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4713.0 - Population Characteristics, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2001  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 30/10/2003   
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EXPERIMENTAL ESTIMATED RESIDENT INDIGENOUS POPULATION

At 30 June 2001 the experimental estimated resident Indigenous population of Australia was 458,500, or 2.4% of the total population. Persons of 'Aboriginal origin only' comprised about 90% of the estimated resident Indigenous population; persons of 'Torres Strait Islander origin only' comprised 6%, and those with dual Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin comprised 4%.

The number of Torres Strait Islanders in the Torres Strait Area was estimated to be 6,900, accounting for 24% of the Torres Strait Islander population of Queensland and around 14% of all Torres Strait Islanders in Australia (see Chapter 9: Torres Strait Islanders).


WHERE INDIGENOUS PERSONS LIVE

Based on the estimated resident Indigenous population, the highest proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples was living in major cities (30%). In addition, 20% were living in areas classified as inner regional, 23% in outer regional, 9% in remote and 18% in very remote areas. For the non-Indigenous population there was a much higher proportion in major cities (67%) and only 2% in remote or very remote areas. As a result of these differences in population distribution, the Indigenous proportion of the total population rose with increasing geographic remoteness, from 1% of the total population living in major cities to 45% in very remote areas.


CENSUS COUNTS

The number of people identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander in the 2001 Census was 410,000. This represented an increase of 16% since the 1996 Census, and followed increases of 17% between 1986 and 1991, and 33% between 1991 and 1996. The count of non-Indigenous persons increased by 4% between the 1996 and 2001 Censuses.

Experimental estimates of the Indigenous population are higher than the Census counts because they make allowance for instances in which Indigenous status was not stated in the Census and for net undercount.


LANGUAGE

The vast majority of Indigenous persons (about 80%) reported that at home they spoke English only, similar to the level reported by non-Indigenous Australians. About one in eight Indigenous persons (12%) reported that they spoke an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Island (Australian Indigenous) language at home. Indigenous languages were much more likely to be reported by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples living in geographically remote areas. Over half the Indigenous persons living in very remote areas (55%) reported an Indigenous language, compared with 1% of those in major cities and inner regional areas.


ANCESTRY

Among people who were identified as Indigenous, one-quarter reported Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander ancestry; about half (53%) reported Australian ancestry and one in five (22%) reported European ancestry. In major cities and regional areas around 60% of the Indigenous population reported Australian ancestry whereas in very remote areas they were most likely to report Aboriginal (74%) and/or Torres Strait Islander ancestry (8%).

SELECTED CHARACTERISTICS,
All persons by Indigenous Status and Remoteness Areas(a)
Units
Major Cities
Inner Regional
Outer Regional
Remote
Very Remote
Australia

INDIGENOUS PERSONS
Estimated resident population(b)
no.
138,494
92,988
105,875
40,161
81,002
458,520

Census counts(c)
no.
123,008
81,832
91,979
33,963
71,065
410,003
Language(d)
Speaks an Australian Indigenous language at home
%
1.4
0.9
3.4
12.9
54.7
12.1
Ancestry(e)
Australian
%
63.0
64.0
59.0
52.9
14.5
52.9
Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander
%
8.2
8.5
15.7
28.2
81.9
24.6
Information Technology(f)
Used a computer at home in the week before Census
%
27.7
22.8
16.0
10.2
2.7
18.0
Accessed the Internet in the week before Census
%
24.6
18.7
14.0
9.3
4.0
15.9

NON-INDIGENOUS PERSONS
Estimated resident population(b)
no.
12,732,492
3,932,907
1,907,688
284,160
97,473
18,954,720

Census counts(c)
no.
11,752,990
3,619,547
1,735,459
254,846
82,866
17,591,489
Ancestry(e)
Australian
%
32.2
45.7
46.3
47.9
45.7
36.8
Information Technology(f)
Used a computer at home in the week before Census
%
46.3
40.9
38.1
39.6
37.8
44.1
Accessed the Internet in the week before Census
%
42.4
33.0
30.8
32.7
32.7
39.0


(a) Proportions are based on Census Counts in each Remoteness Area.
(b) These estimates are experimental. Source table: 2.5.
(c) 2001 Census counts on a usual residence basis. Source table 2.6.
(d) Source table: 4.2.
(e) Source table: 4.6.
(f) Source table: 5.9.


