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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2006  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 20/01/2006   
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HIGHER EDUCATION

INSTITUTIONS

In 2004 there were 41 higher education institutions which received operating grants from the Australian Government Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST). Seven other educational institutions received funding for students enrolled in accredited higher education courses. These included the Australian Film, Television and Radio School, the National Institute of Dramatic Art and the Australian Defence Force Academy. Higher education student tables in this section include enrolments from these institutions.

Apart from the Australian National University and the Australian Maritime College, which are established under Commonwealth legislation, Australian universities operate under state or territory legislation. However, they are autonomous bodies responsible for their own governance and make their own decisions on allocation of funding, staffing and academic courses.

Most higher education institutions provide both full-time and part-time courses, and external or distance education courses. In addition, some institutions offer courses which associate full-time study with periods of employment.

STUDENTS AND COURSES

Table 10.14 shows the number of higher education students and their mode of participation at higher education institutions. The number of such students enrolled during the 12-month period 1 September 2003 to 31 August 2004 was 944,977, an increase of more than 15,000 (or 1.6%) on that for the 12-month period ended 31 August 2003. The greatest increase in numbers of students occurred among those choosing multi-modal (a mixture of face-to-face and external) tuition (up by 10,181 or 24%). Students choosing internal mode (face-to-face) increased by 7,407 (1.0%). Almost 65% of multi-modal higher education students in 2004 were female, compared with 54% of all higher education students.

10.14 HIGHER EDUCATION STUDENTS(a), By mode(b) and type of enrolment

2003
2004


Males
Females
Persons
Males
Females
Persons

Internal
Full time
254,331
293,852
548,183
260,404
296,535
556,939
Part time
93,243
105,995
199,238
92,408
105,481
197,889
Total
347,574
399,847
747,421
352,812
402,016
754,828
External
Full time
10,819
14,442
25,261
11,237
13,702
24,939
Part time
50,796
63,971
114,767
48,896
63,630
112,526
Total
61,615
78,413
140,028
60,133
77,332
137,465
Multi-modal
Full time
11,205
20,581
31,786
13,316
24,502
37,818
Part time
3,734
6,983
10,717
5,296
9,570
14,866
Total
14,939
27,564
42,503
18,612
34,072
52,684
Total
Full time
276,355
328,875
605,230
284,957
334,739
619,696
Part time
147,773
176,949
324,722
146,600
178,681
325,281
Total
424,128
505,824
929,952
431,557
513,420
944,977

(a) The scope of the data in this table is students enrolled at anytime within the 12-month period 1 September to 31 August.
(b) This relates to the delivery of education to the student. 'Internal' is where the delivery of education is done entirely within the institution, 'external' refers to delivery of course material to students off-campus, and 'multi-modal' is where at least one, but not all units, are provided at the institution.

Source: Department of Education, Science and Training, 'Students: Selected Higher Education Statistics'.


The basic undergraduate course at most institutions is a bachelor degree of three or four years duration. At some institutions, courses may also be offered at the diploma or advanced diploma level. Most institutions also offer postgraduate level study. One to two years of full-time postgraduate study are required for a master's degree and three to five years for a doctoral degree. Postgraduate diplomas and certificates are offered in some disciplines. In 2004, 68% of higher education students were enrolled in bachelor degree courses, with a further 27% enrolled in higher degree and other postgraduate courses (table 10.15).


Higher education institutions offer a wide variety of courses. The most commonly chosen fields of education for award course students in 2004 were: management and commerce; society and culture; health; and education (table 10.15).

