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4529.0 - Defining the Data Challenge for Family, Domestic and Sexual Violence, 2013  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 07/02/2013  First Issue
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On this page:
Context
Risk
Incident/Experience
Responses
Impacts and outcomes
Programs, research and evaluation

Context

  • What are the environmental factors that influence the societal and community context within which family, domestic or sexual violence occurs?
  • What are the characteristics of communities that have a higher incidence of family, domestic and sexual violence?
  • What are the factors that influence community attitude formation and change? What are the most effective mediums to influence community attitudes?
  • Where might there be opportunities to influence or change this environment?
  • What environmental factors are most predictive of prevalence of family, domestic and sexual violence?
Risk
  • How big is the problem of family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia?
  • Does the size of the problem vary across different populations groups or communities?
  • Does the risk or likelihood of being a victim/perpetrator of family and domestic violence increase or decrease significantly through engagement with services, programs and support?
  • How likely is it that Australians will be a victim of family, domestic or sexual violence?
  • How likely is it that Australians will be a repeat victim of family, domestic or sexual violence, and who is likely to experience repeat victimisation?
  • How likely is it that Australians will commit family, domestic or sexual violence related offences?
  • How likely is it that Australians will be a repeat offender of family, domestic or sexual violence, and who is likely to re-commit these offences?
  • What are the characteristics of particular sub-populations that place them at more or less risk of family, domestic or sexual violence?
  • Is there change over time?
  • Are victims or perpetrators more likely to repeatedly form relationships that are characterised by violence?
  • Are victims and witnesses of family and domestic violence more likely to become future victims or perpetrators?
Incident/Experience
  • What is the nature of family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia? What are the characteristics of incidents of family, domestic and sexual violence?
  • What are the characteristics of victims of family, domestic or sexual violence? What are their experiences and their perceptions of family, domestic or sexual violence?
  • What are the characteristics of perpetrators of family, domestic or sexual violence? What are their experiences and their perceptions of family, domestic or sexual violence?
  • Are some population groups and age groups over-represented in incidents of family, domestic and sexual violence (as victims or as perpetrators)?
  • In what circumstances does family, domestic or sexual violence occur?
  • Are these changing over time? In what way?
  • Are there any common trigger events? If so what are they, and in what proportion of cases are they a factor?
  • Is there a common trajectory with family, domestic and sexual violence incidents; do they tend to escalate over time or do behaviours remain relatively stable?
  • Do some victims respond to a period of abuse with violence, thereby becoming a perpetrator themselves?
  • What proportion of family, domestic or sexual violence incidents involve secondary victims, e.g. children as witnesses?
  • What is known about incidents involving parents and children? Is there a correlation between these incidents, and those in which children are witnesses to abuse between parents?
Responses
About victims:
  • What actions are likely to be taken by a person who has experienced family, domestic or sexual violence?
  • Why do some victims seek professional services or support while others do not?
  • Are victims who do not come into contact with or report to any formal system different from those who do? In what ways?
  • What services and support are needed by victims of family, domestic and sexual violence?
  • What additional supports and services are required by specific population groups?
  • Does the type of response to family, domestic and sexual violence differ between particular population groups?
  • Are special supports required for child victims of/witnesses to family and domestic violence?
  • What is the rate of co-presentation of cases of family, domestic or sexual violence and child abuse?
  • What risks are associated with tailoring services and support around the needs of the people who currently use these services?
  • How best might these services and support be provided?
  • How effective are programs and services in preventing victims from being subjected to family and domestic violence and sexual violence in the future?
  • Why do some victims report family, domestic or sexual violence to police while others do not?
  • Do specific policies, such as pro-arrest policies, have positive or negative effects on the number of family, domestic or sexual violence reports made?
  • What data are available about discretionary decision-making in arrests, where police attend family, domestic or sexual violence incident call-out?
  • Where family, domestic or sexual violence related matters proceed to court, do victims have legal representation?

About perpetrators:
  • What actions might be taken by a perpetrator in response to incident(s)?
  • What services might be needed by a perpetrator? How might they be accessed?
  • How likely is it that a perpetrator of family, domestic violence or sexual violence will re-offend?
  • How effective are programs and services in preventing perpetrators from engaging in family, domestic violence or sexual violence in the future?
  • Are perpetrators who do not come into contact with any formal system different from those who do? In what ways?
  • How likely is it that a perpetrator will be dealt with through the criminal justice system? What is the outcome likely to be?
  • Is there a difference in the outcome for perpetrators depending on whether the sexual violence occurred in a domestic/family context or not?

