Australian Bureau of Statistics

Rate this page
ABS Home > Statistics > By Catalogue Number
ABS @ Facebook ABS @ Twitter ABS RSS ABS Email notification service
4604.0 - Energy Account, Australia, 2013-14 Quality Declaration 
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 09/02/2016   
   Page tools: Print Print Page Print all pages in this productPrint All RSS Feed RSS Bookmark and Share Search this Product

MAIN FINDINGS

SUMMARY

The Energy Account Australia (EAA) provides statistics to monitor changes in the supply and use of energy over time, both from an economic and an environmental perspective. The EAA forms part of a suite of environmental-economic accounts being developed for Australia.

Australia's energy at a glance
  • Energy intensity for all industries (measured in GJ/$m IGVA) remained constant from 2012-13 to 2013-14.
  • Australia's net energy input decreased slightly to approximately 21,000 PJ in 2013-14 from 21,700 PJ in 2012-13.
  • Household energy consumption per capita decreased by 0.7% (0.3 GJ) from 202-13 to 2013-14.
  • The total intermediate use of energy products by Australian industry in 2013-14 was $110 billion.
  • The extraction rate of energy resources in 2013-14 ranged between 9.2% of economic demonstrated crude oil and 0.2% of brown coal.

The diagram below presents an overview of key data and details the scope of the EAA by showing the supply and use system of energy components through the economy.
FIGURE 1.1 SUPPLY AND USE, BY COMPONENTS - 2013-14
Diagram: This diagram shows the components used in supply and use of energy use.


MAIN FINDINGS

Introduction

The energy data contained in this publication are produced in accordance with the principles outlined in the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA), using a supply-use framework. Further detail on supply and use frameworks is contained in the Explanatory Notes.

Data on physical supply and use of energy products are primarily derived from the Department of Industry, Innovation and Science publication, Australian Energy Statistics (AES), 2015. Information gathered from this government agency are supplemented by ABS surveys which collect price and volume information. ABS uses the SEEA to transform AES into a framework consistent with the System of National Accounts (SNA), enabling linkages between energy supply, energy use and monetary data from the Australian National Accounts.


TOTAL ECONOMY

Australia’s total net supply was approximately 21,000 PJ in 2013-14, a decrease of 3% from the previous year. The majority of total net supply was produced domestically (90%) and the remainder was imported (10%). Domestic production decreased by 4% from the previous year. The main driver was a decrease in the production of uranium, which fell by 1,584 PJ or 38% due to major disruptions to uranium mining operations and a decrease in demand in the global uranium market.

Energy decoupling

Energy decoupling occurs when the rate of change of energy use is lower than the rate of change of economic activity. Figure 1.2 shows some decoupling of domestic energy use from GDP prior to 2010-11 but from 2010-11 to 2012-13 energy use growth was higher than GDP growth. 2013-14 potentially showed a return to the decoupling pattern though this decrease in energy growth is mainly due to a major shift in uranium mining operations and export.


Graph Image for Figure 1.2 - Energy decoupling, 2009-10 to 2013-14

Annotation(s): Index 100 = 2008-09

Footnote(s): (a) Chain Volume Measures

Source(s): Energy Account, Australia




Other whole-of-economy indicators are available in the Energy Indicators data cube under the 'Downloads' tab:
  • Degree of self sufficiency
  • Net energy use index
  • Share of renewable energy in net energy inputs
  • GDP, chain volume series index.
  • Capital investment (gross fixed capital formation) by energy industries
  • International investment of energy industries
  • Contribution to growth in productivity from the use of energy
  • Employment in energy industries


INDUSTRY

The energy intensity of an industry is a measure of the energy consumed to produce one unit of economic output. The unit of measurement used in the following graphs and commentary for each industry is gigajoules (GJ) of energy consumed per millions of dollars of Industry Gross Value Added (GJ/$m IGVA). A higher energy intensity figure does not necessarily imply that an industry is using energy inefficiently. Differences in energy intensity between industries reflect different production processes and the share of energy within the production input mix. In particular, most industries engaged in physical transformation of raw materials will use more energy than service industries.
  • Energy intensity for all selected industries remained relatively constant, 2012-13 (2,495 GJ/$m IGVA) and 2013-14 (2,461 GJ/$m IGVA).
  • Manufacturing is the most energy intensive industry but decreased by 3% from 2012-13 to 9,693 GJ/$m IGVA.
  • Between 2002-03 and 2013-14 energy intensity for all selected industries decreased by 14%.

