4512.0 - Corrective Services, Australia, September quarter 2018 Quality Declaration 
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 30/11/2018   
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SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

PERSONS IN CORRECTIVE SERVICES

The Corrective Services, Australia publication presents data for two different populations: persons in full-time custody and persons in community-based corrections. These populations cannot be compared directly. However, they are presented together to provide an overview of persons in corrective services. For the community-based corrections order types, offenders may be counted more than once if they have two or more different types of community-based corrections orders operating simultaneously.


Sep Qtr 18
Jun Qtr 18 to Sep Qtr 18

% change

Sep Qtr 17 to Sep Qtr 18

% change


Persons in full-time custody
43,018
0.4%
4.3%
Persons in community-based corrections
69,760
0.5%
1.3%


PERSONS IN CUSTODY

In the September quarter 2018, the average daily number of full-time prisoners in Australia was 43,018. This was an increase of:
    • Less than 1% (163 persons) from the June quarter 2018; and
    • 4% (1,756 persons) from the September quarter 2017.

Three states and territories (Victoria, Queensland and Tasmania) contributed to the national increase in prisoners since the June quarter 2018.

All other states and territories decreased since the June quarter 2018.

In the last five years (from September quarter 2013 to September quarter 2018), the average number of persons in custody has increased by 38% (11,789 persons). The Australian population aged 18 years and over increased by 9% in the same time period. (Table 1, historical data and Australian Demographic Statistics (cat. no. 3101.0)

Graph Image for PERSONS IN FULL-TIME CUSTODY(a), Sep 2013 to Sep 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Based on average daily number

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia


In the September quarter 2018, the largest contributors to the national prisoner population were:
    • New South Wales (32% or 13,624 persons);
    • Queensland (21% or 8,905 persons);
    • Victoria (18% or 7,827 persons); and
    • Western Australia (16% or 6,896 persons). (Table 1)

Sex

The average daily number of females and males in custody both increased since the September quarter 2017, with females increasing at a higher rate (10% or 326 persons) than males (4% or 1,430 persons). (Table 1)

Over the past five years, the number of males in custody increased by 37% (10,571 persons) and the number of females in custody increased by 50% (1,218 persons). (Table 1 and historical data)

For the September quarter 2018, the average daily imprisonment rate for males was 413 persons per 100,000 adult male population, which was more than 11 times the rate for females (37 female persons per 100,000 adult female population). (Table 5)

Type of full-time custody

Prisoners can be housed in either:
    • Secure custody, where they are held in medium or maximum security custodial facilities requiring them to be confined by a secure physical barrier; or
    • Open custody, where they are housed in minimum security custodial facilities that do not require them to be confined by a secure parameter or physical barrier, irrespective of whether a physical barrier exists.

During the September quarter 2018, 81% of prisoners in full-time custody were held in secure custody and the remaining 19% in open custody, representing an average daily number of 34,787 and 8,231 prisoners respectively.

Since the September quarter 2017, the secure custody prisoner population increased by 7% (2,159 persons) and the open custody prisoner population decreased by 5% (403 persons). (Table 6)

Legal status

Legal status refers to where a person may be either sentenced or unsentenced depending on the warrant(s) or court order(s) that provide the legal basis for the administration of the person through the criminal justice system.

In the September quarter 2018, the average number of full-time prisoners on the first day of the month was 43,050, of which:
    • 67% (28,917) were sentenced; and
    • 33% (14,053) were unsentenced. (Table 8)

Graph Image for UNSENTENCED PRISONERS(a), Sep 2013 to Sep 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Based on average number on the first day of the month

Source(s): Corrective Service, Australia


Federal prisoners

Federal prisoners are persons charged and sentenced under a Commonwealth statute or transferred from another country to serve their sentence in Australia.

During the September quarter 2018, the average daily number of federal sentenced prisoners in Australia was 914, a decrease of 5% (49 persons) from the June quarter 2018.

Three states and territories represented 84% of the federal sentenced prisoners in the September quarter 2018:
    • New South Wales (51% or 462 persons);
    • Victoria (23% or 206 persons); and
    • Queensland (11% or 103 persons). (Table 10)

Rates per 100,000 adult population

Nationally, the average daily imprisonment rate for the September quarter 2018 was 222 per 100,000 adult population, unchanged since the June quarter 2018.

The Northern Territory continued to have the highest imprisonment rate of all states and territories with 920 persons per 100,000 adult population, decreasing from 965 per 100,000 adult population in the June quarter 2018. Western Australia had the next highest imprisonment rate with 346 persons per 100,000 adult population, decreasing from 347 per 100,000 adult population in the June quarter 2018.

In the September quarter 2018 the Australian Capital Territory became the state or territory with the lowest average daily imprisonment rate with 151 persons per 100,000 adult population, decreasing from 153 persons per 100,000 adult population from the June quarter 2018. Previously in the June quarter 2018, the lowest average daily imprisonment rate was in Tasmania (149 persons per 100,000 adult population) which increased to 153 persons per 100,000 adult population in the September quarter 2018. (Table 3)

Graph Image for AVERAGE DAILY IMPRISONMENT RATE(a), By states and territories, Sep 2017 and Sep 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Rate is the number of prisoners per 100,000 adult population. Based on average daily number.

