia.

45 More information about specific payments can be accessed through the Department of Human Services website at http://www.humanservices.gov.au and the DVA website at http://www.dva.gov.au/Pages/home.aspx.
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Estimates of Personal Income

46 Estimates of Personal Income data are compiled from the Australian Taxation Office's (ATO) Individual Income Tax Return Database and provided to the ABS by the ATO in aggregated form only. Information about individual taxpayers has not been released to the ABS. The statistics have been subjected to a confidentiality process that adjusts table cells with small values. This includes altering some small cells to zero. The statistics are based on individual income tax returns lodged for the financial year ended 30 June, and processed within sixteen months of the financial year to which they relate.

47 The ATO database covers all individuals who submit an individual income tax return and includes persons with income from one or more of a range of sources such as wages and salaries, own business, investment, superannuation and annuity, and other income.

48 Wages and salaries are the main forms of payments made to employees for their work or services. Wage and salary income, as reported on the income tax return, includes:
  • Gross Salary or wage income, as shown on the 'PAYG payment summary - individual non-business;'
  • Allowances, which may include car, travel or transport allowances, allowances for tools, clothing or laundry and dirt, risk, meal or entertainment allowances;
  • Commissions, bonuses, tips, gratuities, consultation fees, honoraria and other payments for services;
  • Attributed personal services income;
  • Eligible termination payments;
  • Lump sums;
  • Reportable fringe benefits;
  • From 2009-10, Net foreign employment income.

49 Own unincorporated business income includes the following data items on the individual income tax return:
  • net income (or loss) from business
  • distributions from partnerships and trusts for primary production activities
  • distributions from partnerships for non-primary production activities
  • net personal services income.

50 The data for Own unincorporated business income excludes distributions from trusts for non-primary production activities as this mainly includes income from a range of other activities (mainly investments). It also excludes the income of working directors/owners of incorporated businesses who are classified as employees and consequently their income is included under wage and salary income.

51 Investment income includes:
  • interest from financial institutions
  • net rent and dividends or distributions (including imputation credits) from an Australian company, corporate unit trust or public trading trust
  • distributions from trusts - non-primary production which mainly includes income from investments with cash management trusts, property trusts, money market trusts, mortgage trusts and unit trusts
  • Australian franking credits from a New Zealand company.

52 Superannuation and annuity income includes superannuation and similar pensions and annuities paid by an Australian superannuation fund, a retirement saving account provider, a registered organisation or life assurance company and pensions paid by a fund established for the benefit of Commonwealth, state or territory employees and their dependants. Also included in this category are bonuses from life insurance companies and friendly societies.

53 A change to legislation relating to superannuation, taking effect from 1 July 2007, means that people aged 60 years and over who receive superannuation income in the form of a lump sum or income stream (such as a pension) from a taxed source, will now receive that income tax free. Therefore, if a person has no other income, or their total income is below the tax-free threshold, or any tax payable is mitigated by a tax offset (such as Senior Australian Tax Offset), then this person will not be required to lodge a tax return. This change to legislation has resulted in a break in the income series for superannuation and annuities with fewer persons reporting income from this income source for the 2007-08 income year onwards.

54 There have been other breaks in series associated with the introduction of a one-off tax bonus introduced as part of the Economic Stimulus Package in response to the Global Financial Crisis. This one-off tax bonus was available to all individuals whose 2007-08 taxable income was $100,000 or less, whose adjusted tax liability was greater than zero and who had filed their 2007-08 tax return by 30 June 2009. The Australian Taxation Office has reported in their Taxation Statistics publications that there was a 7.1% increase in individual tax lodgements for the 2007-08 financial year, in part due to individual lodgements being brought forward to access the tax bonus. This was followed by a fall of 2.8% in individual tax lodgements in 2008-09. There have been breaks in series between 2006-07 and 2007-08 and between 2007-08 and 2008-09 in the number of earners and total income reported for each income source and for total income, however average total income and average income for each income source have not been materially affected.

