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4148.0 - Employment in Sport and Recreation, Australia, Aug 2001  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 25/06/2003   
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OVERVIEW

Every five years the ABS undertakes a Census of Population and Housing, the most recent being conducted in August 2001. The Census collects information relating to a person's main job in the week before the Census, that is, the one in which they usually worked the most hours.

This publication focuses on two distinct areas of employment that are relevant to sport and recreation, namely, employment in sport and physical recreation occupations and employment in other leisure occupations. Separate tables are presented for persons employed in sport and physical recreation occupations (83,008 persons) and for persons employed in other leisure occupations (282,386 persons). The tables in this publication exclude all persons who work as volunteers in the sport, recreation and leisure field, and all persons who work in sport, recreation and leisure as a ‘second job’, unless their main job (in terms of hours worked) was a sport, recreation or other leisure occupation.


OCCUPATION

Of all those employed in Australia in the week prior to the 2001 Census, 83,008 persons (1.0%) had their main job in a sport and physical recreation occupation. In the 1996 Census, 68,289 persons (0.9% of all persons employed in Australia) had their main job in a sport and physical recreation occupation. This represents an increase of 21.6% for sport and recreation occupations since 1996, compared to an increase of 8.7% for all occupations. Of those employed in a sport and physical recreation occupation in 2001, the largest numbers were reported for Fitness instructors (12,364 persons), Greenkeepers (11,928 persons), Veterinarians (5,007 persons), Veterinary nurses (4,858 persons) and Recreation officers (3,842 persons).

The majority of sport and physical recreation occupation groups showed some increase between the 1996 Census and the 2001 Census, with nineteen of the occupation groups 2 showing a percentage increase greater than 20%. The largest increases, in terms of percentage change, were Outdoor adventure leaders (an increase of 560.2%, from 83 persons in 1996 to 548 persons in 2001), Sail makers (increased by 84.3%, from 235 to 433) and Fitness instructors (increased by 61.2%, from 7,669 to 12,364). Fitness instructors also showed the largest growth in terms of the total number of persons employed, with an increase of 4,695 persons who had their main job in this occupation.

By comparison, there were seven sport and physical recreation occupation groups (of those selected for this publication) that experienced a decrease between 1996 and 2001. The largest declines, in terms of percentage change, were Other sports centre managers (a decline of 23.9%, from 3,677 persons in 1996 to 2,800 in 2001), Sports administrators (declined by 10.9%, from 1,216 to 1,083) and Sports development officers (declined by 9.7%, from 745 to 673).

A further 282,373 persons (or 3.4% of all persons employed in Australia) had their main job in another leisure occupation. By comparison, in 1996, 243,280 persons (3.2%) had their main job in an other leisure occupation. This represents an increase of 16.1% since 1996. The largest other leisure occupation groups in 2001 were Waiters (79,826 persons), Bar attendants (47,442 persons), Restaurant and catering managers (39,076 persons), Chefs (38,927 persons) and Cooks (37,992 persons).

The other leisure occupation groups that reported large increases, in terms of percentage change, between the 1996 Census and the 2001 Census were Vending machine attendants (an increase of 94.5%, from 2,999 in 1996 to 5,834 in 2001), Telephone betting clerks (increased by 84.5%, from 413 to 762) and Gambling table supervisors (increased by 62.7%, from 1,120 to 1,822). By comparison, the other leisure occupation groups that experienced a decrease in 2001 were Gaming pit bosses (a decline of 54.7%, from 600 to 272), Bookmaker's clerks (declined by 39.1%, from 335 to 204) and Betting agency branch managers (declined by 38.2%, from 2013 to 1244).


INDUSTRY

Of the 82,999 persons whose main job was in a sport and physical recreation occupation, 19,639 (23.7%) were employed in Sports and services to sports industries, and 13,060 (15.7%) were employed in Sports grounds and facilities industries. Another 14,854 persons (17.9%) were employed across a range of other sport or leisure industries, while 35,446 (42.7%) were employed in other industries.

