4512.0 - Corrective Services, Australia, March quarter 2018 Quality Declaration 
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 07/06/2018   
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SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

PERSONS IN CORRECTIVE SERVICES

The Corrective Services, Australia publication presents data for two different populations; persons in full-time custody and persons in community-based corrections. These populations cannot be compared directly. However, they are presented together to provide an overview of persons in corrective services. For the community-based corrections population, offenders may be counted more than once if they have two or more different types of community-based corrections orders operating simultaneously.

Mar Qtr 18
Dec Qtr 17 to Mar Qtr 18

% change

Mar Qtr 17 to Mar Qtr 18

% change


Persons in full-time custody
42,102
2.0%
3.8%
Persons in community-based corrections
68,964
-0.3%
2.5%


PERSONS IN CUSTODY

In the March quarter 2018, the average daily number of full-time prisoners in Australia was 42,102. This was an increase of:

    • 2% (832 persons) from the December quarter 2017; and
    • 4% (1,525 persons) from the March quarter 2017.

Since the December quarter 2017, there were increases in the prisoner numbers for all states and territories with exception of Tasmania where prisoners decreased by 1% (7 persons).The Northern Territory had the largest percentage increase with 8% (132 persons). (Table 1)

In the last five years (from March quarter 2013 to March quarter 2018), the number of persons in custody has increased by 38% (11,646 persons). (Table 1 and historical data)

Graph Image for PERSONS IN FULL-TIME CUSTODY(a), Mar 2013 to Mar 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Based on average daily number

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia



In the March quarter 2018, the largest contributors to the national prisoner population were:
    • New South Wales (32% or 13,382 persons);
    • Queensland (21% or 8,736 persons);
    • Victoria (17% or 7,235 persons); and
    • Western Australia (16% or 6,814 persons). (Table 1)

Sex

The average daily number of males and females in custody both increased by 4% since the March quarter 2017 (1,378 persons and 147 persons respectively). (Table 1)

Over the past five years, the number of males in custody increased by 37% (10,436 persons) and the number of females in custody increased by 53% (1,210 persons). (Table 1 and historical data)

For the March quarter 2018, the average daily imprisonment rate for males was 408 persons per 100,000 adult male population, which was more than 11 times the rate for females (36 female persons per 100,000 adult female population). (Table 5)

Type of full-time custody

Prisoners can be housed in either:
    • Secure custody, where they are held in medium or maximum security custodial facilities requiring them to be confined by a secure physical barrier; or
    • Open custody, where they are housed in minimum security custodial facilities that do not require them to be confined by a secure parameter or physical barrier, irrespective of whether a physical barrier exists.

During the March quarter 2018, 80% of prisoners in full-time custody were held in secure custody and the remaining 20% in open custody, representing an average daily number of 33,752 and 8,350 persons respectively.

Since the March quarter 2017, the secure custody prisoner population increased by 5% (1,596 persons) and the open custody prisoner population decreased by 1% (71 persons). (Table 6)

Legal status

Legal status refers to where a person may be either sentenced or unsentenced depending on the warrant(s) or court order(s) that provide the legal basis for the administration of the person through the criminal justice system.

In the March quarter 2018, the average number of full-time prisoners on the first day of the month was 41,839, of which:
    • 66% (27,792) were sentenced; and
    • 33% (13,973) were unsentenced. (Table 8)

Graph Image for UNSENTENCED PRISONERS(a), Mar 2013 to Mar 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Based on average number on the first day of the month

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia



Federal prisoners

Federal prisoners are persons charged and sentenced under a Commonwealth statute or transferred from another country to serve their sentence in Australia.

During the March quarter 2018, the average daily number of federal sentenced prisoners in Australia was 1,007, a decrease of 1% (12 persons) from the December quarter 2017. (Table 10)

Rates per 100,000 adult population

Nationally, the average daily imprisonment rate for the March quarter 2018 was 219 per 100,000 adult population, increasing from 216 per 100,000 adult population in the December quarter 2017. The Northern Territory continued to have the highest imprisonment rate of all states and territories with 958 persons per 100,000 adult population, followed by Western Australia with 342 persons per 100,000 adult population.

Victoria had the lowest average daily imprisonment rate (146 persons per 100,000 adult population). (Table 3)

Graph Image for AVERAGE DAILY IMPRISONMENT RATE(a), By states and territories, Mar 2017 and Mar 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Rate is the number of prisoners per 100,000 adult population. Based on average daily number

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia



Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoners

The average daily number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoners during the March quarter 2018 was 11,817 persons. This represented an increase of 4% (479 persons) over the quarter and an increase of 5% (529 persons) over the year. (Table 1)

Based on first day of the month figures, there were 11,737 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoners in the March quarter 2018, of which 65% (7,625 persons) were sentenced and 35% (4,084 persons) were unsentenced.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoners represented 28% of the total full-time adult prisoner population during the March quarter 2018, whilst accounting for approximately 2% of the total Australian population aged 18 years and over (based on Australian Demographic Statistics (cat. no. 3101.0) and Estimates and Projections, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2001 to 2026 (cat. no. 3238.0)). (Table 1)

Three states continue to account for nearly three-quarters of the total Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoner population: New South Wales (28% or 3,324 persons); Queensland (24% or 2,826 persons); and Western Australia (22% or 2,631 persons). (Table 1)