55 Other income (excluding Government pensions and allowances) is made up of selected sources of other income reported on the individual income tax return that were not allocated to one of the above categories. Net foreign employment income was reported under Other income up to 2008-09, but reported separately from 2009-10. Net foreign employment income is included in Wages and salaries from 2009-10, and there is a break in the series for Other income from 2008-09 to 2009-10.

56 Averages presented are calculated by dividing the total income reported for each income source by the total number of taxable taxpayers for that income source. For example, average Wage and salary income is the total Wage and salary income reported for an area divided by the total number of Wage and salary earners in that area.

57 A geographic correspondence has been used to present the original data on Australian Statistical Geography Standard 2011 boundaries. Further general information on Geographic Correspondences can be found in paragraphs 126 to 129.

58 Further information on these statistics can be found in Estimates of Personal Income for Small Areas, 2009-10 (cat. no. 6524.0.55.002).
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Wage and Salary Earners

59 Wage and salary earner data provides more detail on the Wage and salary earners in 'Estimates of Personal Income' series (paragraphs 46 to 58). The statistics are based on individual income tax returns lodged for the financial year ended 30 June, and processed within sixteen months of the financial year to which they relate.

60 There have been breaks in series associated with the introduction of a one-off tax bonus introduced as part of the Economic Stimulus Package in response to the Global Financial Crisis, as explained in paragraph 54. There have been breaks in series between 2006-07 and 2007-08 and between 2007-08 and 2008-09 in the data presented for the number of Wage and salary earners.

61 There has been a change in the classification used by the ATO to code occupation data. In 2009 the ATO changed from using the Australian Standard Classification of Occupations (ASCO) to the Australian and New Zealand Standard of Occupations (ANZSCO). The occupation categories from 2008-09 presented in this edition of the NRP are not therefore comparable to those featured in previous editions of this product. For this reason, only 2008-09 and 2009-10 data for occupations is shown.

62 Further information on these statistics can be found in Wage and Salary Earner Statistics for Small Areas, 2009-10 (cat. no. 5673.0.55.003).

Rent and Mortgage Payments

63 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing and are household rent and mortgage payments including site fees if the dwelling is a caravan, or manufactured home in a caravan park, or a manufactured home estate.

Building Approvals

64 Data for building work approvals are compiled from:
  • permits issued by local government authorities and other principal certifying authorities
  • contracts let or day labour work authorised by Commonwealth, State, semi-government and local government authorities
  • major building activity in areas not subject to normal administrative approval (e.g. building on remote mine sites).

65 The data included in this profile relate to all residential building approvals valued at $10,000 or more and all approved non-residential building jobs valued at $50,000 or more.

66 Building ownership is classified as either public or private sector and is based on the intended owner of the completed building at the time of approval.

67 Type of work can include 'new', 'alterations and additions' and 'conversions'. Unless otherwise specified, building data in the NRP is total building, which is the sum of new, alterations and additions, and conversions.

68 The type of building is the building's intended predominant function according to the Functional Classification of Buildings, 1999 (Revision 2011) (cat. no. 1268.0.55.001).

69 Construction activity not defined as building (eg. construction of roads, bridges, railways etc) is excluded from building statistics.

70 The data are as at the January 2013 issue of Building Approvals, Australia, and refer to each financial year ended 30 June. For further information see Building Approvals, Australia (cat. no. 8731.0).
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POPULATION/PEOPLE

Estimated Resident Population

71 Population data in the profiles, unless otherwise stated, are the estimated resident population (ERP) counts for the selected region as at 30 June for the year shown. Data are shown to the nearest whole number without rounding, but accuracy to the last digit is not claimed and should not be assumed.

72 The concept of ERP links people to a place of usual residence within Australia. Usual residence is defined as that place where each person has lived or intends to live for six months or more from the reference date for data collection.

