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4602.0 - Environmental Issues: People's Views and Practices, Mar 2007  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 06/12/2007  Final
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Contents >> Sources of water >> Sources of water Tables

2.11 Sources of water for households - 2007

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
NT(a)(b)
ACT(b)
Aust.

NUMBER(c) ('000)

Capital city
Mains/town water
1 630.9
1 392.9
701.1
468.5
593.6
74.5
56.3
128.7
5 046.5
Rainwater tank(d)
112.4
109.5
109.2
177.7
41.7
10.3
*3.4
8.6
572.7
Purchased bottled water
298.9
201.3
144.6
112.7
131.4
13.0
7.2
19.4
928.4
Bore/well
*8.4
*8.4
10.5
15.1
152.7
*1.4
*5.0
-
201.4
River/creek/dam
*7.7
**4.3
*6.0
**2.9
*3.0
*1.8
-
-
25.7
Rainwater collected in other container
118.1
128.6
32.9
8.5
15.1
*1.7
np
np
314.7
Grey water
716.5
999.9
454.5
256.0
255.9
28.1
19.8
81.2
2 811.8
Other(e)
*23.3
*7.1
*4.6
*4.5
6.4
*3.8
np
np
50.0
Total households
1 637.5
1 408.0
718.6
480.6
607.3
82.8
61.4
128.7
5 124.8
Balance of state/territory
Mains/town water
910.7
470.3
704.9
141.0
168.3
92.7
-
-
2 487.9
Rainwater tank(d)
308.9
222.9
236.6
118.0
67.9
32.3
-
-
986.7
Purchased bottled water
196.4
133.0
148.9
30.8
42.9
21.7
-
-
573.7
Bore/well
80.5
*34.8
91.7
*27.4
31.4
*5.0
-
-
270.8
River/creek/dam
57.4
55.8
44.5
*8.0
*11.8
11.9
-
-
189.5
Rainwater collected in other container
55.0
27.6
47.7
*4.3
*5.5
3.8
-
-
143.9
Grey water
531.3
423.6
391.7
97.7
92.1
45.5
-
-
1 581.7
Other(e)
*23.0
*18.5
15.0
**1.5
*5.3
7.6
-
-
71.0
Total households
1 034.9
576.7
844.4
170.6
198.2
116.3
-
-
2 941.1
Total state/territory
Mains/town water
2 541.6
1 863.2
1 406.1
609.5
761.8
167.2
56.3
128.7
7 534.4
Rainwater tank(d)
421.4
332.4
345.7
295.7
109.6
42.7
*3.4
8.6
1 559.4
Purchased bottled water
495.3
334.3
293.5
143.5
174.3
34.7
7.2
19.4
1 502.2
Bore/well
88.9
43.1
102.2
42.5
184.0
*6.4
*5.0
-
472.2
River/creek/dam
65.2
60.1
50.5
*10.9
14.8
13.6
-
-
215.2
Rainwater collected in other container
173.1
156.1
80.6
12.8
20.6
5.5
np
np
458.6
Grey water
1 247.8
1 423.4
846.2
353.7
347.9
73.6
19.8
81.2
4 393.6
Other(e)
46.3
*25.5
19.6
6.1
11.7
11.4
np
np
120.9
Total households
2 672.3
1 984.8
1 563.0
651.1
805.5
199.1
61.4
128.7
8 065.9

PROPORTION (%)