Further details on energy intensity are contained in the Explanatory Notes.

The energy intensity of Australian industries fell by 9% between 2002-03 and 2013-14. Despite this, Agriculture, Construction and Commercial and services were the only individual industries to show increases in energy intensity over this period. Australia’s most energy intensive industries in 2013-14 were Manufacturing (9,693 GJ/$m IGVA), Transport (8,399 GJ/$m IGVA) and Mining (3,704 GJ/$m IGVA), while the least energy intensive industries in 2013-14 were Construction (1,509 GJ/$m IGVA) and Commercial and Services (537 GJ/$m IGVA).

Table 1.1 ENERGY INTENSITY, 2008-09 to 2013-14

Industry
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
GJ/$m IGVA
GJ/$m IGVA
GJ/$m IGVA
GJ/$m IGVA
GJ/$m IGVA
GJ/$m IGVA

Agriculture
2 438
2 546
2 587
2 748
2 944
3 079
Mining
3 964
3 944
3 827
3 774
3 704
3 653
Manufacturing
9 424
9 970
9 536
9 465
10 004
9 693
Water Supply and Waste services
1 629
1 634
1 489
1 554
1 567
1 655
Construction
1 531
1 562
1 573
1 480
1 509
1 541
Transport
8 457
8 412
8 307
8 370
8 399
8 744
Commercial and Services
545
556
542
543
542
537
All selected industries
2 536
2 597
2 502
2 471
2 495
2 461
Percentage change from previous year
-1.3%
2.4%
-3.7%
-1.2%
0.9%
-1.3%



HOUSEHOLDS

Energy use per household is affected by a number of factors, including economic (increases in energy costs), technological (increase in take up of photovoltaic and thermal solar energy generation), energy conservation measures (insulation and energy audits), as well as increased energy efficiency of household appliances. Structural changes also have an impact on households over a longer period. For example, the household demographic trend toward more single person households should drive down energy use per household, while being countered by a trend towards larger four or more bedroom houses which consume more energy for heating and cooling.
  • Energy use per Australian household decreased by 1 GJ from 2012-13 to 2013-14 at the same time as the number of households increased by approximately 165,000.
  • Since 2002-03, energy use per capita has decreased by 5% and per household by 7%
  • The total energy use by Australian households has increased by 13% from 2002-03 to 2013-14, while the number of Australian households increased by 21% and the population grew 19%.
  • Household renewable energy extraction has increased by 38% from 2002-03 to 2013-14 including an increase of 5% from 2012-13 to 2013-14.

PHYSICAL ENERGY SUPPLY

Overview

The energy supply tables present data on the supply of energy products for each year from 2002-03 to 2013-14. Net supply consists of energy products as they enter the economy, either by saleable energy products (e.g. mining production) or as imports.

The headline measure from the net supply tables is net energy supply, defined as all net energy inputs from domestic sources and imports. Net energy input include losses from generation, transmission and other sources and represents all energy entering the economy without any double counting.
  • Australia's net energy supply was approximately 21,000 PJ in 2013-14, a decrease of 3% from the previous year.
  • Black coal production increased by 8% from 2012-13 and exports of black coal increased by 12% from 2012-13.
  • Uranium production decreased by 1,584 PJ, or 38%.
  • Crude oil and refinery feedstock imports account for 58% of all energy imports.


The Mining industry was the main producer of energy in 2013-14 (17,937 PJ or 85%). Net energy supply by industries and imports decreased by 3% from 2011-12 to 2012-13. Household extraction of energy, although shown separately, has been included in the totals of relevant industries in keeping with SNA and SEEA treatment of household production (see explanatory notes for more detail).

Black coal accounts for 56% of domestic production. Black coal production increased by 905 PJ (8%) from 2012-13 to 2013-14. This increase in black coal production was reflected in the black coal exports, which increased from 2012-13 (by 1,111 PJ or 12%). There was a decrease in crude oil and refinery feedstock production from 2013-14 (by 111 PJ or 6%). Imports of this product also decreased in 2013-14 from 2012-13 (by 64 PJ or 6%).