73 Population estimates for most sub-state regions in the NRP are built up from Statistical Area Level 2 (SA2). The ERP as at Census date for each SA2 is calculated based on usual residence Census counts, excluding short-term overseas visitors in Australia, with an allowance for Census net undercount and the number of residents temporarily overseas at Census date. As the census is not held on 30 June (the 2011 Census was held on 9 August), further adjustments taking into account births, deaths and migration for the intervening period are made to obtain ERP at 30 June.

74 For post-censal years, estimates at the Australian level take into account natural increase and net overseas migration, while estimates for states and territories also use estimated interstate migration. The absence of migration data at the SA2 level means that it is not possible to estimate SA2 populations by taking into account natural increase and net migration. Instead, ERP for most SA2 are be calculated using a mathematical model, where relationships are established between changes in population and changes in indicator data between the two most recent Censuses for SA2. Current indicators include dwelling approvals, Medicare enrolments and counts of people on the Commonwealth Electoral Roll. Changes in these indicators are used to estimate changes in the population of each area since the Census.

75 Estimates for SA2 are used to estimate ERP for Statistical Area Level 1 regions (SA1). Estimates for Local Government Areas (LGA) are aggregated from SA1 estimates, including split SA1s where they cross LGA boundaries.

76 Population estimates included in this edition of NRP are not final. A final version of 2011 regional ERP will be released on 30 August 2013, incorporating final data from the 2011 Census and updated estimates of overseas migration. As part of this release, a new time series of regional ERP back to 1992 will also be released, to take into account changes in methodology that improved the accuracy of 2011 Census-based ERPs. For further information see the 'Upcoming revisions to population estimates' chapter in the April 2013 release of Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2011-12 (cat. no. 3218.0).

Births

77 Data on births are presented on the basis of the usual residence of the mother regardless of where in Australia the birth occurred or was registered. The data refer to live births registered during the calendar year shown, and are supplied to the Australian Bureau of Statistics by each state/territory Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages for compilation into the aggregate statistics in this publication. For more information refer to Births, Australia (cat. no. 3301.0).

Deaths

78 Data on deaths are presented on the basis of the usual residence of the deceased regardless of where in Australia the death occurred or was registered. The data refer to deaths registered during the calendar year shown, and are supplied to the Australian Bureau of Statistics by each state/territory Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages for compilation into the aggregate statistics in this publication. For more information refer to Deaths, Australia (cat. no. 3302.0).

Population Density

79 The population density for a region is calculated by dividing the 2011 Estimated Resident Population (paragraphs 71 to 76) by the Land Area (paragraph 116) to obtain the number of persons per square kilometre.
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Average Number of Usual Residents Per Private Dwelling

80 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people

81 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing and includes people who identified their origin as being Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander, or both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander. Census data is being used in this issue of the National Regional Profile as the final 2011 Estimated Resident Population estimates are yet to be released. 'Estimates of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, June 2011' will be released on 30 August 2013 in ABS cat. no. 3238.0.55.001.

Overseas Born Population

82 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing. The Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), Second Edition, Revision 1 (cat. no 1269.0) was used to classify responses for birthplace of individuals. This classification used the current names of countries, so if a person uses a former name the current name is coded. For example, Siam would be coded to Thailand. If an individual's birthplace was not stated on the Census form, an attempt was made to derive it from other answers.

83 The data shown exclude overseas visitors, persons at sea at the time of the Census, and persons whose responses on the Census form inadequately described their country of birth or for whom the birthplace was not stated (and could not be derived).

Speaks language other than English

84 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing. These data identify the language spoken at home, and are coded using the Australian Standard Classification of Languages (ASCL), 2011 (cat. no. 1267.0). Only one language is coded for each person.

Post School Qualifications

85 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing. These data are for persons aged 15 years and over and show the level of education based on the highest completed non-school qualification of persons (eg. bachelor degree, diploma).