Capital city
Mains/town water
99.6
98.9
97.6
97.5
97.7
89.9
91.8
100.0
98.5
Rainwater tank(d)
6.9
7.8
15.2
37.0
6.9
12.5
*5.5
6.7
11.2
Purchased bottled water
18.3
14.3
20.1
23.5
21.6
15.7
11.7
15.1
18.1
Bore/well
*0.5
*0.6
1.5
3.1
25.1
*1.7
*8.2
-
3.9
River/creek/dam
*0.5
**0.3
*0.8
**0.6
*0.5
*2.1
-
-
0.5
Rainwater collected in other container
7.2
9.1
4.6
1.8
2.5
*2.0
np
np
6.1
Grey water
43.8
71.0
63.2
53.3
42.1
33.9
32.2
63.1
54.9
Other(e)
*1.4
*0.5
*0.6
*0.9
1.1
*4.6
np
np
1.0
Balance of state/territory
Mains/town water
88.0
81.5
83.5
82.7
84.9
79.7
-
-
84.6
Rainwater tank(d)
29.9
38.7
28.0
69.2
34.2
27.8
-
-
33.5
Purchased bottled water
19.0
23.1
17.6
18.0
21.7
18.7
-
-
19.5
Bore/well
7.8
*6.0
10.9
*16.1
15.8
*4.3
-
-
9.2
River/creek/dam
5.6
9.7
5.3
*4.7
*6.0
10.2
-
-
6.4
Rainwater collected in other container
5.3
4.8
5.6
*2.5
*2.8
3.3
-
-
4.9
Grey water
51.3
73.4
46.4
57.3
46.4
39.1
-
-
53.8
Other(e)
*2.2
*3.2
1.8
**0.9
*2.7
6.5
-
-
2.4
Total state/territory
Mains/town water
95.1
93.9
90.0
93.6
94.6
84.0
91.8
100.0
93.4
Rainwater tank(d)
15.8
16.7
22.1
45.4
13.6
21.4
*5.5
6.7
19.3
Purchased bottled water
18.5
16.8
18.8
22.0
21.6
17.4
11.7
15.1
18.6
Bore/well
3.3
2.2
6.5
6.5
22.8
*3.2
*8.2
-
5.9
River/creek/dam
2.4
3.0
3.2
*1.7
1.8
6.9
-
-
2.7
Rainwater collected in other container
6.5
7.9
5.2
2.0
2.6
2.8
np
np
5.7
Grey water
46.7
71.7
54.1
54.3
43.2
37.0
32.2
63.1
54.5
Other(e)
1.7
*1.3
1.3
0.9
1.5
5.7
np
np
1.5

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
** estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered too unreliable for general use
- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated
(a) Northern Territory data refers to mainly urban areas only.
(b) No regional split between capital city and balance of state/territory for NT and ACT as the sample does not support any breakdown beyond the whole territory.
(c) Totals do not equal the sum of items in each column as more than one source can be specified.
(d) Includes households that use a rainwater tank as a source of water. Excludes households that have a rainwater tank installed at the dwelling but do not use the tank as a source of water.
(e) Other includes spring and water delivered in a tanker.

2.12 Sources of water in households(a)

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
NT(b)
ACT
Aust.

MARCH 2007 (%)

Mains/town water
95.1
93.9
90.0
93.6
94.6
84.0
91.8
100.0
93.4
Rainwater tank
15.8
16.7
22.1
45.4
13.6
21.4
*5.5
6.7
19.3
Purchased bottled water
18.5
16.8
18.8
22.0
21.6
17.4
11.7
15.1
18.6
Bore/well
3.3
2.2
6.5
6.5
22.8
*3.2
*8.2
-
5.9
River/creek/dam(c)
2.4
3.0
3.2
*1.7
1.8
6.9
-
-
2.7
Rainwater collected in other container
6.5
7.9
5.2
2.0
2.6
2.8
np
np
5.7
Grey water(d)
46.7
71.7
54.1
54.3
43.2
37.0
32.2
63.1
54.5
Other(e)
1.7
*1.3
1.3
0.9
1.5
5.7
np
np
1.5

MARCH 2004 (%)

Mains/towns water
94.3
93.9
89.0
96.1
94.7
84.9
95.0
100.0
93.2
Rainwater tank
12.8
16.0
17.4
48.2
12.1
19.6
(f)5.3
3.2
17.2
Purchased bottled water
24.8
18.1
16.9
22.0
19.4
16.1
15.3
25.9
20.6
Bore/Well
3.3
1.8
6.9
4.8
22.7
2.6
(f)6.8
(f)0.1
5.7
River/creek/dam
3.0
2.7
3.4
(f)0.8
1.9
6.8
-
-
2.7
Other
1.8
2.6
1.2
1.7
1.1
3.0
(f)0.5
(f)1.3
1.8