Total imports decreased by 26 PJ in 2013-14 from 2012-13. The main imports in 2013-14 were crude oil and refinery feedstock (1,096 PJ or 53% of all energy imports) and diesel (525 PJ or 25% of all energy imports, up from 483 PJ or 23% in 2012-13).

Renewable energy extraction increased by 5 PJ from 2012-13 to 2013-14 and remains at 2% of total domestic energy production. From 2012-13 to 2013-14 solar energy extraction increased (by 4 PJ or 14%), while hydro-electricity supply, which fluctuates according to water availability, remained relatively stable with an increase of 1 PJ (or 1%). Wind energy extraction increased in 2013-14 from 2012-13 (by 8 PJ or 29%).


Graph Image for Figure 1.3 - Net Energy Supply, by industry and imports, Australia, 2009-10 to 2013-14

Footnote(s): (a) Includes Forestry and Fishing; (b) Includes Gas, Water supply and Waste services; (c) Includes Construction, Transport and Commercial and services industries.

Source(s): Energy Account, Australia



TABLE 1.2 NET PHYSICAL SUPPLY OF ENERGY PRODUCTS, DIRECT EXTRACTION FROM THE ENVIRONMENT AND IMPORTS, 2013-14 - ENERGY UNITS

Non-renewable
Renewable
Total Supply
Industry
PJ
PJ
PJ

Agriculture
63
63
Mining
17 937
17 937
Manufacturing
136
136
Electricity, gas, water and waste
625
148(a)
774
Construction
Transport
Commercial and services
0
0
Total direct extraction
18 562
343
18 905
Imports
2 087
2 087
Net Supply
20 649
343
20 992

(a) includes supply by households


PHYSICAL ENERGY DEMAND

Overview

The energy use tables present data on the use of energy products for 2002-03 to 2013-14. Net use consists of intermediate consumption by industry and government; final consumption by households; exports; inventory changes and statistical discrepancy; and conversions and losses.
  • Australia's total use of energy decreased by 3% from 2012-13 to 2013-14.
  • Australia’s domestic energy consumption (i.e. industry and government, and household energy use, excluding exports) was 4,054 PJ in 2013-14, an increase of 43 PJ from 2012-13.
  • Industry energy use was 3,000 PJ, an increase of 25 PJ from 2012-13, accounting for 15% of total net energy use. The main fuel sources were diesel (783 PJ or 27%), electricity (644 PJ or 22%) and natural gas (614 PJ or 21%).
  • Government energy use, included in total industry use was 82 PJ or 2% of total domestic energy use in 2013-14.
  • Household total energy use was 1,054 PJ, an increase of 16 PJ from 2012-13, representing a 5% share of total net energy use.


Graph Image for Figure 1.4 - Net energy supply, by product (including imports), Australia, 2009-10 to 2013-14

Footnote(s): (a) 'Other refined products' includes petrol, diesel, aviation fuel, kerosene, heating oil, refinery fuel and naptha; (b) 'Renewables' includes biomass wood, bagasse, biofuels, hydro-electricity, solar and wind energy. .

Source(s): Energy Account, Australia




The export market accounts for 83% of Australian energy extraction. Energy exports in 2013-14 were approximately 15,718 PJ, an increase of 2% from 2012-13. Australia’s main exports were black coal (10,578 PJ or 67%), uranium (3,149 PJ or 20%) and natural gas (1,267 PJ or 8%).

Between 2012-13 and 2013-14 exports of black coal rose (by 1,111 PJ or 12%), uranium exports decreased (by 794 PJ or 20%), natural gas exports decreased (by 12 PJ or 1%) and crude oil and feedstock exports fell (by 39 PJ or 6%). Black coal exports accounted for 67% of total energy exports and 90% of black coal production.

Households were the largest domestic consumer of energy (1,054 PJ or 26%) in 2013-14. The main energy sources were petrol (44%), electricity (19%) and natural gas (15%). Petrol consumption by households remained stable compared with 2012-13, while diesel use increased by 17 PJ (16%). Between 2012-13 and 2013-14 household use of natural gas increased (by 4 PJ or 3%) and household use of electricity decreased (by 8 PJ or 4%).
The Manufacturing industry was the largest industrial consumer of energy (987 PJ or 24%), a decrease from 2012-13 (of 44 PJ or 4%). The manufacture of Non-ferrous metals accounted for 38% of Manufacturing energy use. Other major contributors were Petroleum and chemical products (20%), Food, beverages, textiles (18%) and Other manufacturing products (13%).