86 The full classification for levels of education and fields of study, together with an explanation of the conceptual basis of the classification, can be found in the publication Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED), 2001 (cat. no. 1272.0).

Occupation of Employed Persons

87 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing and are for employed people aged 15 years and over. Two occupation questions are used in the Census. The first of these asks for occupation title, while the second asks for the main tasks usually performed by the person in their occupation. Collecting both occupation title and task information ensures more accurate coding of occupations.

88 Occupations are coded using the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO) (cat. no. 1220.0). The Occupation code assigned is based on the main job held during the week prior to Census Night.

Method of Travel to Work

89 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing and are from the question about how the person got to work on Tuesday 9 August 2011.
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Households

90 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing and describe the type of household within a dwelling. Family households can contain non-family members (unrelated persons and visitors). A maximum of three families can be coded to a household. Lone person households can contain visitors.

Families

91 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing. Families have been classified in terms of the relationships that exist between a single family reference person and each other member of that family. Different types of families are distinguished based on the presence or absence of couple relationships, parent-child relationships, child dependency relationships or other blood relationships, in that order of preference.

92 The family type is derived from people enumerated in the household who usually reside there and who share a familial relationship. Partners and dependent children usually present but temporarily absent are also included in this derivation. Boarders and other non-family members are excluded.

Internal Migration

93 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing. Internal migration is the movement of people from one defined area to another within a country. The Census asked if the person had a different address one year ago, and five years ago.

94 The percentage of persons in a region who lived at a different address within Australia (one year ago, five years ago) is calculated as a proportion of the persons usually resident in the region.

95 Data collected in the Census only reflect movements which coincide with these particular points in time (i.e. one year ago and five years ago) in the intercensal period, even though there may have been multiple movements during this period.

96 Persons temporarily absent, visitors, and households containing only visitors, are excluded from these data.

Unpaid Work

97 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing. Data on unpaid work show the proportion of persons usually resident in the region who did any voluntary work in the last twelve months, or any unpaid work (caring for own children, caring for other children, caring for family members or others) in the last two weeks.

Access to Internet at Home

98 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing. These data show the proportion of occupied private dwellings in the region that have access to the internet.

99 The categories of access are: 'no internet connection', 'broadband', 'dial-up' and 'other'. Broadband access includes ADSL, cable, wireless and satellite connections. Dial-up includes analog modem and ISDN connections. Other includes access through mobile phones.
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INDUSTRY

Motor Vehicle Census

100 Motor Vehicle Census data refer to vehicles registered with a motor vehicle registration authority. For 2007 to 2010, this was as at 31 March in the reference year, and for 2011 this was as at 31 January.

101 The Motor Vehicle Census includes all vehicles registered with a state, territory or other government motor vehicle registry for unrestricted use on public roads with the following exceptions:
  • recreational vehicles such as trail bikes and sand dune buggies intended for off-road use in most states (in Victoria and Queensland these vehicles must be registered and are included in the statistics)
  • consular vehicles
  • vehicles registered by the defence forces.

102 Vehicles on register are those vehicles registered at the date of the census, or had registration expire less than one month before that date.

103 Motor Vehicle Census data are presented by region of owner, and based on the postcode of the owner. A geographic correspondence has been used in order to present the postcode data on Australian Statistical Geography Standard 2011 boundaries. Due to rounding, the sum of the individual components of vehicles will not necessarily add up to total registered motor vehicles. Further information on Geographic Correspondences can be found in paragraphs 126 to 129.

104 The Australia total includes records that could not be allocated to a state or territory. Therefore aggregating state and territory totals will not equal the Australia total.

105 Further information can be found in Motor Vehicle Census, Australia (cat. no. 9309.0). Note that data in that release are by state of registration, and so state/territory totals will not be the same as in this National Regional Profile (which is presented by state of owner).