MARCH 2001 (%)

Mains/Town water
95.3
93.1
90.1
94.9
95.6
87.3
96.5
100.0
93.6
Rainwater tank
9.7
13.5
17.5
51.8
10.4
17.2
(f)1.3
(f)2.0
15.7
Purchased bottled water
16.9
14.2
12.6
23.6
18.0
9.1
12.0
10.5
15.7
Bore/Well
2.4
2.0
6.8
4.1
19.9
*2.9
(f)3.8
(f)0.1
5.0
River/Creek/Dam
2.8
5.0
4.9
2.3
1.7
6.1
-
-
3.6
Other
0.6
0.9
1.2
*1.4
(f)0.9
(f)2.0
(f)0.4
(f)0.2
0.9

MARCH 1998 (%)

Mains/town water
93.0
92.5
89.4
96.1
97.0
87.6
91.9
100.0
92.8
Rainwater tank
12.3
13.9
18.0
53.5
9.8
16.7
(f)5.0
(f)1.2
16.9
Purchased bottled water
10.6
10.4
9.5
20.2
13.7
8.8
9.8
12.9
11.5
Bore/well
2.4
2.5
8.3
2.9
20.6
2.5
(f)9.1
-
5.3
River/Creek/Dam
4.5
3.5
4.4
1.8
1.3
6.2
(f)1.0
-
3.6
Other
1.4
2.0
1.3
1.6
(f)0.6
(f)1.6
-
-
1.4

JUNE 1994 (%)

Mains/town water
94.4
93.4
88.7
95.4
93.6
86.1
95.4
100.0
93.0
Rainwater tank
9.1
12.6
17.7
48.0
11.2
17.9
(f)2.6
(f)0.9
15.2
Purchased bottled water
2.5
1.3
2.1
9.3
3.5
(f)0.6
(f)1.8
(f)1.3
2.8
Bore
2.2
2.0
7.5
4.4
20.9
2.0
7.5
-
5.1
Other
3.1
2.6
3.9
3.7
3.4
8.6
(f)0.4
(f)0.3
3.3

* estimate is subject to sampling variability too high for most practical purposes
- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated
(a) The sum of items in each column are greater than 100% as more than one source can be specified.
(b) Northern Territory data refers to mainly urban areas only.
(c) Not available in 1994.
(d) Not available prior to 2007.
(e) Other includes spring and water delivered in tanker.
(f) Estimate is subject to sampling variability too high for most practical purposes.

2.13 Households main source of water for gardening(a)(b) - 2007

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
NT(c)(d)
ACT(d)
Aust.

NUMBER ('000)