About family, friends and community:
  • How well-equipped are family, friends, and the community in providing effective support to a person who has experienced family, domestic or sexual violence?
  • How well-equipped are family, friends, and the community in dealing with a perpetrator of family, domestic or sexual violence?
  • What support do families and friends need to fulfil these social roles in relation to informal family, domestic or sexual violence responses?
  • What sort of response do family, friends and the community have towards victims and perpetrators of family, domestic or sexual violence?
  • Are informed responses effective in preventing the re-occurrence family, domestic and sexual violence?

About systems and services:
  • How do the responses to family, domestic or sexual violence vary across jurisdictions?
  • What impact do the various public policy approaches towards family, domestic or sexual violence have upon outcomes for victims and perpetrators of family, domestic or sexual violence across jurisdictions?
  • What kinds of services are most effective?
  • To what extent do systems for victims and perpetrators co-refer their clients and/or have formal systems in place to co-ordinate their service delivery?
  • To what extent do these systems share information to ensure victims’ safety and perpetrator accountability?
  • To what degree are system interactions monitored and reviewed to ensure victim safety and perpetrator accountability?
  • Will formal system agencies and services providing responses be able to deal with any increased demand?
  • In what types of cases and what situations does there end up being statutory involvement?
  • What proportion and types of family and domestic violence cases end up with Family Law Court proceedings?

About disclosure:
  • When is disclosure made by a victim of family, domestic or sexual violence and in what context?
  • What factors impact on the likelihood of a victim's disclosure?
  • To whom is disclosure made? How well equipped are people to support a victim of family, domestic violence and sexual violence?
  • How does the type of support needed change with the time elapsed?
  • Is fear for safety, or of other repercussions, preventing victims from disclosing incidents of family, domestic and sexual violence?
  • Do rates or types of disclosure differ across population groups?
  • Do perpetrators tend to disclose the incident(s) to others?
  • What factors impact on the likelihood of a perpetrator's disclosure?
  • To whom is disclosure made?
  • In what ways does disclosure differentially impact on children, young people and adults?
Impacts and outcomes
  • What are the impacts and outcomes of family, domestic and sexual violence for victims? How do these vary for different population groups?
  • Are there impacts on victims of violence resulting from their interactions with other legal processes, e.g. relocation orders in instances of family and domestic violence?
  • Do rates of accessing services or seeking criminal justice protection vary across different population groups? If so, why?
  • What are the impacts and outcomes of family, domestic or sexual violence for perpetrators, both those within the civil or criminal justice system and those who do not come into contact with the system?
  • What are the outcomes for perpetrators who attend behavioural change programs?
  • Does arrest reduce the likelihood of recidivism, with current or future partners?
  • What are the impacts and outcomes for perpetrators of family, domestic or sexual violence with a criminal conviction?
  • What are the impacts and outcomes of family, domestic and sexual violence for children and other witnesses to violence?
  • What are the impacts and outcomes of family, domestic and sexual violence for family, friends and the community?
  • Who are the indirect victims?
  • What are the social costs of family, domestic and sexual violence?
  • What are the economic costs for responding to family, domestic and sexual violence through the health, welfare and civil or criminal justice system?
  • What are the impacts of the changed economic contribution made by individuals affected by family, domestic or sexual violence?
Programs, research and evaluation
  • What are the determinants of family, domestic and sexual violence?
  • How can family, domestic and sexual violence be prevented?
  • How can the risk (prevalence and incidence) of family, domestic and sexual violence be reduced?
  • Where should attempts be made to intervene to reduce the risk of family, domestic and sexual violence?
  • How can the formation of individual and community attitudes be influenced?
  • What are the perceptions held in the community now and how can these existing attitudes be changed?
  • How can unacceptable behaviours be changed?
  • How can behaviours in specific population groups or settings be influenced?
  • Which formal interventions from the health, welfare or justice systems reduce the occurrence of family, domestic and sexual violence incidents?
  • Which supportive interventions for victims are most effective in assisting recovery?
  • What is the effectiveness of education programs aimed at reducing family, domestic and sexual violence and changing community attitudes generally?
  • How effective are specific prevention and intervention programs that are available to victims and perpetrators, in terms of cost, utilisation and outcome?
  • What effects does the presence of or lacks of family and community support have on engagement with programs, and successful intervention?

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