The Transport industry was the second largest industrial consumer of domestic energy (657 PJ or 16%), an increase from 2013-14 (of 22 PJ or 4%). The largest components of transport energy use were 'other refined fuels and products' (325 PJ or 50%), which increased by 6% from 2012-13, and diesel (265 PJ or 40%).

General Government activities are included within industry estimates. In 2013-14 estimates of energy use by Government in the economy accounted for 82 PJ (2%) of total domestic use. The main energy source was electricity (50%).

The main fuels consumed domestically in Australia were electricity (888 PJ or 22%), diesel (916 PJ or 23%), natural gas (782 PJ or 19%) and petrol (626 PJ or 15%). Between 2012-13 and 2013-14 the use of diesel increased by 45 PJ while petrol use decreased by 6 PJ. The domestic consumption of natural gas increased by 18 PJ or 2% while electricity increased by 1 PJ from 2012-13.

Losses and conversions occur in the transformation of fossil fuels and organic waste into electricity and biofuels, and crude oil into LPG and petroleum products, and coal into coke and coal by-products in steel making. Net losses and conversions accounted for 1,827 PJ in 2013-14.


Graph Image for Figure 1.5 - Domestic net energy use, by industry, Australia, 2009-10 to 2013-14

Footnote(s): (a) Includes Forestry and Fishing; (b) Includes Gas supply, Water supply and Waste services; (c) Includes Government use

Source(s): Energy Account, Australia




Graph Image for Figure 1.6 - Exports by product, Australia, 2009-10 to 2013-14

Footnote(s): (a) 'Other refined products' includes aviation fuel, kerosene, heating oil, refinery fuel and naptha

Source(s): Energy Account, Australia



TABLE 1.3 NET USE OF ENERGY PRODUCTS, (2012-13) - ENERGY UNITS

Non-renewable
Renewable
Total Use
Industry
PJ
PJ
PJ

Agriculture
110
110
Mining
474
3
476
Manufacturing
870
117
987
Electricity, gas, water and waste
139
1
140
Construction
185
185
Transport
657
657
Commercial and services
445
1
446
Government use (a)
82
82
Total industry use
2 879
121
3 000
Changes in inventories
-607
-607
Exports
15 718
15 718
Conversions and losses
1 670
156
1 827
Total net use
18 979
186
19 165
Of which
Net use by households
989
65
1 054

(a) General government use only. Excludes public non-financial corporations.


ENERGY MONETARY ACCOUNTS

Overview

Monetary supply-use tables are an aggregation of products defined in the Australian System of National Accounts to represent the output of industries.The tables are drawn directly from the National Accounts benchmark data, the data series used in the compilation of Input Output tables. The net physical tables and these monetary tables are compiled on a different basis and should not be directly combined for analytical purposes. The Hybrid Energy Account in this publication is recommended as a coherent presentation of physical and monetary energy data.
  • Australia's total supply (outputs) of energy products at basic prices was valued at $177 billion in 2013-14, a 5% increase from 2012-13.
  • Australia's demand (inputs) for energy products in productive activities, as measured by total intermediate use of energy products, increased by 9% to $110 billion 2013-14. In comparison, household consumption of energy products cost $47 billion, an increase of 5% from 2012-13.


Monetary Energy Supply

The Mining industry supplied the most energy product value to the Australian economy in 2013-14 with a value of $84 billion, or 47% of the total Australian energy production at basic prices. This was a 4% increase from 2012-13. Of this $84 billion, 51% was attributed to the value of coal production while gas and oil contribute 27% and 21% respectively.

The second highest contributor of energy value to the economy in 2013-14 was the Manufacturing industry, with $31 billion or 17% of Australia's total energy product value. The vast majority of this value (85%) was from petrol and diesel which were valued at $25 billion in 2013-14.

