4125.0 - Gender Indicators, Australia, August 2016  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 31/08/2016   
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EDUCATION

The Education section contains the following sub-topics:
    • Attainment (formal and non-school qualifications, literacy and numeracy skills)
    • Participation (participation and retention rates, participation in a non-school qualification, work-related learning)
    • Education and Employment (whether fully engaged, starting salaries)

Detailed data for these sub-topics is available from the Downloads tab above (see Table 2).


HIGHLIGHTS

Attainment

Year 12/Certificate II or above
    In 2015, 90% of women aged 20-24 had attained Year 12 or a formal qualification at Certificate II or above, compared with 86% of men aged 20-24. Between 2001 and 2015, this proportion has consistently been higher for women in this age group (see Table 2.1).

    In 2014, women aged 20-24 years who were born overseas were the most likely to have completed Year 12 or a Certificate II or above (93%, compared with 88% of women born in Australia, 91% of men born overseas and 81% of men born in Australia).

    In 2014-15, while proportions were significantly lower for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men and women aged 20-24 (60% and 64% respectively), rates for young women are continuing to grow (up from 47% in 2008). See Table 2.2 via the Downloads tab for more detail.

Certificate III or above
    Between 2001 and 2015, more women than men aged 18-24 years attained a formal qualification at Certificate III or above, although when looking at a broader age range (18-64), more men overall had done so. This balance seems to tip at around the age of 35-44 years, and continues into older age groups (see Figure 1 below, and Table 2.3 via the Downloads tab for more detail).

Graph Image for Figure 1 - Certificate III or above, by age and sex, 2005 to 2015 (a)(b)(c)

Footnote(s): (a) Includes any of the following: Certificate III or IV; Advanced Diploma or Diploma; Bachelor Degree; Graduate Diploma or Graduate Certificate, or Post Graduate Degree. (b) Prior to 2013, data excludes people permanently unable to work. (c) Males and females who have attained Year 12 or a formal qualification at Certificate III or above as a proportion of all persons for each sex and age group.

Source(s): Customised data, ABS Survey of Education and Work, Australia, 2005-2015


    In 2014-15, proportions of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders aged 18-64 with a Certificate III or above more than doubled in the past 14 years, growing from 19% of men and 15% of women this age in 2002, to 37% each in 2014-15. A further 10% of men and 13% of women had a Certificate I or II, bringing the proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 18-64 with non-school qualifications up to 47% and 49% respectively (see Table 2.8 for more detail).

Bachelor degree or above
    In 2015, 30% of men and 40% of women aged 25-29 had attained a Bachelor Degree or above. Since 2001, women in the 18-54 year age group have been consistently more likely than men to have attained a qualification at this level (see Table 2.5 via the Downloads tab).

Graph Image for Figure 2 - Attainment of a Bachelor Degree or above, by sex, 25-29 years, 2005 to 2015 (a)(b)

Footnote(s): (a) Prior to 2013, excludes people permanently unable to work. (b) Males and females who have attained a Bachelor Degree or above as a proportion of all persons for each sex and age group.

Source(s): Customised data, ABS Survey of Education and Work, 2005-2015


    Between 2001 and 2015 more males than females aged 15-64 years had attained a Postgraduate Degree (see Table 2.7).

    Around 4.5% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men, and 6% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women aged 18-64 had a Bachelor Degree or higher qualification in 2014-15 (see Table 2.8 for more detail).


Participation

Participation rates
    Between 2001 and 2015, education participation rates were consistently higher for females than males aged 15-64 years (an average of 19.7% and 17.8% respectively over that time). See Table 2.15 for more detail.

School Students
    The long term trend of increasing retention rates for full-time school students continues, while differences by gender are narrowing. The apparent retention rate for full-time school students from year 7/8 to year 12 rose to 81% of males and 87% of females in 2015, up from 70% and 81% respectively in 2005 (see Table 2.17).

    Apparent retention rates from Year 7/8 to Yr 12 have also risen for full-time Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students, from 35% of males and 44% of females a decade ago, to 55% of males and 64% of females in 2014-15 (see table 2.18 for more detail).

Enrolment in Certificate III or above
    While women aged 18-64 were more likely to have been enrolled in a Bachelor Degree or above (see Table 2.19), men were more likely to be enrolled in an Advanced Diploma, Diploma, or Certificate III/IV. In 2015, however, the gap between men and women aged 18-24 who were enrolled in these courses was the smallest it has been since the start of the time series in 2001 (13.5% and 12.1% respectively; see Figure 3 below, and Table 2.20 via the Downloads tab).

Graph Image for Figure 3 - Enrolment in Certificate III-IV or above, by sex, 18-64 years, 2005 to 2015 (a)(b)

Footnote(s): (a) Prior to 2013, excludes people permanently unable to work. (b) Males and females enrolled in Certificate III/ IV, Diploma/Advanced Diploma, or Bachelor Degree or above, as a proportion of all persons for each sex and age group.

Source(s): Customised data, ABS Survey of Education and Work, 2005-2015



Enrolment in apprenticeships and traineeships
    Males aged 15-24 years are more than three times as likely to be enrolled in an apprenticeship/traineeship as females in that age group. The proportion of males aged 15-24 years enrolled in an apprenticeship/traineeship has been trending down since 2008. There were, however, some ups and down for females aged 15-24 years over this time, with a 1.7 percentage point increase for females between 2014 and 2015 (see Table 2.21 for details).


Education and Employment

Not fully engaged in education and/or employment
    In 2015, around one in eight young people aged 15-19 years were not fully engaged in either education or employment (that is, they were were not studying or working at all; studying part-time and not working; or not studying but were in part-time work). This number rose to just under a quarter of young men (23.4%) and 29.5% of young women aged 20-24. Between 2001 and 2015, there has been a consistently higher proportion of women in this group (see Table 2.27 via the Downloads tab for more detail).

Graph Image for Figure 4 - Not fully engaged in education and or employment, by sex, 20-24 years, 2005 to 2015 (a)(b)(c)

Footnote(s): (a) In 2013 and 2014 education data is restricted to formal study (study for a qualification). Data for previous years include some people who may have been studying for a non-formal qualification. (b) Prior to 2013, excludes people permanently unable to work. (c) Males and females not fully engaged in education and/or employment as a proportion of persons for each sex and age group.

Source(s): Customised data, ABS Survey of Education and Work, 2005-2015


    In 2014-15, over half of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander youths aged 20-24 were not fully engaged in education and/or employment (54% of young men and 59% of young women). Proportions of young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women who were not fully engaged have declined since 2002, however differences for young men over this time were not statistically significant.

    Around one in three Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders aged 15-19 were not fully engaged in education or work in 2014-15: 35% of males and 30% of females in this age group (see Table 2.28 for more detail).

Median starting salaries
    While the gap in the median starting salary between male and female Bachelor Degree graduates has been decreasing since 2012, males still earned a starting salary that was $2000 more than females in 2015 (see Figure 5 below, and Table 2.29).

Graph Image for Figure 5 - Bachelor Degree grads under 25yrs, Median salary in first year of full-time employment, 2001-2015 (a)(b)(c)

Footnote(s): (a) To capture all graduates in a particular year, mid year graduates are surveyed at October 31 of that year, and end of year graduates are surveyed at April 30 the following year. Data is for first year of full-time employment. (b) Salary data may include additional payments such as overtime and bonuses, therefore figures may not necessarily reflect award rates. (c) In 2013–14 dollars, adjusted using changes in the Consumer Price Index.

Source(s): Graduate Careers Australia, 2015