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5271.0 - Australian National Accounts: Cultural and Creative Activity Satellite Accounts, Experimental, 2008-09  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 10/02/2014  First Issue
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ANALYSIS OF RESULTS


KEY RESULTS

In 2008-09, cultural and creative activity is estimated to have contributed $86.0 billion (6.9%) to Australia's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on a national accounts basis. The figure below shows how this was distributed between cultural activity and creative activity, including the value of the overlap between these two segments of the economy. Appendix 1 lists the industries covered by the accounts and the domains (groups of related activities) they are classified to in the summary tables of this publication. Appendix 2 lists the occupations covered by the accounts.


CULTURAL AND CREATIVE ACTIVITY GDP - NATIONAL ACCOUNTS BASIS, 2008-09

Diagram: Key results

Cultural activity is estimated to have contributed $50.1 billion (4.0%) to GDP in 2008-09, while creative activity contributed $78.3 billion (6.3%). The industries and occupations common to these two segments accounted for $42.4 billion (3.4%) - this common activity is counted only once in the combined account for cultural and creative activity.

The different results for cultural activity and creative activity are mainly due to the creative segment containing the Computer System Design and Related Services industry, and the manufacturing, wholesaling and retailing industries for clothing and footwear products.

When the values of volunteer services and non-market output of market producers are included, cultural and creative activity is estimated to have contributed $86.8 billion to GDP in 2008-09 on a satellite account basis. Cultural activity contributed $50.9 billion to GDP on a satellite account basis, while creative activity contributed $79.1 billion. These results are not reported as a percentage of GDP because volunteer services and non-market output are excluded from the normal national accounts production boundary.


COMPONENTS OF CULTURAL AND CREATIVE ACTIVITY

Gross Value Added (GVA) for the cultural and creative industries is estimated to be $65.8 billion in 2008-09. The largest contributors to GVA were the domains of Design ($26.6 billion), Literature and print media ($12.8 billion) and Fashion ($11.8 billion).

CULTURAL AND CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, GVA by domain - 2008-09
Graph: CULTURAL AND CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, GVA by domain—2008-09


Net taxes on products attributable to cultural and creative industries are estimated to be $5.0 billion in 2008-09.

Outside the cultural and creative industries, the Compensation of Employees received by people working in cultural and creative occupations is estimated to be $15.2 billion in 2008-09. The largest contributing industries were Public Administration and Safety ($2.4 billion), Financial and Insurance Services ($2.1 billion), and Education and Training ($1.7 billion).

The value of volunteer services to arts and heritage organisations is estimated to be $756 million in 2008-09.

Non-market output of market producers in the cultural and creative industries is estimated to be $68 million in 2008-09.

There was an average of 972,200 people during 2008-09 whose main employment was in a cultural or creative industry or occupation. Of this total:
  • 265,200 were in cultural or creative occupations within the cultural and creative industries;
  • 505,000 were in other occupations within the cultural and creative industries; and
  • 202,000 were in cultural or creative occupations in other industries.

At the end of June 2009, there were 164,730 entities actively trading as a business or non-profit institution within the cultural and creative industries. This was 4,311 (2.6%) lower than at the end of June 2008. Between these two periods, there were 24,631 entries, 28,487 exits and a -455 net movement of surviving entities to other industries.


COMPONENTS OF CULTURAL ACTIVITY

GVA for the cultural industries is estimated to be $35.2 billion in 2008-09. The largest contributors to GVA were the domains of Literature and print media ($12.5 billion), Design ($8.2 billion) and Broadcasting, electronic or digital media, and film ($7.3 billion).

CULTURAL INDUSTRIES, GVA by domain - 2008-09
Graph: CULTURAL INDUSTRIES, GVA by domain—2008-09


Net taxes on products attributable to cultural industries are estimated to be $2.3 billion in 2008-09.

Outside the cultural industries, the Compensation of Employees received by people working in cultural occupations is estimated to be $12.5 billion in 2008-09. The largest contributing industries were Public Administration and Safety ($1.8 billion), Professional, Scientific and Technical Services ($1.8 billion), and Education and Training ($1.5 billion).

The value of volunteer services to arts and heritage organisations is estimated to be $756 million in 2008-09.

Non-market output of market producers in the cultural industries is estimated to be $55 million in 2008-09.

There was an average of 653,600 people during 2008-09 whose main employment was in a cultural industry or occupation. Of this total:
  • 219,200 were in cultural occupations within the cultural industries;
  • 255,400 were in other occupations within the cultural industries; and
  • 179,000 were in cultural occupations in other industries.

At the end of June 2009, there were 98,656 entities actively trading as a business or non-profit institution within the cultural industries. This was 3,395 (3.3%) lower than at the end of June 2008. Between these two periods, there were 13,940 entries, 16,847 exits and a -488 net movement of surviving entities to other industries.