Agricultural Commodities

106 Agricultural Commodities data are estimates obtained from the 2010-11 Agricultural Census. The scope of the Census was all businesses undertaking agricultural activity recorded on the ABS Business Register (ABSBR) above a minimum size cut off of $5,000. The measure of size was based on the ABS' Estimated Value of Agricultural Operations (EVAO) or a derived value based on Business Activity Statement turnover if EVAO was not available.

107 Since not all of the businesses that were selected provided data, the estimates are subject to sampling variability; that is, they may differ from the figures that would have been produced if all businesses had provided data. One measure of the likely difference is given by the Standard Error (SE) which indicates the extent to which an estimate might vary by chance because only a sample was taken or had responded. there are about two chances in three that a 'sample' estimate will differ by less than one SE from the figure that would have been obtained if all businesses had responded, and about nineteen chances in twenty that the difference will be less than two SE.

108 In Agriculture data, sampling variability of the estimates is measured by the Relative Standard Error (RSE) which is obtained by expressing the Standard Error as a percentage of the estimate to which it refers. In the National Regional Profile, Agriculture data with an RSE greater than 50% are not presented.

109 Agriculture Census data have been produced on Australian Statistical Geography Standard 2011 (ASGS 2011).

110 For further information see Agricultural Commodities, Australia (cat. no. 7121.0).
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Gross Value of Agricultural Production

111 The value of agricultural production estimates are derived by the multiplication of price and quantity of individual agricultural commodities. Quantity data for most crops were collected in the 2010-11 Agricultural Census. Remaining commodity data (livestock disposals and livestock products excluding eggs) are obtained from other ABS collections with some information non-ABS sources. Price information refers to the average unit value of a given commodity realised in the market place. Price information for livestock slaughterings and wool is obtained from ABS collections. price information for other commodities is obtained from non-ABS sources, including marketing authorities and industry sources.

112 The estimates of gross value are subject to sampling error. (see paragraph xx for a discussion of sampling error in Agriculture data). In the National Regional Profile, Agriculture data with a relative standard error (RSE) greater than 50% are not presented.

113 Further information on Value of Agricultural Production can be obtained in the ABS publication Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia (cat. no. 7503.0).

Employed by Industry

114 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing and are for all employed people aged 15 years and over.

115 Industry is coded using the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 2006 (Revision 1.0) (cat. no. 1292.0). The industry code assigned is based on the main job held during the week prior to Census Night.


ENVIRONMENT/ENERGY

Land Area

116 The land area data are based upon the boundaries in the Australian Statistical Geography Standard 2011. The areas of the regions were calculated using ABS standard Geographic Information Systems software using the digital boundaries of the regions.

Water Use on Australian Farms

117 Water use data are from the 2010-11 Agricultural Census. Data was collected from agricultural businesses on the ABS Business Register undertaking agricultural activity above a minimum size cut off of $5,000.

118 The estimates are based on responses to the Agricultural Census and since not all of the businesses that were selected provided data, the estimates are subject to sampling variability. That is, estimates may differ from figures that would be produced if all businesses had provided data. In the National Regional Profile, Water Use data with a relative standard error (RSE) greater than 50% are not presented.

119 For further information see Water Use on Australian Farms, 2010-11 (cat. no. 4618.0).
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Land Use

120 Land use data has been provided by the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences (ABARES) (http://www.abares.gov.au/) and uses their Catchment Scale Landuse Mapping (CLUM) data set. Land use is classified to the most general 'Primary' level of the Australian Land Use and Management (ALUM) classification. More information about ABARES' land use mapping program can be found on the ABARES website: http://adl.brs.gov.au/landuse/index.cfm?fa=main.welcome.