Capital city
Mains/town water
447.5
421.0
86.2
307.7
353.4
51.0
38.0
65.5
1 770.2
Rainwater tank
68.2
43.8
45.0
33.8
*3.6
np
np
3.6
200.8
Bore/well
*7.0
*4.8
*5.4
12.7
139.6
np
np
-
173.9
River/creek/dam
**4.5
**2.2
*1.7
np
np
**0.6
-
-
*10.9
Rainwater collected in other container
22.2
np
*4.1
np
np
np
-
**0.5
40.2
Grey water
254.4
489.1
233.7
42.6
24.2
8.5
*1.8
24.2
1 078.5
Don't water/rely on rainfall only
318.5
218.5
227.6
41.2
19.7
12.7
8.9
24.1
871.3
Other(a)
*17.3
np
-
np
np
np
-
-
*19.1
Total households
1 139.5
1 193.1
603.8
438.8
542.6
76.9
52.4
117.9
4 164.9
Balance of state/territory
Mains/town water
421.8
115.5
256.5
82.3
126.2
59.8
-
-
1 062.1
Rainwater tank
64.6
32.9
48.7
14.9
*4.6
np
-
-
171.6
Bore/well
60.6
*22.5
53.0
*16.6
25.6
np
-
-
181.6
River/creek/dam
*25.9
*34.0
22.1
np
np
6.7
-
-
101.4
Rainwater collected in other container
*5.9
np
*4.4
np
np
np
-
-
11.2
Grey water
132.6
244.1
123.7
14.7
8.7
10.7
-
-
534.5
Don't water/rely on rainfall only
176.9
69.8
201.0
12.4
*7.1
21.1
-
-
488.4
Other(a)
**6.7
np
**2.8
np
np
np
-
-
*17.9
Total households
895.0
522.7
712.2
146.7
182.7
109.4
-
-
2 568.7
Total state/territory
Mains/town water
869.3
536.4
342.7
390.0
479.7
110.8
38.0
65.5
2 832.3
Rainwater tank
132.8
76.7
93.8
48.6
*8.2
np
np
3.6
372.3
Bore/well
67.6
*27.4
58.5
29.3
165.2
np
np
-
355.6
River/creek/dam
30.4
*36.2
23.8
*5.1
*9.5
7.4
-
-
112.3
Rainwater collected in other container
28.1
13.0
8.5
np
np
np
-
**0.5
51.4
Grey water
386.9
733.2
357.4
57.3
32.9
19.1
*1.8
24.2
1 612.9
Don't water/rely on rainfall only
495.4
288.4
428.7
53.6
26.8
33.8
8.9
24.1
1 359.7
Other(a)
*24.0
*4.7
**2.8
np
np
np
-
-
37.0
Total households
2 034.5
1 715.8
1 316.0
585.4
725.3
186.4
52.4
117.9
6 733.6

PROPORTION (%)

Capital city
Mains/town water
39.3
35.3
14.3
70.1
65.1
66.3
72.5
55.6
42.5
Rainwater tank
6.0
3.7
7.5
7.7
*0.7
np
np
3.0
4.8
Bore/well
*0.6
*0.4
*0.9
2.9
25.7
np
np
-
4.2
River/creek/dam
**0.4
**0.2
*0.3
np
np
**0.8
-
-
*0.3
Rainwater collected in other container
1.9
np
*0.7
np
np
np
-
**0.4
1.0
Grey water
22.3
41.0
38.7
9.7
4.5
11.0
*3.5
20.5
25.9
Don't water/rely on rainfall only
27.9
18.3
37.7
9.4
3.6
16.6
17.0
20.5
20.9
Other(a)
*1.5
np
-
np
np
np
-
-
*0.5
Balance of state/territory
Mains/town water
47.1
22.1
36.0
56.1
69.1
54.7
-
-
41.3
Rainwater tank
7.2
6.3
6.8
10.1
*2.5
np
-
-
6.7
Bore/well
6.8
*4.3
7.4
*11.3
14.0
np
-
-
7.1
River/creek/dam
*2.9
*6.5
3.1
np
np
6.1
-
-
3.9
Rainwater collected in other container
*0.7
np
*0.6
np
np
np
-
-
0.4
Grey water
14.8
46.7
17.4
10.0
4.8
9.8
-
-
20.8
Don't water/rely on rainfall only
19.8
13.4
28.2
8.5
*3.9
19.3
-
-
19.0
Other(a)
**0.7
np
**0.4
np
np
np
-
-
*0.7
Total state/territory
Mains/town water
42.7
31.3
26.0
66.6
66.1
59.5
72.5
55.6
42.1
Rainwater tank
6.5
4.5
7.1
8.3
*1.1
np
np
3.0
5.5
Bore/well
3.3
*1.6
4.4
5.0
22.8
np
np
-
5.3
River/creek/dam
1.5
*2.1
1.8
*0.9
*1.3
4.0
-
-
1.7
Rainwater collected in other container
1.4
0.8
0.6
np
np
np
-
**0.4
0.8
Grey water
19.0
42.7
27.2
9.8
4.5
10.3
*3.5
20.5
24.0
Don't water/rely on rainfall only
24.3
16.8
32.6
9.2
3.7
18.2
17.0
20.5
20.2
Other(a)(e)
*1.2
*0.3
**0.2
np
np
np
-
-
0.5

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
** estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered too unreliable for general use
- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated
(a) Includes only households which have a garden.
(b) These figures are not directly comparable to those appearing in previous editions (refer to Explanatory Note 17).
(c) Northern Territory data refers mainly to urban areas only.
(d) No regional spilt between capital city and balance of state/territory for NT and ACT as the sample does not support any breakdown beyond the whole territory.
(e) Includes spring and water delivered in a tanker

2.14 Households main source of water for bathing or showering - 2007

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
NT(a)(b)
ACT(b)
Aust.

