6306.0 - Employee Earnings and Hours, Australia, May 2014 Quality Declaration 
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 22/01/2015   
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ALL EMPLOYEES

Analysis of results for all employees provides an opportunity to compare broad earnings and employee characteristics by classifications of interest such as sex, method of setting pay, occupation, industry and sector, with the influence of compositional factors such as the proportion of part-time or casual employees. For example, an industry with low average weekly total cash earnings may have a high proportion of part-time or casual employees relative to other industries.


Key results by category

The diagram below shows for employees in scope of the May 2014 Survey of Employee Earnings and Hours, the proportion of employees by category of employee.
This diagram shows for employees in scope of the May 2014 Survey of Employee Earnings and Hours, the proportion of employees by category of employee

In May 2014 there were 9,898,900 employees, of whom 49.5% were male and 50.5% were female. Average weekly total cash earnings was $1,182.40 for all employees, $1,429.80 for male employees and $940.20 for female employees. The average age of both male and all female employees was 39.5 years.

Full-time employees made up 60.0% of all employees, had average weekly total cash earnings of $1,568.80 and had an average age of 40.4 years. Part-time employees accounted for 40.0% of all employees, had average weekly total cash earnings of $602.80 and had an average age of 38.1 years.

Male employees were predominantly full-time (76.6% of male employees). Full-time males had average weekly total cash earnings of $1,680.70 and an average age of 40.8 years. Part-time male employees had average weekly total cash earnings of $608.00 and were, on average, younger than full-time males with an average age of 35.5 years.


Graph Image for Average Weekly Total Cash Earnings, Employment status, May 2014


More female employees were employed part-time (56.2%) than full-time (43.7%). Average weekly total cash earnings was $1,376.90 for full-time females and $600.70 for part-time females. There was less difference between the average age of full-time females (39.8 years) and part-time females (39.2 years) than displayed by their male counterparts.

The majority of employees (78.4%) were employed on a permanent or fixed term basis. These employees had average weekly total cash earnings of $1,354.60 in May 2014. Average weekly total cash earnings was $1,579.80 for permanent or fixed term males and $1,110.00 for permanent or fixed term females.

Casual employees accounted for 21.6% of employees and had average weekly total cash earnings of $555.70. Male casual employees had average weekly total cash earnings of $719.80 and represent 17.4% of total male employees. Male casual employees had an average age of 33.6 years, younger than the average age of female casual employees (35.0 years). Female casual employees had average weekly total cash earnings of $446.10 and represent 25.6% of total female employees.

Graph Image for Average Weekly Total Cash Earnings, Employment type, May 2014


Three in five (59.7%) employees were aged 35 years and over. Slightly less than two in five (37.3%) of all employees were aged 45 years and over. Employees aged 24 years and under comprised 16.2% of all employees. Average weekly total cash earnings was highest for employees aged between 35 and 44 years of age ($1,393.20) and between 45 to 54 years of age ($1,389.70).


ALL EMPLOYEES, Average weekly total cash earnings and Number of Employees–Age category, May 2014
AVERAGE WEEKLY TOTAL
CASH EARNINGS ($)
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES
('000)

Age category
17 years and under
152.40
229.2
18 to 20 years
443.90
529.9
21 to 24 years
757.10
844.9
25 to 34 years
1,183.30
2,387.7
35 to 44 years
1,393.20
2,211.0
45 to 54 years
1,389.70
2,074.6
55 to 64 years
1,285.80
1,359.9
65 years and over
983.90
261.9
All employees
1,182.40
9,898.9



Occupation

Among major occupation groups, Managers had both the highest average weekly total cash earnings ($2,113.80) and the highest average age (44.2 years). Sales workers had the lowest average weekly total cash earnings ($628.60) and average age (33.3 years). Managers comprised 9.2% of all employees and Sales workers comprised 13.1% of all employees.

The largest proportion of employees were Professionals (20.9%) who received average weekly total cash earnings of $1,548.20 and had an average age of 40.9 years. The smallest proportion of employees were Machinery operators and drivers (6.3%) who received average weekly total cash earnings of $1,349.40 and had an average age of 43.8 years.


Industry

Average weekly total cash earnings was highest for employees in the Mining industry ($2,499.60), who represented 1.7% of all employees and had an average age of 41.4 years. The lowest average weekly total cash earnings was for employees in the Accommodation and food services industry ($561.60), who represented 7.5% of employees and had the lowest average age of all industries (30.1 years).