121 Land uses shown are:
  • Conservation and natural environments
This class includes land that has a relatively low level of human intervention. The land may be formally reserved by government for conservation purposes, or conserved through other legal or administrative arrangements. Areas may have multiple uses, but nature conservation is the prime use. Some land may be unused as a result of a deliberate decision of the government or landowner, or due to circumstance.
  • Production from relatively natural environments
This class includes land that is subject to relatively low levels of intervention. The land may not be used more intensively because of its limited capability. The structure of the native vegetation generally remains intact despite deliberate use, although the floristics of the vegetation may have changed markedly. Where the native vegetation structure is, for example, open woodland or grassland, the land may be grazed.
  • Production from dryland agriculture and plantations
This class includes land that is used principally for primary production, based on dryland farming systems. Native vegetation has largely been replaced by introduced species through clearing, the sowing of new species, the application of fertilisers or the dominance of volunteer species. The range of activities in this category includes plantation forestry, pasture production for stock, cropping and fodder production, and a wide range of horticultural production.
  • Production from irrigated agriculture and plantations
This class includes agricultural land uses where water is applied to promote additional growth over normally dry periods, depending on the season, water availability and commodity prices. This includes land uses that receive only one or two irrigations per year, through to those uses that rely on irrigation for much of the growing season.
  • Intensive uses
This class includes land uses that involve high levels of interference with natural processes, generally in association with closer settlement.
  • Water
Water features are regarded as essential to the ALUM Classification because of their importance for natural resources management and as points of reference in the landscape. However, the inclusion of water is complicated because it is normally classified as a land cover type. At the secondary level, the classification identifies water features, both natural and artificial. Tertiary classes relate water features to intensity of use.

Dynamic Land Cover

122 Dynamic Land Cover has been provided by Geoscience Australia (www.ga.gov.au). The data set is the first nationally consistent and thematically comprehensive land cover reference for Australia. It is a result of collaboration between Geoscience Australia and the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences (ABARES), and provides a base-line for identifying and reporting on change and trends in vegetation cover and extent. The classification scheme used to describe land cover categories conforms to the 2007 International Standards Organisation (ISO) land cover standard (19144-2). The Dynamic Land Cover data set shows land cover clustered into 34 ISo classes. These reflect the structural character of vegetation, ranging from cultivated and managed land covers (crops and pastures) to natural land covers such as closed forest and sparse, open grasslands. The source data for the DLCD is a time series of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra and Aqua satellites operated by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). More information can be found on the Geoscience Australia website: http://www.ga.gov.au/earth-observation/landcover.html.
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STATISTICAL GEOGRAPHY

123 The Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) is used by the ABS for the collection and dissemination of geographically classified statistics. The ASGS replaced the Australian Standard Geographic Classification (ASGC) from July 2011. All previous issues of the National Regional profiles were on editions of the ASGC.

124 The ASGS is an essential reference for understanding and interpreting the geographic context of statistics published, not only by the ABS but also by other organisations, and its use enables comparability across datasets.

125 This edition of the National Regional Profile uses ASGS 2011. Where available, data has been sourced for regions of the ASGS. In some cases, historical data has not been available on ASGS, and so has not been available to include in the profiles. Some data based on postcodes have been converted to data for regions of the ASGS 2011 using geographic correspondences.

Geographic Correspondences

126 The use of geographic correspondences enables the conversion of data from one type of geographic region to another. These geographic correspondences are generally used to convert data for 'non-standard areas' to data for standard areas used by the ABS. Geographic correspondences (or conversions) are expressed as conversion factors based on population.

127 The correspondences process:
  • Enables the data to be more easily compared with standard ABS output.
  • Enables the data to be output for other standard ABS geographic areas such as Statistical Areas 2-4 and Local Government Areas (LGA).
  • Provides flexibility so that data can be provided for the different regions of interest being studied by users of regional data.