NUMBER ('000)

Capital city
Mains/town water
1 628.8
1 390.8
692.6
466.5
591.8
74.5
56.1
128.7
5 029.7
Rainwater tank
**5.8
**14.6
*20.6
*12.3
*10.2
*8.0
**0.7
-
72.1
River/creek/dam
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Bore/well
-
-
np
np
np
np
np
-
*10.7
Other(c)
**2.9
**2.6
np
np
np
np
np
-
*12.2
Total households
1 637.5
1 408.0
718.6
480.6
607.3
82.8
61.4
128.7
5 124.8
Balance of state/territory
Mains/town water
896.0
460.1
689.1
122.6
166.5
92.3
-
-
2 426.6
Rainwater tank
117.9
97.1
115.3
40.3
22.6
16.0
-
-
409.3
River/creek/dam
*3.1
*6.9
*6.9
*4.0
*2.7
*3.1
-
-
*26.7
Bore/well
*11.6
*5.6
np
np
np
np
-
-
57.9
Other(c)
*6.2
**7.0
np
np
np
np
-
-
*20.5
Total households
1 034.9
576.7
844.4
170.6
198.2
116.3
-
-
2 941.1
Total state/territory
Mains/town water
2 524.8
1 850.8
1 381.7
589.1
758.3
166.8
56.1
128.7
7 456.3
Rainwater tank
123.7
111.8
135.9
52.6
32.8
24.0
**0.7
-
481.4
River/creek/dam
*3.1
*6.9
*6.9
*4.0
*2.7
*3.1
-
-
*26.7
Bore/well
*11.6
*5.6
28.7
np
*10.1
*3.4
np
-
68.6
Other(c)
*9.0
*9.7
*9.8
np
*1.6
*1.9
np
-
32.8
Total households
2 672.3
1 984.8
1 563.0
651.1
805.5
199.1
61.4
128.7
8 065.9

PROPORTION (%)

Capital city
Mains/town water
99.5
98.8
96.4
97.1
97.4
89.9
91.5
100.0
98.1
Rainwater tank
**0.4
**1.0
*2.9
*2.6
*1.7
*9.6
**1.1
-
1.4
River/creek/dam
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Bore/well
-
-
np
np
np
np
np
-
*0.2
Other(c)
**0.2
**0.2
np
np
np
np
np
-
*0.2
Balance of state/territory
Mains/town water
86.6
79.8
81.6
71.9
84.0
79.4
-
-
82.5
Rainwater tank
11.4
16.8
13.7
23.7
11.4
13.8
-
-
13.9
River/creek/dam
*0.3
*1.2
*0.8
*2.3
*1.4
*2.6
-
-
*0.9
Bore/well
*1.1
*1.0
np
np
np
np
-
-
2.0
Other(c)
*0.6
**1.2
np
np
np
np
-
-
*0.7
Total state/territory
Mains/town water
94.5
93.3
88.4
90.5
94.1
83.8
91.5
100.0
92.4
Rainwater tank
4.6
5.6
8.7
8.1
4.1
12.1
**1.1
-
6.0
River/creek/dam
*0.1
*0.3
*0.4
*0.6
*0.3
*1.5
-
-
*0.3
Bore/well
*0.4
*0.3
1.8
np
*1.3
*1.7
np
-
0.9
Other(c)
*0.3
*0.5
*0.6
np
*0.2
*0.9
np
-
0.4

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
** estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered too unreliable for general use
- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated
(a) Northern Territory data refers to mainly urban areas only.
(b) No regional split between capital city and balance of state/territory for NT and ACT as the sample does not support any breakdown beyond the whole territory.
(c) Includes no bathroom at dwelling, water delivered in tanker, spring and rainwater collected in container other than water tank.