The largest proportion of employees were in the Health care and social assistance industry (12.8%), who received average weekly total cash earnings of $1,083.90 and had an average age of 43.6 years. Employees in the Public administration and safety industry had the highest average age (44.7 years), followed closely by those in the Transport, postal and warehousing industry (44.2 years).


Graph Image for Average Weekly Total Cash Earnings, Industry, May 2014


States and territories

The average weekly total cash earnings of all employees was highest in the Australian Capital Territory ($1,360.80), the Northern Territory ($1,322.40) and Western Australia ($1,289.80). The average weekly total cash earnings of all employees was lowest in Tasmania ($986.70).


Sector

Average weekly total cash earnings for all employees was higher in the public sector ($1,415.90) than in the private sector ($1,128.20). Private sector employees comprised 81.2% of all employees and public sector employees comprised 18.8% of all employees. The average age of public sector employees was 44.4 years, older than that of their private sector counterparts (38.4 years).


Employer Size

Businesses with under 20 employees employed almost a quarter (23.3%) of all employees other than Owner managers of incorporated enterprises, and 58.0% of employees paid at the apprentice or trainee rate. Average weekly total cash earnings was lowest in businesses with under 20 employees ($873.70) and highest in businesses with 1,000 and over employees ($1,323.80) and 100-999 employees ($1,317.70). Businesses with under 20 employees had the lowest average weekly total cash earnings for employees paid at the adult rate ($934.80). Employees paid the adult rate in businesses with 100-999 employees and 1,000 and over employees received the highest average total cash earnings ($1,387.10 and $1,375.60 respectively).


DISTRIBUTION OF EARNINGS FOR ALL EMPLOYEES

Weekly total cash earnings, Employment status

Median weekly total cash earnings was $1,360.00 for all full-time employees paid at the adult rate of pay, and $1,338.00 for all full-time employees. The lowest paid 10% of all full-time employees paid at the adult rate of pay received weekly total cash earnings of $838.00 or less, and the highest paid 10% received $2,571.00 or more.

The inter quartile range (i.e. the middle 50%) of weekly total cash earnings for all full-time employees was from $1,000.00 to $1,850.00.

Median weekly total cash earnings for all part-time employees was $511.00. One in 10 part-time employees received weekly total cash earnings of $122.00 or less, and one in 10 part-time employees received $1,151.00 or more.

ALL EMPLOYEES, Distribution of weekly total cash earnings–Employment status, May 2014
FULL-TIME EMPLOYEES
PART-TIME EMPLOYEES
ALL EMPLOYEES
Employees paid at the
adult rate of pay
Total
Total
Total
WEEKLY TOTAL CASH EARNINGS ($) (a)

Deciles and quartiles
10th Percentile
838.00
800.00
122.00
259.00
20th Percentile
964.00
943.00
213.00
483.00
25th Percentile (1st quartile)
1,025.00
1,000.00
267.00
594.00
30th Percentile
1,084.00
1,058.00
313.00
693.00
40th Percentile
1,214.00
1,189.00
410.00
857.00
50th Percentile (median) (2nd quartile)
1,360.00
1,338.00
511.00
1,001.00
60th Percentile
1,536.00
1,514.00
620.00
1,174.00
70th Percentile
1,745.00
1,725.00
732.00
1,396.00
75th Percentile (3rd quartile)
1,876.00
1,850.00
797.00
1,532.00
80th Percentile
2,047.00
2,021.00
884.00
1,687.00
90th Percentile
2,571.00
2,548.00
1,151.00
2,178.00
Average weekly total cash earnings
1,600.50
1,568.80
602.80
1,182.40

(a) Percentiles are based on whole dollars only.

Method of setting pay

The most common methods of setting pay across all employees in May 2014 were Collective agreement (41.1%) and Individual arrangement (36.6%). Award only was the least common method (18.8%). The remaining 3.4% of employees were Owner managers of incorporated enterprises. For full-time employees, the most common method of setting pay was Individual arrangement (44.6%). The most common method of setting pay for part-time employees was Collective agreement (45.8%).


Graph Image for Methods of Setting Pay, All employees, May 2014


For all employees, average weekly total cash earnings was highest for employees paid by Individual arrangement ($1,376.10), followed by Owner managers of incorporated enterprises ($1,316.70), Collective agreement ($1,214.00) and Award only ($711.20). For full-time employees only, those whose pay was set by Collective agreement had the highest average weekly total cash earnings ($1,654.90), followed by Individual arrangement ($1,648.90), Owner managers of incorporated enterprises ($1,455.30) and Award only ($1,072.80).