128 When analysing data produced by correspondences, the following limitations of this methodology need to be taken into account:
  • In applying the correspondences it is assumed that the particular characteristics of any data item are uniformly distributed across the region. Therefore, data produced by correspondences may not truly reflect the distribution of the characteristics of the population. In some cases, where the same region is split across two or more new regions and there are no other contributing regions, distinct numerical estimates will be derived but rates or averages will be identical for each new region (as these will be equivalent to the original rate or average of the contributing regions).
  • The conversion factors are based on total population only but have been applied across all data items in a series.
  • Some official postcodes (such as Post Office boxes, etc.) do not correspond to residential areas but may still have been reported under the current home address field in some data series. Data for these and other 'invalid' postcodes, such as those due to incorrect reporting or processing errors, are included in state and territory totals or for Australia where the state or territory was not known.
  • Figures produced by correspondences have been rounded so discrepancies may occur between sums of the component items and totals.

129 While care was taken in producing the correspondences the ABS will not guarantee the accuracy of data produced by correspondences. ASGS correspondences are found on the Statistical Geography page of the ABS website.
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Geographic Regions

130 The statistics in this electronic release and accompanying data cubes are presented according to the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS), 2011. Under this classification, statistical areas below Australia and state/territory level are defined as follows:
  • Local Government Areas (LGAs): These areas are the spatial units which represent the geographical areas of incorporated local government councils. The various types of LGAs are cities (C), NSW local government areas (A), boroughs (B), rural cities (RC), towns (T), shires (S), district councils (DC), municipalities (M), SA regional councils (RegC), Qld regional councils (R) and SA Aboriginal councils (AC). (Note: In some states/territories, there is an 'Unincorporated' LGA region, which represents the balance of the state/territory that is not incorporated).
  • Statistical Area 2 (SA2): Statistical Areas Level 2 are a medium-sized general purpose area. They replace the Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC). Their aim is to represent a community that interacts together socially and economically. On average they have a population of approximately 10,000 people. Most are designed to be within the population range 3,000 - 25,000. There are 2214 SA2s covering the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps.
  • Statistical Area 3 (SA3): There are 351 SA3s covering the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. They are built up of whole SA2s. SA3s are designed to provide a regional breakdown of Australia. They generally have a population of between 30,000 and 130,000 people. In the major cities, they represent the area serviced by a major transport and commercial hub. They often closely align to large urban local government areas. E.g. Parramatta, Geelong. In regional areas, they represent the area serviced by regional cities with a population over 20,000 people. In outer regional and remote areas, they represent areas which are widely recognised as having a distinct identity and have similar social and economic characteristics. There are a small number of "zero SA3s". These have an effective design population of zero and represent very large National Parks close to the outskirts of major cities.
  • Statistical Area 4 (SA4): Statistical Areas Level 4 are geographical areas that will replace the previous Labour Force Regions and are used for the output of a variety of regional data, including the 2011 Census Data. There are 106 SA4s covering the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. They are built up from whole SA3s. In regional areas, SA4s tend to have populations of between 100,000 to 300,000 people. In metropolitan areas, SA4s tend to have larger populations (300,000 – 500,000 people).
  • Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (GCCSA): Greater Capital City Statistical Areas are geographical areas that are designed to represent the functional extent of each of the eight state and territory capital cities. Within each state and territory, the area not defined as being part of the greater capital city is represented by a Rest of State region. There are 16 GCCSA regions covering the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. They are built up from whole Statistical Areas Level 4 (SA4s). There are 8 regions representing each of the Australian State and Territory capital cities and 7 regions covering the rest of each state and territory—this excludes the ACT where there is only one GCCSA region for the entire territory. There is also one for the Other Territories of Jervis Bay, Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands.

131 For further information see the Statistical Geography page of the ABS website, or the following: Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): Volume 1 - Main Structure and Greater Capital City Statistical Areas, July 2011 (cat. no. 1270.0.55.001); Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): Volume 3 - Non ABS Structures, July 2012 (cat. no. 1270.0.55.003). Maps of Statistical Areas 2-4 and GCCSA can be found in the Downloads tab of cat. no 1270.0.55.001.
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