Of the 282,373 persons whose main job was in an other leisure occupation, 118,851 (42.1%) were employed in Cafe and restaurant industries, and 27,386 (9.7%) were employed in Clubs (hospitality) industries. Another 43,445 persons (15.4%) were employed across a range of other sport or leisure industries, while 92,691 (32.8%) were employed in other industries.


SEX

In August 2001, there were more males (50,113 or 60.4%) than females (32,895 or 39.6%) employed in sport and physical recreation occupations. Conversely, there were more females (160,169 or 56.7%) than males (122,217 or 43.3%) employed in other leisure occupations. By comparison, of all employed persons in 2001, 54.8% were male and 45.2% were female.

The sport and physical recreation occupations with the highest proportion of males in 2001 were Footballers, Boat builders and repairers, Gunsmiths, Greenkeepers and Golfers. By comparison, occupations with the highest proportion of females were Veterinary nurses, Horseriding coaches, Gymnastics coaches, Recreation officers and Fitness instructors.

There was a slightly higher percentage of males employed in sport and physical recreation occupations in 1996 (64.3%) than in 2001 (60.4%). Compared with 1996, the proportion of employed Swimming coaches who were males increased to 57.0% in 2001, while the proportion of employed Jockeys who were males fell from 80.7% in 1996 to 72.3% in 2001.

The other leisure occupations that were more likely to be undertaken by females were Telephone betting clerks and Waiters. Males were more likely to work in occupations such as Bookmakers and Chefs.

Compared with 1996, similar proportions of males and females were employed in other leisure occupations in 2001. While the total number fell, the proportion of persons employed as Gaming pit bosses who were males increased from 54.5% in 1996 to 69.9% in 2001. Conversely, the proportion of persons employed as Bookmaker's clerks who were males decreased from 85.7% in 1996 to 74.0% in 2001.


AGE

The 20-24 year age group had the largest number of persons employed in both sport and physical recreation occupations (13,478 or 16.2% of all persons employed in sport and physical recreation occupations) and in other leisure occupations (60,173 or 21.3% of all persons employed in other leisure occupations). In 1996, the 20-24 year age group also had the largest number of persons employed in both sport and physical recreation occupations (11,843 or 17.3% of all persons employed in sport and physical recreation occupations) and in other leisure occupations (57,126 or 23.5% of all persons employed in other leisure occupations).

The age profile of persons employed in sport and physical recreation occupations and in other leisure occupations was considerably different to that of all employed persons, particularly for the younger age groups. Of all employed persons, 28.3% were aged 15-29 years. By comparison, 49.4% of those persons employed in other leisure occupations and 42.0% of those persons employed in sport and physical recreation occupations were in this younger age group.

Graph - Age profile of occupations


There were considerably more younger workers employed in sport and physical recreation occupations such as Footballers, Sports umpires, Gymnastics coaches and Ticket collectors and ushers. By contrast, over forty percent of those employed as Horse or dog racing officials and as Horse breeders were aged 50 years or over.

Other leisure occupations where younger workers were noticeably predominant were Hospitality trainees, Waiters and Bar attendants. By comparison, almost two-thirds of those employed as Bookmakers and as Caravan park and camping ground managers were aged 45 years or over. Persons aged 30-44 years dominated the occupations of Gaming pit bosses and Gaming table supervisors, with 68.4% and 52.7% employed in these other leisure occupations respectively.


BIRTHPLACE AND ORIGIN

Overseas born workers comprised 15.0% (12,453 persons) of all persons employed in sport and physical recreation occupations, with 9.9% (8,213 persons) born in main English speaking countries and 5.1% (4,240 persons) born in non-English speaking countries. In contrast, more than one-quarter (27.6% or 77,907 persons) of persons employed in other leisure occupations were born overseas, with the majority of these persons born in non-English speaking countries (18.8% or 53,083 persons). Similar proportions for both sport and physical recreation occupations and for other leisure occupations were reported in 1996.

