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4613.0 - Australia's Environment: Issues and Trends, 2006  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 10/11/2006   
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ENERGY

TOTAL ENERGY USE


In 2004–05, Australia's total domestic energy use was 5,525 petajoules (PJ). This includes 1,702 PJ of use by the conversion sector (e.g. electricity) and is less than a third of the total energy produced in Australia – 17,524 PJ.

Over the period 1974–75 to 2004–05, total energy use in Australia more than doubled (from 2,694.8 PJ in 1974–75).

Until the early 1990s the rate of growth of total energy consumption generally closely matched the rate of growth in gross domestic product (GDP). However, energy consumption has tended to grow more slowly than GDP since that time. The decline in the ‘energy intensity’ of the Australian economy has been attributed to two main factors. One is an increase in energy efficiency due to technological advancements and fuel substitution. The other is the rapid growth of less energy intensive sectors, such as the services sector, compared to lower rates of growth in more energy intensive sectors such as manufacturing and mining.

TOTAL ENERGY USE
Graph: Total Energy Use

Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Energy Statistics - Australian Energy Update, 2006, Table F1.

Australia’s energy consumption is dominated by coal, petroleum and natural gas. Renewable energy sources such as wind, hydro-electricity and solar energy represented less than 5% of primary energy consumption and contributed about 5% of the energy used in electricity generation.


PRODUCTION OF RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE FUELS



The graphs below show longer-term trends in the production of non-renewable and renewable energy fuels. Over the period 1974–75 to 2004–05, the production of non-renewable fuels has shown an upward trend, increasing from 3,073 petajoules (PJ) in 1974–75 to 16,767 PJ in 2004–05 (up 446%).

Growth in the production of renewable energy fuels increased by 28% – from 204 PJ in 1974–75 to 261 PJ in 2004–05.

In 2004–05, Australia's total primary energy production was estimated at 17,524 PJ, of which black coal accounted for nearly half (46%), followed by uranium (30%), natural gas (9%) and crude oil (6%). Renewable energy production (including wood, wind, hydro-electricity and solar thermal energy) accounted for only 2% (261 PJ) of total production in 2004–05.

PRODUCTION OF RENEWABLE FUELS
Graph: Production of renewable fuels

Source: Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics,
Australian Energy Statistics - Australian Energy Update, 2005 and 2006, Table J.




PRODUCTION OF NON-RENEWABLE FUELS
Graph: Production of non-renewable fuels
Source: Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics,
Australian Energy Statistics - Australian Energy Update, 2005 and 2006, Table A.

ENERGY USE BY SECTOR


In 2004–05, Australia's end-users of energy, comprising households and industries (but excluding the conversion sector, e.g. electricity generation), used 3,822 petajoules (PJ) of energy. This is an increase of 7.9% since 1999–2000.

The transport sector (including household transport) is the largest end-user of energy, using 1,340 PJ in 2004–05. In 2004–05, road transport accounted for 78% (1,044 PJ) of the transport sector’s energy use, with the remaining contributors being air transport (178 PJ), water transport (58 PJ), rail transport (38 PJ) and other (21 PJ). The manufacturing sector was the second highest user of energy (1,247 PJ in 2004–05). The transport and manufacturing sectors together accounted for 68% of total energy end-use.

ENERGY USE BY SECTOR

1999–2000
2004–05
Change from 1999–2000 to 2004–05

PJ
PJ
%
Agriculture
71
100
40.8
Mining
273
342
25.3
Manufacturing
1 192
1 247
4.6
Construction
51
28
–45.1
Transport (a)
1 267
1 340
5.8
Commercial (b)
216
249
15.3
Residential (c)
394
433
9.9
Other (d)
79
84
6.3
Total
3 543
3 823
7.9

Note: Excludes the conversion sector, e.g. electricity generation, to avoid double counting.
(a) Includes all transport use, including household motor vehicle use.
(b) Includes wholesale and retail trade, communications, finance and insurance, property and business services, government administration and defence, education, health and community services, cultural and recreational services, and personal and other services, along with water, sewerage and drainage.
(c) Transport use by households is included in transport.
(d) Includes lubricants and greases, bitumen and solvents, as well as energy consumption in the gas production and distribution industries.
Source: Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Energy Statistics – Australian Energy Update 2005 and 2006, Table B.


HOUSEHOLD ENERGY USE BY TYPE



The amount and type of energy used by households has considerable implications for the environment, including depletion of natural resources, greenhouse gas generation and air pollution.

Almost all dwellings in Australia (99%) use electricity for power and/or heating. In March 2005, electricity was the primary energy source for cooking and hot water systems throughout Australia. However, electricity and gas were almost equally preferred for room heating.

Gas is the second most important source of energy for Australian households and was used in more than half of households (58%) in March 2005, particularly in the gas producing areas of Victoria and Western Australia.

Solar energy is primarily used by households for heating water and was used by 4% of Australian households in 2005. The Northern Territory had the largest proportion of households (42% in 2005) using solar energy to heat water.

HOUSEHOLD ENERGY USE BY TYPE
Graph: Household energy use by type
Source: Environmental Issues: People's Views and Practices, 2005 (cat. no. 4602.0)


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