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3303.0 - Causes of Death, Australia, 2006 Quality Declaration 
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 14/03/2008   
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APPENDIX 2 COMPARABILITY OF STATISTICS OVER TIME


INTRODUCTION

Comparability of mortality statistics over time is affected by a number of factors. These include issues relating to the collection, classification and processing of the data. In the late 1990's, there were two major changes within Australia, namely, the introduction of the tenth revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) for classifying deaths registered from 1 January 1999 and the introduction of the Automated Coding System (ACS) for processing deaths registered from 1 January 1997.

A2.1 Introduction of Automated Coding and ICD-10

Years
Coding Method
ICD revision
Comments

1979-1996
Manual
ICD-9
Prior to 1979, manual coding under relevant ICD revisions.
1997-1998
Automated
ICD-9
Comparability factors between manual and automated ICD-9 coding were produced, based on a sample of dual coded 1997 data.
1997-1998
Automated
ICD-10
1997 and 1998 data coded to ICD-10 following its introduction.
1999-
Automated
ICD-10 only
Comparability factors between ICD-9 (manually coded) and ICD-10 (automatically coded) based on 1997 backcoded data.



TIMES SERIES

As a consequence of the coding of deaths registered in 1997 and 1998 to ICD-10 as well as ICD-9, there is now a single break in time series outlined in table A4.2.

A2.2 Time Series

Years Coding method ICD revision

1979-1996 Manual ICD-9
1997-onwards Automated ICD-10


To support this single break in series table A4.3 provides concordances and comparability factors for all groupings in this publication. The concordance illustrates the conceptual differences between ICD-9 and ICD-10 classifications. The comparability factors are derived from the movements in the underlying causes of death coded in ICD-9 compared to ICD-10. Groupings with very small numbers have been annotated with an asterisk (*). Caution should be exercised when comparing the two versions of ICD for these groupings.


Additional concordance tables at the three and four digit level between records coded to ICD-9 and ICD-10 are available on request. Further information or clarification on the concordance between these revisions is available from the ABS on 1800 620 963.



COMPARISON OF NINTH AND TENTH REVISIONS OF ICD

The introduction of ICD-10 has resulted in changes to the interpretation and resultant coding of a number of causes, as outlined in the WHO publication International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems Tenth Revision, Volume 2. Causes most affected are Asthma, Mental and behavioural disorders and Diseases of the nervous system.


Under ICD-10, Asthma more clearly links with Chronic lower respiratory diseases, especially Bronchitis and Emphysema. Where these conditions are present, Chronic lower respiratory diseases takes precedence, resulting in a decrease in the reporting of asthma as the underlying cause.


The Chapters covering Mental and behavioural disorders and Diseases of the nervous system have undergone compensatory changes between ICD-9 and ICD-10 mainly due to Alzheimer's disease and certain dementias moving between these Chapters.