2.15 Households main source of water for washing clothes(a) - 2007

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
NT(b)(c)
ACT(c)
Aust.

NUMBER ('000)

Capital city
Mains/town water
1 535.2
1 336.2
673.4
452.9
576.1
73.1
54.5
127.0
4 828.4
Rainwater tank
*10.3
*15.7
*22.3
*16.4
*9.8
*8.0
**0.7
-
83.2
Bore/well
np
-
np
np
np
np
**4.1
-
np
River/creek/dam
-
-
np
-
-
-
-
-
np
Other (d)
np
10.6
*4.2
np
np
np
-
-
32.6
No laundry/washing machine at dwelling(e)
75.3
45.6
17.3
8.9
*16.3
*1.2
*2.1
**1.6
168.4
Total households
1 637.5
1 408.0
718.6
480.6
607.3
82.8
61.4
128.7
5 124.8
Balance of state/territory
Mains/town water
859.4
451.4
674.2
118.7
164.5
90.8
-
-
2 359.1
Rainwater tank
112.8
91.8
109.8
39.9
21.8
16.2
-
-
392.3
Bore/well
np
*7.7
np
np
np
np
-
-
np
River/creek/dam
**2.4
*6.8
np
*4.5
*2.7
*3.1
-
-
np
Other(d)
np
*11.2
**6.5
np
np
np
-
-
28.6
No laundry/washing machine at dwelling(e)
**35.0
*7.9
*13.9
*2.8
*3.0
*1.4
-
-
*64.0
Total households
1 034.9
576.7
844.4
170.6
198.2
116.3
-
-
2 941.1
Total state/territory
Mains/town water
2 394.6
1 787.6
1 347.7
571.7
740.7
163.9
54.5
127.0
7 187.5
Rainwater tank
123.1
107.5
132.1
56.3
31.6
24.1
**0.7
-
475.5
Bore/well
17.3
*7.7
33.6
np
*9.6
np
**4.1
-
82.1
River/creek/dam
**2.4
*6.8
*7.7
*4.5
*2.7
*3.1
-
-
27.2
Other (d)
24.7
21.8
*10.7
np
*1.6
np
-
-
61.2
No laundry/washing machine at dwelling(e)
110.3
53.4
31.2
11.8
19.3
*2.6
*2.1
**1.6
232.4
Total households
2 672.3
1 984.8
1 563.0
651.1
805.5
199.1
61.4
128.7
8 065.9

PROPORTION (%)

Capital city
Mains/town water
93.8
94.9
93.7
94.2
94.9
88.3
88.7
98.7
94.2
Rainwater tank
*0.6
*1.1
*3.1
*3.4
*1.6
*9.6
**1.1
-
1.6
Bore/well
np
-
np
np
np
np
**6.7
-
np
River/creek/dam
-
-
np
-
-
-
-
-
np
Other (d)
np
0.8
*0.6
np
np
np
-
-
0.6
No laundry/washing machine at dwelling(e)
4.6
3.2
2.4
1.9
*2.7
*1.4
*3.5
**1.3
3.3
Balance of state/territory
Mains/town water
83.0
78.3
79.8
69.6
83.0
78.0
-
-
80.2
Rainwater tank
10.9
15.9
13.0
23.4
11.0
13.9
-
-
13.3
Bore/well
np
*1.3
np
np
np
np
-
-
np
River/creek/dam
**0.2
*1.2
np
*2.6
*1.4
*2.7
-
-
np
Other (d)
np
*1.9
**0.8
np
np
np
-
-
1.0
No laundry/washing machine at dwelling(e)
**3.4
*1.4
*1.6
*1.7
*1.5
*1.2
-
-
*2.2
Total state/territory
Mains/town water
89.6
90.1
86.2
87.8
91.9
82.3
88.7
98.7
89.1
Rainwater tank
4.6
5.4
8.5
8.6
3.9
12.1
**1.1
-
5.9
Bore/well
0.6
*0.4
2.1
*np
*1.2
np
**6.7
-
1.0
River/creek/dam
**0.1
*0.3
*0.5
*0.7
*0.3
*1.6
-
-
0.3
Other (d)
0.9
1.1
0.7
**np
*0.2
np
-
-
0.8
No laundry/washing machine at dwelling(e)
4.1
2.7
2.0
1.8
2.4
*1.3
*3.5
**1.3
2.9