EDUCATION


SECONDARY SCHOOL COMPLETION

Excluding persons aged 15 years and over who were still at school in 2001, about one-quarter of both Indigenous and non-Indigenous persons in this age group had completed Year 10. However, Indigenous persons were only half as likely as non-Indigenous persons, to have completed Year 12 (18% compared with 41%).

Torres Strait Islanders were more likely than all Indigenous persons and less likely than non-Indigenous persons, to have completed higher levels of secondary schooling. Torres Strait Islanders in the Torres Strait Area were almost twice as likely as all Indigenous persons in very remote areas, to have completed school to at least year 10. Among Torres Strait Islanders aged 15 years and over who were no longer at school, 24% had completed Year 12 or equivalent compared with 18% of all Indigenous persons (see Chapter 9: Torres Strait Islanders).

Year 12 completion rates were affected by geographic remoteness, with the greatest disparity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous persons in very remote areas, where Indigenous persons were only one-quarter as likely as non-Indigenous persons to have completed Year 12. Torres Strait Islanders in the Torres Strait Area had much higher rates of Year 12 completion than Indigenous persons in very remote areas Australia-wide (30% compared with 8%) and almost the same rates of Year 12 completion as non-Indigenous persons in very remote areas (34%) (see Chapter 9: Torres Strait Islanders).


TAFE AND UNIVERSITY ATTENDANCE

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples were generally more likely than non-Indigenous persons to attend a college of Technical and Further Education (TAFE) and less likely to attend university. Indigenous persons were also more likely to start their TAFE studies at a younger age than non-Indigenous persons. Among people aged 15-17 years a higher proportion of Indigenous than non-Indigenous persons were attending TAFE (7% and 5%, respectively) while the reverse was true for persons aged 18-24 years (8% and 11%, respectively).

Among people aged 15 years and over, 3% of Indigenous compared with 5% of non-Indigenous persons were attending university. Among young people aged 18-24 years, Indigenous persons were much less likely than non-Indigenous persons to be attending university (5% and 23%, respectively).

For Indigenous persons, attendance at TAFE was higher in accessible areas, especially the inner regional areas, and lower in more remote areas. Likewise, attendance at university declined with increasing geographic remoteness, in part reflecting the location of universities and TAFEs.

SELECTED EDUCATION INDICATORS,
Persons aged 15 years and over by Indigenous Status by Remoteness Areas(a)
Units
Major Cities
Inner Regional
Outer Regional
Remote
Very Remote
Australia

INDIGENOUS PERSONS
Persons aged 15 years and over(b)
no.
74,830
47,485
54,511
21,009
45,256
249,073
Completed Year 12 or equivalent(c)
%
23.7
17.1
16.6
12.1
8.2
16.8
Persons aged 15-17 years(d)
no.
8,106
5,645
6,254
2,023
4,156
26,713
Attending TAFE
%
7.6
11.0
7.7
4.0
0.8
7.0
Persons aged 18-24 years(d)
no.
15,054
9,042
9,817
3,719
9,626
48,508
Attending TAFE
%
9.1
11.0
8.1
5.9
1.8
7.5
Attending university
%
9.5
6.1
3.5
1.9
0.8
5.2

NON-INDIGENOUS PERSONS
Persons aged 15 years and over(b)
no.
9,435,934
2,828,278
1,352,196
195,560
65,084
14,006,987
Completed Year 12 or equivalent(c)
%
44.3
29.7
28.3
31.1
34.4
39.5
Persons aged 15-17 years(d)
no.
485,139
168,754
75,822
8,809
2,131
745,578
Attending TAFE
%
4.3
5.8
5.9
5.0
4.6
4.8
Persons aged 18-24 years(d)
no.
1,195,456
283,204
125,531
18,569
6,833
1,650,538
Attending TAFE
%
11.3
11.3
8.9
7.8
5.6
11.0
Attending university
%
27.4
15.6
9.0
3.7
3.2
23.5


(a) Proportions are based on Census Counts in each Remoteness Area.
(b) 2001 Census counts on a usual residence basis.
(c) Source table: 5.4.
(d) Source table: 5.3.