For all male employees, the most common method of setting pay was Individual arrangement (41.6%), and the most common method of setting pay for all female employees was Collective agreement (44.8%).

Average weekly total cash earnings for all female employees was $940.20, around two thirds (65.8%) of the average received by male employees ($1,429.80). Earnings for females as a proportion of male earnings was highest for Owner managers of incorporated enterprises (76.0%) and lowest for employees paid by Individual arrangement (65.8%),

Graph Image for Average Weekly Total Cash Earnings, Method of setting pay, May 2014


Collective agreement was the most common method of setting pay for permanent or fixed term employees (42.7%). For casual employees, Award only was the most common method of setting pay (38.9%).


Occupation

Around one in two Professionals (50.6%) and Community and personal service workers (50.1%) were paid by Collective agreement. Collective agreement was also the most common method of setting pay for Machinery operators and drivers (48.5%), Sales workers (44.0%) and Labourers (43.6%).

Individual arrangement was the most common method of setting pay for Managers (58.7%), Clerical and administrative workers (49.4%) and Technicians and trades workers (43.9%).

Although Award only was not the most common method of setting pay for any occupation group, the occupations with the largest proportion of employees paid by Award only were Community and personal service workers (34.2%), Labourers (31.4%) and Sales workers (29.7%).

Managers paid by Individual arrangement had the highest average weekly total cash earnings ($2,312.30). Sales workers paid by Award only had the lowest average weekly total cash earnings ($470.60).


Industry

The proportion of the Award only method of setting pay for employees was highest in Accommodation and food services industry (42.8%). The Collective agreement method was highest for Education and training (84.1%). The Professional, scientific and technical services (71.2%) and Wholesale trade (71.2%) industries had the highest proportion of employees paid by Individual arrangement. Owner managers of incorporated enterprises were most prevalent in the Construction industry (10.8%).

Employees in the Mining industry paid by Individual arrangement had the highest average weekly total cash earnings ($2,537.80). Employees paid by Collective agreement in the Accommodation and food services industry had the lowest average weekly total cash earnings ($422.50).


States and territories

Tasmania had the highest proportion of employees whose pay was set by Award only (27.3%). The Australian Capital Territory had the highest proportion of employees whose pay was set by Collective agreement (62.8%), and Western Australia had the highest proportion of employees whose pay was set by Individual arrangement (44.0%).

Of all methods of setting pay, Owner managers of incorporated enterprises in Western Australia and the Northern Territory received the highest average weekly total cash earnings ($1,839.10 and $1,613.60 respectively). Of employees paid by Collective agreement, the highest average weekly total cash earnings was received by employees in the Australian Capital Territory ($1,524.90). The Australian Capital Territory also had the highest average weekly total cash earnings for employees under Individual arrangement ($1,462.60).

Employees paid by Award only in the Australian Capital Territory had the lowest average weekly total cash earnings ($550.40) of all states and territories. Of those employees paid by Award only, the highest average weekly total cash earnings was received in the Northern Territory ($868.50).


Sector

The most common method of setting pay in the private sector was Individual arrangement (44.4%), followed by Collective agreement (30.4%). The average weekly total cash earnings for private sector employees paid by Individual arrangement was $1,362.70 and by Collective agreement was $1,099.10. Almost nine in 10 (87.2%) employees in the public sector were paid by Collective agreement. Average weekly total cash earnings for these employees was $1,386.60.

Employees paid by Award only made up 21.0% of employees in the private sector and 9.5% of employees in the public sector. Employees paid by Award only received average weekly total cash earnings of $635.60 in the private sector and $1,429.10 in the public sector.


Employer Size

Of those employees paid by Individual arrangement, almost two in five (38.4%) were employed by businesses with under 20 employees. A similar proportion (37.9%) of employees paid by Award only also worked for businesses with under 20 employees. Those employees who had their pay set by Collective agreement were mostly employed by businesses with 1,000 and over employees (55.3%) or 100-999 employees (31.7%).

With the exception of businesses with under 20 employees, employees paid by Individual arrangement had higher average weekly total cash earnings than those paid by Collective agreement or Award only. Employees of businesses with under 20 employees paid by Collective agreement ($1,073.60) had higher average weekly total cash earnings than those paid by Individual arrangement ($1,017.30) or Award only ($554.30).

Of employees other than Owner managers of incorporated enterprises, those paid by Individual arrangement working for employers with 1,000 and over employees received the highest average weekly total cash earnings ($2,044.70), and those paid by Award only in businesses with under 20 employees received the lowest ($554.30).