The national average daily Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander imprisonment rate was 2,474 persons per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. The highest Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander imprisonment rates were recorded in:
    • Western Australia (4,132 persons per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population);
    • Northern Territory (2,944 persons per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population); and
    • South Australia (2,636 persons per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population). (Table 12)

Graph Image for ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER IMPRISONMENT RATE(a), By states and territories, Mar 2017, Dec 2017 and Mar 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Rate is the number of prisoners per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia



Since the March quarter 2017, only South Australia had a decrease in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander imprisonment rate, decreasing by 5% (or 146 persons per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population). The largest annual increase in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander imprisonment rate was 17% (or 311 persons per 100,000 adult Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population) in the Australian Capital Territory. (Table 12)

PERSONS IN COMMUNITY-BASED CORRECTIONS

Reported daily averages for number of persons serving community-based corrections orders are based on first day of the month figures. For more information, please refer to the Explanatory Notes, paragraphs 2 and 12.

Community-based corrections orders are non-custodial orders served under the authority of adult corrective services agencies and include restricted movement, reparations (fine options and community service), supervision orders (parole, bail, sentenced probation) and post-sentence supervision orders.

Number of persons in community-based corrections

The average daily number of persons serving community-based corrections orders in the March quarter 2018 was 68,964 persons, representing:
    • a decrease of less than 1% (191 persons) from the December quarter 2017; and
    • an increase of 2% (1,668 persons) from the March quarter 2017. (Table 1)

Graph Image for PERSONS IN COMMUNITY-BASED CORRECTIONS(a), Mar 2013 to Mar 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Based on average number on the first day of the month

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia



Three states accounted for over three-quarters of the national number of persons in community-based corrections:
    • Queensland (29% or 20,012 persons);
    • New South Wales (28% or 19,065 persons); and
    • Victoria (21% or 14,821 persons). (Table 1)

Over the past five years (since the March quarter 2013), persons serving community-based corrections orders increased 29% or 15,551 persons. (Table 1 and historical data)

Sex

In the March quarter 2018, males accounted for 80% (55,462 persons) of the total persons serving community-based correction orders and females the remaining 20% (13,482). (Table 15)

Over the past five years (since March quarter 2013), females serving community-based correction orders have increased at a higher rate than males, increasing by 42% (or 3,991 persons) compared to males by 26% (or 11,570). (Table 15 and historical data)

Type of orders

In the March quarter 2018, the three most prevalent order types in Australia were:
    • Sentenced probation (55% or 40,638 persons);
    • Parole (22% or 16,067 persons); and
    • Community service orders (15% or 10,899 persons). (Table 17)

Since the December quarter 2017, the number of persons on Parole, Bail or under a Post-sentence supervision order increased by 2% (280 persons), 3% (52 persons) and 8% (30 persons) respectively. The number of persons with a Sentenced probation, Community service, Fine option or Restricted movement order decreased by 1% (598 persons), 2% (196 persons), 4% (110 persons) and 2% (19 persons) respectively. (Table 17)

Graph Image for STATE AND TERRITORY PROPORTION OF SELECTED CBC ORDER TYPES, Mar 2017, Dec 2017 and Mar 2018

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia



Rates per 100,000 adult population

In the March quarter 2018, the daily average national rate of persons in community-based corrections was 358 persons per 100,000 adult population, representing a decrease of 1% from the December quarter 2017 (3 persons) and an increase of less than 1% or 1 person per 100,000 adult population for the year. (Table 16)

Graph Image for COMMUNITY-BASED CORRECTIONS RATE(a), By states and territories, Mar 2017, Dec 2017 and Mar 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Rate is the number of persons serving community-based corrections orders, based on average number on the first day of the month, per 100,000 adult population

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia



Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons in community-based corrections

Nationally, the average daily number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons in community-based corrections for the March quarter 2018 was 14,314, representing an decrease of 1% (124 persons) from the previous quarter and an increase of 6% (859 persons) over the year.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons make up just over one fifth (21%) of the total community-based corrections population, of which three-quarters were located in three states: Queensland (32% or 4,627 persons); New South Wales (32% or 4,513 persons); and Western Australia (12% or 1,712 persons). (Table 18)

Graph Image for ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER PERSONS IN COMMUNITY-BASED CORRECTIONS(a), Mar 2016 to Mar 2018

Footnote(s): (a) Based on average number on the first day of the month

Source(s): Corrective Services, Australia



PRISONER RECEPTIONS

A reception refers to the entry into full-time adult corrective services custody from the community.

In the March quarter 2018, there were 17,300 prisoner receptions in Australia, of which 86% (14,839 persons) were male and 14% (2,461 persons) were female. (Data cube 2, Table 2)

Since the December quarter 2017, prisoner receptions increased by 5% (877 persons) and by 3% (458 persons) for the year. (Data cube 2, Table 1)

Of the 17,300 prisoner receptions in the March quarter 2018:
    • 75% (13,061 persons) were unsentenced; and
    • 25% (4,239 persons) were sentenced. (Data cube 2, Table 1)

There were 5,846 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoner receptions in the March quarter 2018. (Data cube 2, Table 3)