LABOUR FORCE CHARACTERISTICS


PARTICIPATION

People who participate in the labour force are those who are either employed or unemployed. At the 2001 Census, 52% of Indigenous persons aged 15 years and over reported that they were participating in the labour force, about the same proportion as in 1996 (53%). The participation rate was higher for men (60%) than for women (45%).

The labour force participation rate for all Torres Strait Islanders (58%) was six percentage points higher than for all Indigenous persons, and among Torres Strait Islanders living in the Torres Strait Area it was 11 percentage points higher (63%) (see Chapter 9: Torres Strait Islanders).

For the Indigenous population, the labour force participation rate declined with increasing geographic remoteness, from 57% in major cities to 46% in very remote areas.


UNEMPLOYMENT

The 2001 Census unemployment rate (the number of people unemployed expressed as a proportion of the total labour force) for Indigenous persons was 20% compared with 23% in 1996. Within the Indigenous population, unemployment rates were higher for men (22%) than women (18%).

Indigenous persons in the labour force were almost three times more likely than non-Indigenous persons to be unemployed (20% compared with 7%).

Indigenous persons living in inner and outer regional areas had the highest unemployment rates (25% and 23%, respectively). The relatively low Indigenous unemployment rate in very remote areas (8%) should be considered in conjunction with low levels of labour force participation, high levels of participation in Community Development Employment Projects (CDEP), and limited mainstream labour market opportunities.

The unemployment rate among Torres Strait Islanders in the Torres Strait Area (5%) was lower than for all Indigenous persons in very remote areas (8%) and much lower than for all Indigenous persons (20%) (see Chapter 9: Torres Strait Islanders).


EMPLOYMENT

At the 2001 Census, 42% of Indigenous persons aged 15 years and over were in employment (employment to population ratio), compared with 41% in 1996. About one in six Indigenous persons classified as employed were those who reported that they were participating in CDEP. A higher proportion of men (47%) than women (37%) were in employment.

Non-Indigenous persons were more likely than Indigenous persons to be employed. At the 2001 Census, 59% of non-Indigenous persons aged 15 and over were in employment compared with 57% in 1996.

At the 2001 Census, 47% of all Torres Strait Islanders aged 15 years and over were employed (employment to population ratio). The proportion of employed Torres Strait Islanders in the Torres Strait Area was 60%, compared with 42% for all Indigenous persons in very remote areas. In the Torres Strait Area, the CDEP scheme accounted for a smaller share of all employment than was reported for Indigenous persons in very remote areas Australia-wide (48% compared with 67%) (see Chapter 9: Torres Strait Islanders).

The proportion of Indigenous persons in employment was higher in major cities (46%) than in other areas, ranging from 39% in inner regional areas to 42% in very remote areas.

Community Development Employment Projects (CDEP)

There were 17,800 Indigenous CDEP participants identified in the 2001 Census. The original aim of the CDEP scheme was to create local employment opportunities in remote Indigenous communities where the labour market might not otherwise offer employment. Most CDEP organisations continue to be located in regional and remote areas of Australia.

Of Indigenous CDEP participants counted in the 2001 Census, the majority (69%) were in very remote areas and a further 10% were in remote areas. The Census count of CDEP participants was equivalent to about 60% of the number of participants recorded for administrative purposes by the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission at the same time (32,000).

Occupation

The private sector provided employment for 55% of employed Indigenous persons and 82% of employed non-Indigenous persons in 2001. The main occupation group for employed Indigenous persons was Labourers and Related Workers (24%) while the main occupation group for non-Indigenous persons was Professionals (18%). A relatively high proportion of both Indigenous and non-Indigenous persons were employed as Intermediate Clerical, Sales and Service Workers (18% and 16%, respectively).

The proportion of employed Indigenous persons working as Labourers and Related Workers rose markedly with increasing geographic remoteness from about one in ten (11%) in major cities to about one in two (47%) in very remote areas.

In the major cities, in addition to working as Intermediate Clerical, Sales and Service Workers (21%), Indigenous persons were most likely to be employed as Professionals (14%) and Tradespersons and Related Workers (12%).