Energy product imports were valued at $39 billion in 2013-14 which was 17% of the total Australian energy product total value and an 11% increase from 2012-13. Approximately 45% ($18 billion) was from imported oil products.


Graph Image for Figure 1.7 - Domestic net energy use, by product, Australia, 2009-10 to 2013-14

Footnote(s): (a) 'Coal by-products' include blast furnace gas, coal tar, benzene/toluene/xylene feedstock and coal oven gas; (b) 'Other refined products' includes aviation fuel, kerosene, heating oil, fuel oil, refinery oil and naptha; (c) 'Renewables' includes biomass wood, bagasse, biofuels, hydroelectricity, solar and wind energy.

Source(s): Energy Account, Australia




Graph Image for Figure 1.8 - Resource life, selected energy products, 2009-10 to 2013-14 (a)

Footnote(s): (a) The remaining resource life of a product at current production rates.

Source(s): Energy Account, Australia




Monetary Energy Use

The biggest domestic purchaser of energy products in 2013-14 was households. Household final consumption expenditure on energy products was $47 billion, 30% of total domestic energy products and a 5% increase from 2012-13. Expenditure on petroleum products was 53% of this total, while 13% was on natural gas.

The Manufacturing industry had the highest industrial expenditure on energy products in Australia in 2013-14. Manufacturing used $37 billion worth of energy products, or 24% of total domestic energy products. This was a 7% increase from 2012-13. Oil accounted for $21 billion (56%) while electricity generation and the use of gas used $7 billion (18%) and $6 billion (17%) respectively.

Australia's energy product exports were worth $72 billion in 2013-14, a 4% increase from 2012-13. Coal exports accounted for $40 billion (56%) of these exports. Australia also exported significant quantities of gas and oil in 2013-14, which were worth $18 billion and $11 billion respectively.


Graph Image for Figure 1.9 - Net Monetary Energy Supply, by industry and imports, Australia, 2009-10 to 2013-14

Footnote(s): (a) Includes Gas, Water Supply and Waste Services

Source(s): Energy Account, Australia




Graph Image for Figure 1.10 - Net monetary energy supply, by product, Australia, 2009-10 to 2013-14

Footnote(s): (a) Black and brown coal; (b) Natural, LPG and Industrial Gases including coal seam gas; (c) Crude oil including condensate; (d) Kerosene (including kerosene type jet fuel), automotive petrol, petrodiesel, and gas oil or fuels n.e.c.; (e) Electricity generated from fossil fuels, hydro-electricity and electricity generation n.e.c.

Source(s): Energy Account, Australia




ENERGY HYBRID ACCOUNTS

Overview

Hybrid supply-use tables combine EAA gross physical supply-use information with monetary information from National Accounts Input-Output tables. These two sets of information fit together because they both measure supply and use on a transactional basis with sufficient product detail to allow direct comparison. Hybrid energy tables allow for simultaneous analysis of physical and monetary energy flows. The 2013-14 EAA hybrid tables cover the period from 2008-09 to 2012-13.
  • Falling prices meant that while the Mining industry supplied 11% more energy in 2012-13 than 2011-12, that production was worth 11% less in monetary terms.
  • Rising household electricity prices meant a 61% increase in household electricity costs from 2008-09 to 2012-13 despite an 4% decrease in the volume of electricity used by households.


Energy supply

The Mining industry was the largest supplier of energy in 2012-13, supplying 19,622 PJ of total energy worth $75 billion.While this was a 1,956 PJ or 11% increase on 2011-12 volumes, the value of energy supplied by the industry fell by 11% or $9 billion.

Black coal supply increased by 9% or 905 PJ from 2011-12 to 2012-13. However, the value of black coal supply fell by 19% or $9 billion due to falling prices.

Imports of crude oil and petroleum products (petrol, diesel and other refined fuels) were valued at $17 billion each. Together these two products comprised 96% of the value of energy products imported ($35 billion) into Australia in 2012-13.


Energy use

The value of household electricity consumption increased by 12% or $2 billion from 2011-12 to 2012-13. From 2008-09 to 2012-13 the value of electricity used by households increased by 61% or $6 billion while the volume used decreased by 4% or 8 PJ.