Compared to other sport and physical recreation occupations, a relatively large proportion of overseas born persons were employed as Horseriding coaches, Gunsmiths and Canvas goods makers. By contrast, a relatively large proportion of persons employed as Sports umpires, Horse or dog racing officials and Other sports officials were born in Australia. In terms of total persons employed, the most common sport and physical recreation occupations undertaken by Indigenous Australians were Greenkeepers (259 persons), Park rangers (154 persons) and Fitness instructors (121 persons). Almost 10% of Park rangers were of Indigenous origin.

The other leisure occupations with the largest proportion of overseas born employment were Chefs, Restaurant and catering managers, Tour guides and Gaming dealers. By comparison, a relatively high proportion of persons employed as Bookmaker’s clerks, Hospitality trainees and Bookmakers were born in Australia. In terms of total persons employed, the most common other leisure occupations undertaken by Indigenous Australians were Cooks (662 persons), Bar attendants (661 persons) and Waiters (639 persons).


HOURS WORKED

Compared to all occupations, persons employed in either sport and physical recreation occupations or other leisure occupations as their main job during the week before the 2001 Census were more likely to have worked part time (i.e. less than 35 hours). Almost two-thirds (64.6%) of persons employed in all occupations worked full time (i.e 35 hours and over). By comparison, full-time employees accounted for 52.0% of person employed in sport and physical recreation occupations and 45.7% of persons employed in other leisure occupations.

Graph - hours worked profile of occupations



In 2001, the percentage of sport and physical recreation workers in each time range was similar to the percentage of other leisure workers reported for each time range; however, a slightly higher percentage of persons employed in sport and physical recreation occupations worked full time (52.0%, compared to 45.7%) and a slightly lower percentage worked in both the 16-24 hour range (9.2%, compared to 13.1%) and the 25-34 hour range (9.8%, compared to 13.9%). By comparison, in 1996, similar proportions were reported for each time range for both sport and physical recreation occupations and other leisure occupations.

The majority of persons employed as Sport umpires (88.8%) worked on a part-time basis (less than 35 hours), with only 2.2% working full time. A further 4.4% were reported as either on holidays, on sick leave, on strike or temporarily stood down. A relatively large percentage of persons employed as Gymnastics coaches (84.9%), Ticket collectors or ushers (78.9%) and Fitness instructors (74.8%) also worked part-time.

Other leisure occupations with a high percentage of part-time employees included Telephone betting clerks (87.4%), Bookmaker's clerks (81.9%) and Waiters (73.7%). Conversely, a relatively large percentage of persons employed as Gaming pit bosses (87.8%), Club managers (82.9%) and Caravan park and camping ground managers (81.9%) worked full time.


INCOME

Persons working in their main job in both sport and physical recreation occupations and other leisure occupations received, on average, a lower income than persons employed in all occupations. The median weekly income for sport and physical recreation occupations was $453, compared with $587 for all occupations. The median weekly income for other leisure occupations was lower again at $388. These lower incomes may be related to the higher incidence of part-time work.

Over two-fifths (43.5%) of all persons employed in sport and physical recreation occupations received a gross weekly income between $300 and $700, while slightly less than one-third (30.9%) of persons received less than this amount and some 23.5% of persons received more. By comparison, almost half (49.9%) of all persons employed in other leisure occupations received a gross weekly income between $300 and $700, while 12.9% of persons received less than this amount and just over one-third (34.5%) of persons received more.

Graph - income profile of occupations



Sport and physical recreation occupations that had a high proportion of persons receiving a weekly income of $1,000 or more included Environment, parks and land care managers (61.0%), Footballers (48.4%) and Recreation officers (47.9%). By comparison, almost three-quarters of persons employed in their main job as Sports umpires and almost half of all persons employed as Gymnastics coaches received less than $120 per week.

Over two-thirds (69.5%) of Gaming pit bosses received a weekly income of $1,000 or more. By contrast, 60.1% of Waiters and 65.4% of Hospitality trainees received a weekly income below $300.


QUALIFICATIONS

Over half (52.8%) of all persons employed in sport and physical recreation occupations held a recognised post-school qualification, while 38.0% of persons employed in other leisure occupations had post-school qualifications. By comparison, 52.6% of persons employed in all occupations held a post-school qualification.