SELECTED LABOUR FORCE INDICATORS,
Persons aged 15 years and over by Indigenous Status by Remoteness Areas(a)
Units
Major Cities
Inner Regional
Outer Regional
Remote
Very Remote
Australia

INDIGENOUS PERSONS
Persons aged 15 years and over(b)
no.
74,830
47,485
54,511
21,009
45,256
249,073
Labour force participation rate(c)
%
57.3
52.0
50.7
50.5
46.2
52.1
Males
%
65.7
59.5
58.4
58.7
54.5
60.1
Females
%
49.7
44.7
43.6
42.8
38.3
44.6
Employment to population ratio(c)
%
45.8
39.0
39.0
40.8
42.4
41.7
Males
%
51.2
43.2
43.5
46.2
49.9
47.0
Females
%
40.9
34.9
34.9
35.7
35.2
36.7
Unemployment rate(c)
%
20.1
25.0
23.1
19.2
8.3
20.0
Males
%
22.1
27.4
25.5
21.2
8.5
21.8
Females
%
17.7
21.9
20.0
16.5
8.0
17.6

NON-INDIGENOUS PERSONS
Persons aged 15 years and over(b)
no.
9,435,934
2,828,278
1,352,196
195,560
65,084
14,006,987
Labour force participation rate(c)
%
64.3
59.9
63.3
71.8
78.1
63.4
Males
%
72.2
67.8
71.1
79.5
84.3
71.3
Females
%
56.8
52.4
55.3
63.0
70.2
55.8
Employment to population ratio(c)
%
59.9
55.0
58.6
68.3
75.4
58.9
Males
%
66.9
61.8
65.4
75.3
81.2
65.8
Females
%
53.3
48.5
51.7
60.3
67.9
52.2
Unemployment rate(c)
%
6.9
8.1
7.4
4.9
3.5
7.2
Males
%
7.4
8.8
8.0
5.3
3.7
7.7
Females
%
6.2
7.4
6.5
4.3
3.2
6.5


(a) Proportions are based on Census Counts in each Remoteness Area.
(b) 2001 Census counts on a usual residence basis.
(c) Persons whose labour force status was not stated have been excluded when calculating proportions. Source table: 6.1.


HOUSEHOLD INCOME


AVERAGE INCOME

In 2001, the mean (average) equivalised gross household income for Indigenous persons was $364 per week, or 62% of the corresponding income for non-Indigenous persons ($585 per week). This disparity reflects the lower household incomes received by households with Indigenous person(s), and the tendency for such households to be larger than Other households.

For Indigenous persons, income levels generally declined with increasing geographic remoteness, although the average equivalised income in outer regional areas was slightly lower than that in remote areas. In major cities, the average equivalised income for Indigenous persons was one and a half times higher than the corresponding income in very remote areas.

The mean equivalised income of Torres Strait Islanders ($380 per week) was about 4% higher than for all Indigenous persons ($364 per week). The mean equivalised income of Torres Strait Islanders in the Torres Strait Area ($330 per week) was 13% below the corresponding income for all Torres Strait Islanders but 24% above that for all Indigenous persons in very remote areas (see Chapter 9: Torres Strait Islanders).

For non-Indigenous persons income levels were highest in major cities and very remote areas alike, lower in remote areas and lowest in regional areas. As a consequence, in major cities and regional areas, average equivalised incomes for Indigenous persons were equal to about 70% of corresponding incomes for non-Indigenous persons. In remote areas they were equal to about 60% and in very remote areas about 40%.

Growth

Between 1996 and 2001, average equivalised gross household income for Indigenous persons rose by about 11% (after adjustment for inflation using the Consumer Price Index) compared with 13% for non-Indigenous persons. As a consequence of the difference in income growth in the five years to 2001, the relative income disparity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous persons appeared to increase slightly. Overall, the average equivalised income for Indigenous persons declined from 64% of the corresponding income of non-Indigenous persons in 1996, to 62% in 2001.

Income distribution

Household income distribution can be measured by ranking all households in ascending order according to their household income and then dividing the population into five equal groups (quintiles). In 2001, the equivalised gross household income for households in the lowest and second income quintiles (bottom 40%) was $418 or less per week, while those in the highest income quintile had weekly incomes of over $844. While the national distribution of income was closely reflected in the non-Indigenous population, a much larger share of Indigenous persons were in the low income quintiles and a smaller share were in the highest. Among Indigenous persons, 72% were in either the lowest or second income quintiles and only 5% were in the highest. In very remote areas, 91% of Indigenous persons had incomes in either the lowest or second income quintiles, of which about two-thirds were in the lowest (equivalised income of $264 or less per week).