In 2012-13 black coal use (including exports) was valued at $42 billion, making it the most valuable contributor (20%) to total use of energy products. Exports of black coal were $39 billion, which was over 55% of the total value of Australian exports of energy products. In 2012-13 the volume of black coal exported increased by 11% or 970 PJ from 2011-12, while the value of black coal exports decreased by 19% or $9 billion.

In 2012-13 the Mining industry was the largest user (1,363 PJ or 51%) of natural gas, which included conversion of natural gas into liquified natural gas. The value of this gas use was $412 million. Other large natural gas users were the Manufacturing industry (675 PJ, 25%), Electricity Supply industry (415 PJ, 15%), and households (155 PJ, 6%). The value of this gas use was $5 billion, $1 billion and $4 billion respectively.

All domestic use of crude oil and feedstock occurs in production of petroleum and chemical products. Domestic use of crude oil and feedstock was valued at $22 billion while exports were valued at $11 billion in 2012-13.

In 2012-13, the largest consumer of petrol was households, 482 PJ, which comprised 73% of total use of petrol. The value of petrol use was $20 billion, a decrease of less than 1% from 2011-12.


ENERGY ASSET ACCOUNT

Overview

Environmental assets are best defined as those resources available for harvesting from the environment. These assets are commonly called Economic Demonstrated Resources (EDR) and are distinct from those that are too difficult to access with current technology and any hypothetical resources that may exist.
  • Physical black coal stocks increased by 1% from 2012-13 to 2013-14 and are valued at $91 billion.
  • The remaining resource life of crude oil is 11 years at current production rates.
  • The annual extraction rate of black coal increased by 4% from 2012-13 to 2013-14.


At 2013-14 production levels there are, at maximum and not counting new discoveries, 663 years of brown coal remaining. Shorter term energy source EDR assets range from 11 years (Crude Oil) to 50 years (Natural gas) and 231 years (Uranium oxides). The extraction rate of energy resources measures the rate of removal of a resource compared to the EDR.

In the EAA physical energy assets are limited to coal, crude oil, condensate, industrial gases and uranium oxides. In 2013-14 known levels of black coal resources increased by 1% (1,663,200 PJ to 1,676,700 PJ) while brown coal remained the same. Crude oil and LPG stocks increased by 11% and 12% respectively, while all other stocks EDR stocks fell.

Condensate stocks were valued at $209 billion in 2013-14, an increase of $29 billion or 16% from 2012-13. Black coal stocks which increased by 1% from 2012-13 experienced a fall in value of 33% from $136 billion to $91 billion. Natural gas stock increased in value by 15% while uranium stock value decreased by 40%.

TABLE 1.4 ENERGY ASSETS, ECONOMICALLY DEMONSTRATED RESOURCES, AS AT JUNE 2014

Black Coal
Brown Coal
Crude Oil
LPG
Natural Gas
Uranium

Closing stock (PJ)
1 676 700
433 160
4 921
3 283
102 861
649 040

Source: Australian System of National Accounts, 2013-14, ABS cat. no. 5204.0

TABLE 1.5 ENERGY ASSETS, ECONOMICALLY DEMONSTRATED RESOURCES, NET PRESENT VALUE, AUSTRALIA, AS AT JUNE 2014

Black Coal
Brown Coal
Crude Oil
LPG
Natural Gas
Uranium

Closing stock ($m)
90 592
200
57 180
52 417
208 987
375

Source: Australian System of National Accounts, 2013-14, ABS cat. no. 5204.0

TABLE 1.6 ENERGY ASSETS INDICATORS, AUSTRALIA, AS AT JUNE 2014

Black Coal
Brown Coal
Crude Oil
LPG
Natural Gas
Uranium

Extraction rate (% of EDR) (a)
0.9
0.2
9.2
3.1
2.0
0.4
Estimated resource life remaining (years)
110.3
662.7
10.9
32.6
50.3
231.8

(a) The rate at which physical removal of energy resources occurs from the energy deposits which occur naturally.



PRIVACY POLICY


The ABS Privacy Policy outlines how the ABS will handle any personal information that you provide to us.



Bookmark and Share. Opens in a new window

Commonwealth of Australia 2016

Unless otherwise noted, content on this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Australia Licence together with any terms, conditions and exclusions as set out in the website Copyright notice. For permission to do anything beyond the scope of this licence and copyright terms contact us.