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Feature Article - Employees and their Working Arrangements
Managers and administrators and Clerks had greater opportunity to accumulate time credits; 44 per cent and 49 per cent respectively. Male professionals and para-professionals also had high proportions able to accumulate time credits (42 per cent and 40 per cent respectively), although females in these occupations had lower levels of entitlement (26 per cent and 29 per cent respectively).
Rostered days off (RDOs)
Some 28 per cent (1,741,300) of employees had a rostered day off as part of their regular working arrangements in their main job (Diagram 1).
The proportion was higher for full-time employees (35 per cent or 1,676,300) than for part-time employees, (4 per cent or 65,000).
Of the 1,193,900 males entitled to an RDO, 97 per cent were full-time permanent employees and of the 547,500 females entitled to an RDO, 89 per cent were full-time permanent employees.
The occupations with the highest proportions entitled to RDOs were Para-professionals (46 per cent of males, 36 per cent of females), Tradespersons (46 per cent of males, 26 per cent of females), Clerks (39 per cent of males, 22 per cent of females), Plant and machine operators and drivers (47 per cent of males, 26 per cent of females) and Labourers and related workers (38 per cent of males and 23 per cent of females) (Diagram 2).
Of the 1,741,300 persons entitled to an RDO, 1,119,900 persons (64 per cent) had some choice in which day they had their RDO.
Although females had a lower incidence of entitlement to an RDO, those that did have an RDO were more likely (74 per cent) than their male counterparts (60 per cent) to have a choice of days off. In particular, females aged between 20 and 34 were the most likely to be able to have some choice in when the RDO was taken (79 per cent).
Sixty-five per cent of males with an RDO entitlement came from the three manual occupation groups of Tradespersons, Plant and machine operators and drivers, and Labourers. For males, these occupations had a low level of choice of rostered days off (53 per cent, 47 per cent and 47 per cent respectively).
For females entitled to an RDO, 54 per cent worked in the occupations of Clerks and Salespersons and personal service workers, which had relatively high levels of choice in when the RDO was taken (82 per cent and 71 per cent respectively).
Overtime was worked on a regular basis by 2,030,500 employees, or 32 per cent of all employees. Males accounted for two-thirds of those working overtime, with 39 per cent of all male employees regularly working overtime, compared with 24 per cent of female employees (Diagram 1).
Some 40 per cent of full-time permanent employees worked overtime on a regular basis (43 per cent of males and 34 per cent of females) while a fairly high proportion of full-time casual employees also worked overtime regularly (31 per cent of males and 23 per cent of females). A far lower proportion of part-time employees worked overtime regularly (10 per cent).
Of those employees who worked overtime on a regular basis, over half (53 per cent) worked their most recent period as unpaid overtime. This proportion was higher for females (61 per cent) than for males (49 per cent). Some 45 per cent of males and 29 per cent of females were paid for their most recent period of overtime, and the remaining 5 per cent of males and 9 per cent of females had worked for time off in lieu or some other arrangements.
Of those employees who were paid for their most recent period of overtime:
For the remainder, the overtime rate had varied, or they were paid by some other arrangements, such as a set overtime allowance (Diagram 3).
Most employees who worked overtime regularly, usually worked between 1 and 4 hours overtime per week (609,800, or 30 per cent), or between 5 and 9 hours overtime per week (634,400, or 31 per cent). A further 568,700 employees (28 per cent) usually worked between 10 and 19 hours overtime per week, and 217,700 (11 per cent) usually work 20 hours or more overtime per week.
In the four weeks before the survey, 14 per cent of employees (876,400) had worked shift work. Some characteristics of shift workers were:
The most common type of shift worked was a rotating shift, by 41 per cent (359,800) of shift workers. The next most common types of shifts worked were regular evening, night or graveyard shift (146,000 or 17 per cent), irregular shifts (142,300 or 16 per cent) and regular afternoon shifts (92,000 or 9 per cent) (Diagram 4).
Weekly work patterns
Some 76 per cent (3,658,200) of full-time employees usually worked Monday to Friday in their main job. A further 12 per cent (571,400) of full-time employees usually worked weekdays and weekends, and 9 per cent (429,300) worked varying days each week.
Part-time employees had a variety of work patterns in their main job:
Usual hours worked
Some 1,537,600 persons worked part-time hours in their main job. The majority of these persons (1,192,100) were female. The most common main reason given by females for working part-time hours were `own choice' (24 per cent), `standard work arrangements' (18 per cent), `not enough work available' (15 per cent), `childcare' (14 per cent) and `attending an educational institution' (14 per cent).
Of the 345,500 males who worked part-time hours in their main job, the most common reasons were `attending an educational institution' (34 per cent) and `not enough work available' (24 per cent).
Absences from work
An estimated 1,094,900 employees (17 per cent) had had at least one absence from their main job of at least 3 hours duration in the two weeks prior to the survey.
Full-time employees, both permanent and casual, had a higher rate of absences (19 per cent) than permanent part-time employees (17 per cent) and casual part-time employees (10 per cent).
For full-time employees, females had higher rates of absences than males (18 per cent of males and 21 per cent of females). This was also the case for permanent part-time employees (14 per cent of males and 17 per cent of females), whereas for casual part-time employees the rate of absences was similar for males and females (11 per cent of males and 10 per cent of females) (Diagram 5).
Of those who had been absent from work at some time in the previous two weeks:
Some 43 per cent of persons who had had an absence in the previous two weeks had been absent for one day, while 10 per cent were away from work for less than one full day. Another 15 per cent were away for 2 days and 18 per cent were away for 3 to 5 days. The remaining 14 per cent were away for over 5 days.
The labour force supplementary surveys Working Arrangements and Absences from Work will be conducted again in August 1995. A summary of results from these surveys will be published in the monthly bulletin The Labour Force, Australia (cat. no. 6203.0). The data will also be made available through standard and special data services. For more information contact the ABS Telephone Enquiry Service on (06) 252 6627.
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