Between 1996 and 2001 the proportion of Indigenous persons in either the lowest or second income quintiles increased slightly from 70% to 72%.

SELECTED INCOME INDICATORS,
Persons aged 15 years and over by Indigenous Status by Remoteness Areas(a)
Units
Major Cities
Inner Regional
Outer Regional
Remote
Very Remote
Australia

INDIGENOUS PERSONS
Persons aged 15 years and over(b)
no.
74,830
47,485
54,511
21,009
45,256
249,073
Mean equivalised income(c)
$
435
360
352
356
267
364
Lowest or second income quintile(c)(d)
%
60.1
72.3
73.2
73.5
91.2
72.2

NON-INDIGENOUS PERSONS
Persons aged 15 years and over(b)
no.
9,435,934
2,828,278
1,352,196
195,560
65,084
14,006,987
Mean equivalised income(c)
$
622
506
502
579
622
585
Lowest or second income quintile(c)(d)
%
35.1
47.6
48.8
40.5
35.5
39.1


(a) Proportions are based on Census Counts in each Remoteness Area.
(b) 2001 Census counts on a usual residence basis.
(c) Derived from gross household income in occupied private dwellings where all individual incomes were fully reported. Source table 7.1.
(d) Persons in the lowest or second income quintiles had equivalised income of less than $419 per week.


HOUSEHOLDS

Households with Indigenous person(s) are households in which at least one Indigenous person, of any age, was resident on Census night. Households with no identified Indigenous person(s) present are termed Other households for purposes of comparison. Within this context, households may be further classified as family, group or lone person households.


HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION

At the 2001 Census, households with Indigenous persons were more likely than Other households to be family households (82% compared with 70%) and less likely to be lone person households (13% compared with 24%).

Living arrangements varied with geographic remoteness. Among households with Indigenous person(s), the proportion of multi-family households was much higher in very remote areas (22%) than in all other areas. Almost half (45%) of all multi-family households with Indigenous person(s) were located in very remote areas. In comparison, Other multi-family households were concentrated in major cities. The proportion of group households with Indigenous person(s) declined from 7% in major cities to 2% in very remote areas. For Other group households, the proportions were fairly constant at 3-4% across remoteness areas.


TENURE TYPE

At the 2001 Census, households with Indigenous person(s) were much more likely to report renting their home (63%), than purchasing (19%) or owning their home outright (13%). This pattern of housing tenure is similar to that observed in the 1996 Census. Households with Indigenous person(s) were more than twice as likely as Other households to be living in rental accommodation.

Renters

The proportion of households with Indigenous person(s) that were renting rose with increasing geographic remoteness, from 60% in major cities to 84% in very remote areas. The inverse was true for purchaser households. The small proportion of owner/purchaser households in very remote areas (8%) reflects, among other things, the types of tenure available on traditional Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander lands.

In 2001, 63% of households with Indigenous person(s) were renting, compared with 65% in 1996.

Among renters, fewer households with Indigenous person(s) were renting privately (43%) than were Other households (73%). State/Territory Housing Authorities and Indigenous Housing Organisations (IHOs) provided significant shares of the rental accommodation for households with Indigenous persons (32% and 17%, respectively). In very remote areas, 73% of renter households with Indigenous person(s) were renting from IHOs.


HOUSEHOLD AFFORDABILITY

Renters

Median rents for households with Indigenous person(s) declined with increasing remoteness from $135 per week in major cities to $42 per week in very remote areas. The pattern for Other households was similar.

While, among renters, a high proportion of residents of households with Indigenous person(s) had low incomes, their rental costs were generally below the level associated with housing affordability stress. Residents of households with Indigenous person(s) were about half as likely as residents of Other households to report rent costs greater than 30% of household income. This difference reflects the relatively greater proportion of lower income residents in Other households (64%) than in households with Indigenous person(s) (28%) that were renting in major cities, where rent costs are higher.

Among lower income residents in households that were renting in 2001, about one-third (31%) in households with Indigenous person(s) in major cities reported rent costs greater than 30% of income, compared with 11% in remote and only 2% in very remote areas. The low ratio of rent costs to income in the more remote areas reflects, in part, the provision of low cost accommodation by IHOs. There was a similar pattern of declining rent costs as a proportion of income for residents in Other households.