A2.3 Concordance and comparability factors

Cause of Death ICD-10 Code
ICD-9 Code
Comparability factor

All causes A00-Y98
001-999
1.00
Chapter I Certain infectious and parasitic diseases A00-B99
001-139
1.25
Septicaemia A40, A41
038
1.28
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease B20-B24
042-044
1.03
Chapter II Neoplasms C00-D48
140-239
1.00
Malignant neoplasms C00-C97
140-208
1.00
Digestive organs C15-C26
150-157,159
0.99
Oesophagus C15
150
1.00
Stomach C16
151
0.99
Colon C18
153
0.98
Rectosigmoid junction, rectum, anus and anal canal C19-C21
154
0.98
Liver and intrahepatic bile ducts C22
155
1.07
Pancreas C25
157
0.99
Respiratory and intrathoracic organs C30-C39
160-165
0.94
Trachea, bronchus and lung C33, C34
162
0.97
Melanoma of skin C43
172
0.98
Breast C50
174,175
0.98
Female genital organs C51-C58
179-184
0.99
Ovary C56
1 830
0.98
Male genital organs C60-C63
185-187
0.99
Prostate C61
185
0.98
Urinary tract C64-C68
188, 189
0.96
Kidney, except renal pelvis C64
1 890
0.96
Bladder C67
188
0.95
Eye, brain and other parts of central nervous system C69-C72
190-192
0.97
Brain C71
191
0.97
Lymphoid, haematopoietic and related tissue C81-C96
200-208
0.97
Leukaemia C91-C95
204-208
0.94
In situ and benign neoplasms and neoplasms of uncertain or unknown behaviour D00-D48
210-239
1.18
Chapter III Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism D50-D89
279,280-289
1.07
Chapter IV Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases E00-E90
240-278
1.01
Diabetes mellitus E10-E14
250
0.99
Chapter V Mental and behavioural disorders F00-F99
290-319
0.78
Psychoactive substance use F10-F19
291,292,
1.09
303,304,305
Organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders F00-F09
290
0.69
Chapter VI Diseases of the nervous system G00-G99
320-359
1.20
Extrapyramidal and movement disorders G20-G26
332-333
0.95
Alzheimer's disease G30
3 310
1.48
Chapter VII Diseases of the eye and adnexa H00-H59
360-379
*
Chapter VIII Diseases of the ear and mastoid process H60-H95
380-389
*
Chapter IX Disease of the circulatory system I00-I99
390-459
1.00
All heart disease I05-I09,I11,
393-398,402,
1.01
I13,I20-I25,
404,410-414,
I26,I27,
415,416,
I30-I52
420-429
Acute rheumatic fever and chronic rheumatic heart diseases I00-I09
390-398
0.69
Hypertensive diseases I10-I15
401-405
1.00
Ischaemic heart diseases I20-I25
410-414
1.01
Acute myocardial infarction I21
410
0.96
Pulmonary heart disease and diseases of pulmonary circulation and other forms of heart disease I26-I52
415-429
1.06
Cerebrovascular diseases I60-I69
430-438
0.97
Diseases of arteries, arterioles and capillaries I70-I79
440-448
0.97
Atherosclerosis I70
440
0.98
Aortic aneurysm I71
441
0.97
Chapter X Diseases of the respiratory system J00-J99
460-519
0.91
Influenza and pneumonia J10-J18
480-487
0.87
Chronic lower respiratory diseases J40-J47
490-496
0.91
Emphysema J43
492
0.86
Asthma and status asthmaticus J45, J46
493
0.75
Chapter XI Diseases of the digestive system K00-K93
520-579
1.05
Diseases of oesophagus, stomach and duodenum K20-K31
530-537
1.04
Gastric and duodenal ulcer K25-K27
531-533
0.99
Diseases of liver K70-K77
570-573
1.02
Chapter XII Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue L00-L99
680-709
1.06
Chapter XIII Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue M00-M99
710-739
1.15
Arthropathies and systemic connective tissue disorders M00-M36
710-719
1.19
Chapter XIV Diseases of the genitourinary system N00-N99
580-629
1.14
Renal failure N17-N19
584-586
1.05
Chapter XV Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium O00-O99
630-676
*
Chapter XVI Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period P00-P96
760-779
0.96
Disorders related to short gestation and low birthweight, not elsewhere classified P07
765
*
Infections specific to the perinatal period P35-P39
771
*
Haemorrhagic and haematological disorders of fetus and newborn P50-P61
772-774,776
*
Chapter XVII Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities Q00-Q99
740-759
1.03
Congenital malformations of the nervous system Q00-Q07
740-742
1.00
Congenital malformations of the circulatory system Q20-Q28
745-747
1.12
Congenital malformations of the respiratory system Q30-Q34
748
0.90
Chapter XVIII Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified R00-R99
780-799
0.76
Sudden infant death syndrome R95
7 980
0.94
Chapter XX External causes of morbidity and mortality V01-Y98
E800-E999
1.06
Accidents V01-X59
E800-E949
1.05
Transport accidents V01-V99
E800-E848
1.03
Falls W00-W19
E880-E886,E888
1.10
Accidental drowning and submersion W65-W74
E910
1.03
Intentional self-harm X60-X84
E950-E959
0.97
Hanging, strangulation and suffocation X70
E953
0.97
Assault X85-Y09
E960-E969
1.02


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