COMPONENTS OF CREATIVE ACTIVITY

GVA for the creative industries is estimated to be $57.9 billion in 2008-09. The largest contributors to GVA were the domains of Design ($26.6 billion), Fashion ($11.8 billion) and Literature and print media ($7.6 billion).

CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, GVA by domain - 2008-09
Graph: CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, GVA by domain—2008-09


Net taxes on products attributable to creative industries are estimated to be $7.6 billion in 2008-09.

Outside the creative industries, the Compensation of Employees received by people working in creative occupations is estimated to be $12.9 billion in 2008-09. The largest contributing industries were Financial and Insurance Services ($2.0 billion), Public Administration and Safety ($1.9 billion), and Manufacturing ($1.2 billion).

The value of volunteer services to arts and heritage organisations is estimated to be $756 million in 2008-09.

Non-market output of market producers in the creative industries is estimated to be $60 million in 2008-09.

There was an average of 769,800 people during 2008-09 whose main employment was in a creative industry or occupation. Of this total:
  • 177,400 were in creative occupations within the creative industries;
  • 430,200 were in other occupations within the creative industries; and
  • 162,200 were in creative occupations in other industries.

At the end of June 2009, there were 145,287 entities actively trading as a business or non-profit institution within the creative industries. This was 3,330 (2.2%) lower than at the end of June 2008. Between these two periods, there were 22,616 entries, 25,591 exits and a -355 net movement of surviving entities to other industries.


INDUSTRY COMPARISONS

Activity in the cultural and creative industries contributed an estimated $65.8 billion (or 5.6%) to Australia's GVA in 2008-09. To put this into context, this contribution was similar to the GVA contribution of Health Care and Social Assistance ($68.0 billion or 5.8%).

Industry contribution to GVA - 2008-09

ANZSIC Division
GVA ($m)
% of Aus GVA

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
29 043
2.5
Mining
114 382
9.8
Manufacturing
109 117
9.3
Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services
27 154
2.3
Construction
89 641
7.7
Wholesale Trade
53 132
4.5
Retail Trade
57 064
4.9
Accommodation and Food Services
28 254
2.4
Transport, Postal and Warehousing
62 744
5.4
Information Media and Telecommunications
39 545
3.4
Financial and Insurance Services
121 272
10.4
Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services
119 194
10.2
Professional, Scientific and Technical Services
74 344
6.4
Administrative and Support Services
29 010
2.5
Public Administration and Safety
60 608
5.2
Education and Training
53 286
4.6
Health Care and Social Assistance
68 012
5.8
Arts and Recreation Services
10 448
0.9
Other Services
22 625
1.9
Total
1 168 875
100.0

Source: Australian National Accounts: Input-Output Tables, 2008-09 (cat. no. 5209.0.55.001)



INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS

Cultural and creative satellite accounts and similar works published for other nations have used a variety of statistical definitions and measurement approaches. On a national accounts basis, the shares of Australian GDP estimated for cultural and creative activity in 2008-09 are higher than in the estimates published for Canada, Finland, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. This mainly reflects scope and coverage differences:
  • estimates for other nations cover either culture or creative activity whereas the Australian accounts encompass both;
  • the Australian accounts for 'creative' include the fashion industry (including clothing and footwear manufacturing, wholesale trade and retail trade) and part of the information technology industries (Computer Systems Design and Related Services); and
  • the Australian accounts include activity in non-cultural and creative industries that is performed by workers in cultural and creative occupations.

To give an indication of the impact of these differences, when the activity of cultural occupations in non-cultural industries is excluded from the cultural activity account, cultural activity as a share of Australian GDP drops from 4.0% to 3.0% on a national accounts basis, which is similar to or below the estimates for Canada, Finland, Spain and the United States of America. If we exclude from the creative activity account the estimates for creative occupations in non-creative industries, as well as the contributions of the fashion and information technology industries, creative activity as a share of Australian GDP drops from 6.3% to 2.8% on a national accounts basis, which is slightly below the estimate for the United Kingdom.

The development of international standards, such as those which exist for other types of satellite accounts, would help to increase the level of international comparability in the future. The ABS welcomes opportunities to collaborate towards this objective.

Satellite Account Share of GVA or GDP

Segment Share Reference period

Canada(a) Culture 3.8% of GDP 2003
Finland(b) Culture 3.1% to 3.7% of GVA 1995-2005
Spain(c) Culture 2.8% to 3.2% of GDP 2000-2009
United Kingdom(d) Creative 2.89% of GVA 2009
United States of America(e) Culture 3.2% to 3.7% of GDP 1998-2011

(a) Statistics Canada (2007), Economic Contribution of the Culture Sector to Canada's Provinces
(b) Ministry of Education (2009), Culture Satellite Account: Final report of pilot project
(c) Ministry of Culture (2011), Satellite Account on Culture in Spain: Advance of 2000-2009 results
(d) Department for Culture, Media and Sport (2011), Creative Industries Economic Estimates: Full Statistical Release
(e) U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (2013), Arts and Cultural Production Satellite Account



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