Field of Study

Post-school qualifications in Sport and recreation were held by 6.1% of persons employed in sport and physical recreation occupations. The sport and physical recreation occupations having the highest percentage of employees with a Sport and recreation qualification were Golfers (45.5%), Jockeys (26.6%) and Fitness instructors (18.0%). Another 9,426 (11.4%) persons employed in sport and recreation occupations held post-school qualifications in Health.

A large number of persons employed in other leisure occupations held post-school qualifications in Food, hospitality and personal services (43,718 persons or 15.5%) and Management and commerce (21,168 persons or 7.5%). The other leisure occupations having the highest percentage of employees with a Food, hospitality and personal services qualification were Chefs (56.4%) and Cooks (14.8%).


Level of Study

Of the 5,104 persons employed in sport and physical recreation occupations who held a post-school qualification in Sport and recreation, 2,539 (49.7%) held a Certificate, 810 (15.9%) held an Advanced diploma and diploma, 507 (9.9%) held a Bachelor degree, 70 (1.4%) held a Graduate diploma or graduate certificate and 13 (0.3%) held a Postgraduate degree as their highest level of qualification.

Over half (54.4%) of the 107,224 persons employed in other leisure occupations who held a qualification held a Certificate level of qualification. A further 15,929 (14.9%) held an Advanced diploma or diploma, 14,840 (13.8%) held a Bachelor Degree, 921 (0.9%) held a Graduate diploma or graduate certificate and 927 held a Postgraduate degree (0.9%) as their highest level of qualification.


STATE AND TERRITORY

Almost one-third (30.7% or 25,498 persons) of persons employed in sport and physical recreation occupations reported New South Wales as their usual place of residence. A further 25.6% (21,284 persons) were usual residents of Victoria, 20.3% (16,839 persons) lived in Queensland, 10.5% (8,704 persons) in Western Australia, 7.5% (6,235 persons) in South Australia, 2.3% (1,880 persons) in Tasmania, 2.0% (1,694 persons) in the Australian Capital Territory and 1.0% (861 persons) in Northern Territory. These proportions were similar to those reported for persons employed in other leisure occupations. In 1996, persons employed in sport and physical recreation occupations and in other leisure occupations reported similar proportions of residency in each state and territory to those reported in 2001.

The distribution of usual residence for persons employed in sport and physical recreation occupations and other leisure occupations was very similar to that of all employed persons in Australia, with the exception of New South Wales and Queensland. Of all persons employed in sport and physical recreation occupations, 30.7% resided in New South Wales. By comparison, 33.2% of those employed across all occupations and 34.1% of those employed in other leisure occupations resided in New South Wales. In contrast, persons residing in Queensland were well represented in both sport and physical recreation occupations (20.3%) and other leisure occupations (20.2%), when compared to employment in all occupations (18.7%).

Graph - state and territory profile of occupations



With the exception of the Northern Territory, the sport and physical recreation occupations with the largest numbers of persons employed in each state and territory were Fitness instructors and Greenkeepers. More persons were employed as Park rangers in the Northern Territory than Fitness instructors. A large percentage of persons employed as Boat builders and repairers (39.2%) reported Queensland as their usual residence, while Victoria accounted for 34.5% of all Sports umpires.

For each state and territory, the other leisure occupation group with the highest number of employees was Waiters. New South Wales had a large percentage of persons employed as Club managers (45.5%), Bar attendants (43.2%) and Bookmaker's clerks (41.0%). Compared to other states and territories, Victoria accounted for 47.4% of all Vending machine attendants and 45.4% of Gaming table supervisors. Although not the largest percentage for an individual state or territory, the Northern Territory accounted for 9.2% of all Tour guides employed in Australia.


ABOUT THIS PUBLICATION

This publication presents summary data on selected sport and recreation occupations and industries from the 2001 Census of Population and Housing. The tables in this publication show the number of Australian residents who were in Australia on Census night (7 August 2001) and had their main job in either a sport or physical recreation occupation or an other leisure occupation in the previous week. They also include details on industry of employment, sex, age, birthplace and origin, qualifications, income, hours worked and state or territory of usual residence.

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