Purchasers

Among households with Indigenous person(s), median housing loan repayments were highest for those in major cities ($867 per month) and lowest in very remote areas ($550 per month).

Nationally, among lower income residents in households that were being purchased, 34% in households with Indigenous person(s) compared with 41% in Other households reported mortgage repayments greater than 30% of income, with the proportion highest in major cities.


OTHER SELECTED CHARACTERISTICS

Household size

Households with Indigenous person(s) tended to be larger than Other households (an average of 3.5 persons per household, compared with 2.6, respectively). The major factor contributing to this difference was the higher number of dependent children in households with Indigenous person(s). The largest households were those with two or more families (multi-family households). Multi-family households with Indigenous person(s) had an average of 7.7 persons, compared with 5.4 persons in Other such households.

Among households with Indigenous person(s), the average number of residents ranged from 3.2 in major cities to 5.3 in very remote areas.

Housing utilisation

Among households with Indigenous person(s), the proportion requiring at least one extra bedroom rose from 11% in major cities and inner regional areas to 46% in very remote areas. The need for at least one extra bedroom in Other households was much lower, with less than 4% requiring an extra bedroom in any Remoteness Area.

Registered motor vehicles

At the 2001 Census, households with Indigenous person(s) were less likely than Other households, to have reported a registered motor vehicle owned or used by them and garaged or parked at or near their dwelling (70% compared with 84%).

The likelihood of households with Indigenous person(s) not owning or having the use of a registered motor vehicle rose with increasing geographic remoteness, from about one in five in major cities and regional areas to 27% in remote areas and 49% in very remote areas.

SELECTED HOUSEHOLD INDICATORS,
Household type by Remoteness Areas
Units
Major Cities
Inner Regional
Outer Regional
Remote
Very Remote
Australia

INDIGENOUS PERSONS
Total dwellings(a)
no.
54,916
33,346
32,756
10,196
13,517
144,731
Tenure type(b)
Fully owned
%
12.7
14.4
13.9
11.7
5.0
12.6
Being purchased
%
23.2
22.6
18.6
12.5
3.1
19.4
Being rented
%
60.5
59.7
62.6
68.5
83.7
63.5
Private landlord
%
32.3
32.5
27.5
14.8
3.6
27.4
State/Territory Housing Authority
%
22.8
18.6
20.8
25.8
10.0
20.4
Community/Cooperative Housing
%
2.2
4.8
8.7
17.8
61.1
10.9
Housing costs(c)
Median weekly rent payment
$
135
110
100
80
42
100
Median monthly housing loan repayment
$
867
693
650
693
550
767
Other selected characteristics
Average number of residents in household(d)
no.
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.6
5.3
3.5
Households requiring an extra bedroom(d)(e)
%
11.0
10.9
14.7
21.5
45.8
15.7

NON-INDIGENOUS PERSONS
Total dwellings(a)
no.
4,550,931
1,409,795
689,503
100,839
32,434
6,783,502
Tenure type(b)
Fully owned
%
39.2
43.0
43.8
38.6
31.7
40.4
Being purchased
%
27.6
27.8
23.7
19.5
13.4
27.0
Being rented
%
27.2
23.9
26.6
34.0
41.6
26.6
Private landlord
%
20.4
17.5
17.3
14.7
9.9
19.3
State/Territory Housing Authority
%
4.6
3.4
3.5
3.4
3.7
4.2
Community/Cooperative Housing
%
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5
1.9
0.4
Housing costs(c)
Median weekly rent payment
$
165
125
105
80
49
150
Median monthly housing loan repayment
$
950
758
700
720
494
867
Other selected characteristics
Average number of residents in household(d)
no.
2.6
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.6
Households requiring an extra bedroom(d)(e)
%
3.8
2.5
2.8
3.2
3.9
3.4

(a) 2001 Census dwelling counts on a place of enumeration basis.
(b) Source table: 8.1.
(c) Source table: 8.5.
(d) Source table: 8.4.
(e) Housing utilisation measures are based on the Canadian National Occupancy Standard for housing appropriateness. Proportions are based on households where there was sufficient information to determine the extent of housing utilisation.

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