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia


Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoners

The average daily number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoners during the September quarter 2018 was 11,842 persons. This represented a decrease of 1% (121 persons) over the quarter and an increase of 5% (517 persons) since the September quarter 2017.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoners represented 28% of the total full-time adult prisoner population during the September quarter 2018. (Table 1)

Three states continue to account for nearly three-quarters of the total Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoner population: New South Wales (29% or 3,394 persons); Queensland (23% or 2,737 persons); and Western Australia (23% or 2,704 persons). (Table 1)

Based on first day of the month figures, there were 11,894 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoners in the September quarter 2018, of which 67% (7,950 persons) were sentenced and 33% (3,906 persons) were unsentenced. (Table 13)

The national average daily Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander imprisonment rate was 2,480 persons per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. The highest Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander imprisonment rate was recorded in Western Australia (4,247 persons per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population) and the lowest was in Tasmania (677 persons per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population). (Table 12)

Since the September quarter 2017, South Australia, Tasmania and Queensland had decreases in their Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander imprisonment rate. The largest annual decrease was in South Australia, 9% or 238 persons per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. (Table 12)

Graph Image for ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER IMPRISONMENT RATE(a), By states and territories, Sep 2017, Jun 2018 and Sep 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Rate is the number of prisoners per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. Based on average daily number.

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia


PERSONS IN COMMUNITY-BASED CORRECTIONS

Reported daily averages for number of persons serving community-based corrections orders are based on first day of the month figures. For more information, please refer to the Explanatory Notes, paragraphs 2 and 12.

Community-based corrections orders are non-custodial orders served under the authority of adult corrective services agencies and include restricted movement, reparations (fine option and community service), supervision orders (parole, bail, sentenced probation) and post-sentence supervision orders.

Number of persons in community-based corrections

The average daily number of persons serving community-based corrections orders in the September quarter 2018 was 69,760 persons, representing:
    • an increase of less than 1% (363 persons) from the June quarter 2018; and
    • an increase of 1% (882 persons) from the September quarter 2017. (Table 1)

Graph Image for PERSONS IN COMMUNITY-BASED CORRECTIONS(a), Sep 2013 to Sep 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Based on average number on the first day of the month

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia


Three states accounted for over three-quarters of the national number of persons in community-based corrections:
    • Queensland (30% or 20,991 persons);
    • New South Wales (28% or 19,579 persons); and
    • Victoria (20% or 13,824 persons). (Table 1)

Over the past five years (since the September quarter 2013), persons serving community-based corrections orders increased by 27% or 14,695 persons. (Table 1 and historical data)

Sex

In the September quarter 2018, males accounted for 80% (56,152 persons) of the total persons serving community based correction orders, and the remaining one-fifth were female (13,592 persons).

Over the past five years (since September quarter 2013), females serving community-based correction orders have increased at a higher rate than males, increasing by 36% (3,622 persons) compared to males by 25% (11,085 persons). (Table 1 and historical data)

Type of orders

A person may be serving more than one type of CBC order at the same time. Therefore, the total count of orders may be greater than the total count of persons serving CBC orders. For more information, please refer to the Explanatory Notes, paragraph 15.

In the September quarter 2018, there were a total of 74,096 CBC orders.

The three most prevalent order types in Australia were:
    • Sentenced probation (40,246 orders);
    • Parole (16,984 orders); and
    • Community service orders (10,916 orders).

Since the June quarter 2018, Parole had the largest increase of all CBC order types, increasing by 3% (511 orders) and Community service had the largest decrease, decreasing by 2% (276 orders). (Table 17)

Graph Image for STATE AND TERRITORY PROPORTION OF SELECTED CBC ORDER TYPES, Sep 2017, Jun 2018 and Sep 2018

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia


Rates per 100,000 adult population

In the September quarter 2018, the daily average national rate of persons in community-based corrections was stable since the June quarter 2018 at 360 persons per 100,000 adult population and was marginally down from 361 persons per 100,000 adult population since the September quarter 2017. (Table 16)

Graph Image for COMMUNITY-BASED CORRECTIONS RATE(a), By states and territories, Sep 2017, Jun 2018 and Sep 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Rate is the number of persons serving community-based corrections orders. Based on average number on the first day of the month, per 100,000 adult population

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia


Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons in community-based corrections

Nationally, the average daily number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons in community-based corrections for the September quarter 2018 was 14,771, representing an increase of 2% (259 persons) from the June quarter 2018 and an increase of 4% (532 persons) for the year.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons make up just over one fifth (21%) of the total community-based corrections population, of which just over three-quarters were located within three states: Queensland (33% or 4,896 persons); New South Wales (32% or 4,646 persons); and Western Australia (12% or 1,836 persons). (Table 18)

Graph Image for ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER PERSONS IN COMMUNITY-BASED CORRECTIONS(a), Sep 2016 to Sep 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Based on average number on the first day of the month

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia


PRISONER RECEPTIONS

A reception refers to the entry into full-time adult corrective services custody from the community.

In the September quarter 2018, there were 16,781 prisoner receptions in Australia. Prisoner receptions were stable for the quarter but increased by 6% (953 persons) since the September quarter 2017.

There were 5,308 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoner receptions in the September quarter 2018, representing 32% of the overall prisoner receptions population.

The majority of prisoner receptions in the September quarter 2018 were male, comprising 86% (14,402 persons) of all prisoner receptions with females accounting for 2,379 prisoner receptions. Male prisoner receptions increased by less than 1% (87 persons) and female prisoner receptions decreased by 2% (57 persons) since the June quarter 2018.

There were decreases for both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander male prisoner receptions, by less than 1% (14 persons), and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander female prisoner receptions, by 2% (17 persons) since the June quarter 2018. (Table 20)

Unsentenced prisoner receptions accounted for three quarters (12,558 persons) of all prisoner receptions. The remaining quarter (4,193 persons) were sentenced. (Table 21)