10.15 HIGHER EDUCATION STUDENTS, By level and field of education - 2004

Level of education of study

Post-graduate
degree
Graduate
diploma/
Graduate certificate
Bachelor
degree
Advanced diploma/
Diploma
Other
education
Total
courses
Field of education
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000

Natural and physical sciences
10.4
2.0
61.0
0.2
0.4
74.0
Information technology
17.4
3.3
51.8
0.1
0.1
72.7
Engineering and related technologies
12.4
2.2
50.0
0.3
0.6
65.5
Architecture and building
2.3
1.1
15.5
0.9
-
19.1
Agriculture, environment and related studies
3.7
1.2
12.1
1.0
0.4
18.4
Health
15.6
9.7
76.9
0.6
0.2
103.0
Education
16.3
13.1
61.9
0.5
0.2
92.0
Management and commerce
71.8
19.7
173.9
0.6
1.0
267.0
Society and culture
33.0
13.4
150.0
4.0
2.9
203.2
Creative arts
6.6
2.7
49.3
0.3
0.9
59.7
Food, hospitality and personal services
-
-
0.1
-
-
0.1
Mixed field programmes
-
-
-
-
2.1
2.1
Non-award
-
-
-
-
23.8
23.8
All students(a)
189.5
68.3
646.8
7.8
32.7
945.0

(a) Students undertaking combined courses are counted in each field they are studying. Because of this, the field of education component will not necessarily add to All students.

Source: Department of Education, Science and Training, 'Students 2004: Selected Higher Education Statistics'.


Table 10.16 shows the number of higher education students by age group and sex. Between 2003 and 2004 the growth in higher education student numbers (1.6%) has been strongest among 20-24 year olds (6.0%).

10.16 HIGHER EDUCATION STUDENTS(a), By age group

2002
2003
2004
Age group (years)
'000
'000
'000

19 and under
Males
88.8
88.3
88.2
Females
123.3
122.2
120.6
Persons
212.1
210.5
208.8
20-24
Males
141.2
152.9
163.1
Females
164.3
176.9
186.4
Persons
305.5
329.8
349.5
25-29
Males
63.7
65.4
65.6
Females
67.3
70.0
69.7
Persons
131.0
135.4
135.3
30 and over
Males
115.0
117.5
114.7
Females
133.0
136.8
136.7
Persons
248.0
254.3
251.4
Total
Males
408.6
424.1
431.6
Females
488.0
505.9
513.4
Persons
896.6
930.0
945.0

(a) The scope of the data in this table is students enrolled at anytime within the 12-month period 1 September to 31 August. Includes students in enabling and non-award courses.

Source: Department of Education, Science and Training, 'Students: Selected Higher Education Student Statistics'.


STAFF

Higher education staff may be classified as academic or non-academic. In 2004, as in previous years, there were more non-academic than academic staff. The largest number of academic staff were at the lecturer and senior lecturer levels.

Table 10.17 shows the ratio of male to female staff has turned around over the past decade. In 1994, 54.1% of all staff were male. The proportions were about equal in 1999, but by 2004, 52.7% of higher education staff were female.

Growth in female representation occurred at all levels of academic staff, but was most notable at senior lecturer (from 21.9% in 1994 to 34.7% in 2004) and above senior lecturer (from 11.6% to 20.2%) levels. Despite this, men still outnumbered women at all levels of academic staff except at below lecturer level. In 2004, 60.5% of all academic staff were male, compared with 64.5% in 1999 and 68.4% in 1994.

10.17 HIGHER EDUCATION STAFF

1994
1999
2004



Males
Females
Persons
Males
Females
Persons
Males
Females
Persons
Staff classification
%
%
no.
%
%
no.
%
%
no.

Academic staff
Above senior lecturer
88.4
11.6
5,766
84.4
14.6
6,626
79.8
20.2
8,206
Senior lecturer
78.1
21.9
7,702
72.1
27.9
8,114
65.3
34.7
9,086
Lecturer
60.7
39.3
11,432
56.6
43.4
11,302
52.9
47.1
12,794
Below lecturer
49.3
50.7
5,375
48.2
51.8
6,364
46.3
53.7
7,301
Total
68.4
31.6
30,276
64.5
35.5
32,406
60.5
39.5
37,387
Non-academic staff
43.3
56.7
39,983
39.1
60.9
43,634
37.5
62.5
50,271
All staff
54.1
45.9
70,259
49.9
50.1
76,040
47.3
52.7
87,658

Source: Department of Education, Science and Training, 'Staff: Selected Higher Education Statistics'.


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