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
** estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered too unreliable for general use
- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated
(a) Where a dwelling with a laundry or washing machine had only one source of water, it was assumed that clothes were washed at dwelling using this water source.
(b) Northern Territory data refers to mainly urban areas only.
(c) No regionals split between capital city and balance of state/territory for the NT and ACT as sample does not support any breakdown beyond the whole territory.
(d) Includes spring, water delivered in tanker, rainwater collected in containers other than rainwater tank and grey water.
(e) Includes clothes not washed at dwelling.

2.16 Households main source of water for flushing toilets - 2007

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
NT
ACT
Aust.

NUMBER ('000)

Mains/town water
2 494.4
1 833.4
1 380.4
601.8
757.8
165.7
56.3
128.3
7 418.1
Rainwater tank
103.4
76.2
114.9
25.7
np
20.5
**0.7
np
365.9
Bore/well
29.4
*21.2
39.1
*16.2
*12.2
*4.5
**4.3
-
126.9
River/creek/dam
*9.6
*23.0
*11.8
*5.7
*6.6
*5.2
-
-
*61.8
Grey water
11.9
20.9
*4.0
**1.0
*2.0
np
-
np
40.1
Other(a)
*17.9
*6.8
**4.3
np
*2.0
np
-
-
33.2
No flushing toilets at dwelling
*5.8
**3.3
*8.5
np
np
**1.1
-
np
19.7
Total households
2 672.3
1 984.8
1 563.0
651.1
805.5
199.1
61.4
128.7
8 065.9

PROPORTION (%)

Mains/town water
93.3
92.4
88.3
92.4
94.1
83.2
91.8
99.7
92.0
Rainwater tank
3.9
3.8
7.4
3.9
np
10.3
**1.1
np
4.5
Bore/well
1.1
*1.1
2.5
*2.5
*1.5
*2.3
**7.1
-
1.6
River/creek/dam
*0.4
*1.2
*0.8
*0.9
*0.8
*2.6
-
-
*0.8
Grey water
0.4
1.1
*0.3
**0.2
*0.3
np
-
np
0.5
Other(a)
*0.7
*0.3
**0.3
np
*0.3
np
-
-
0.4
No flushing toilets at dwelling
*0.2
**0.2
*0.5
np
np
**0.5
-
np
0.2

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
** estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered too unreliable for general use
- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated
(a) Includes spring, water delivered in tanker and rainwater collected in container other than water tank.

2.17 Households main source of water for drinking - 2007

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
NT(a)(b)
ACT(b)
Aust.

NUMBER ('000)

Capital city
Mains/town water
1 509.2
1 314.4
625.8
357.9
527.1
71.5
53.5
122.3
4 581.8
Rainwater tank
**6.6
np
*23.9
51.0
21.2
*7.4
np
np
127.3
Purchased bottled water
119.5
77.5
66.6
68.8
54.3
3.9
np
np
399.3
Bore/well
-
-
-
np
np
-
**3.6
-
*7.0
Other(c)
**2.1
np
*2.2
np
np
-
-
-
9.5
Total households
1 637.5
1 408.0
718.6
480.6
607.3
82.8
61.4
128.7
5 124.8
Balance of state/territory
Mains/town water
740.7
360.0
572.8
56.8
124.0
78.3
-
-
1 932.6
Rainwater tank
189.8
np
181.9
92.5
52.7
22.3
-
-
686.0
Purchased bottled water
96.0
62.9
65.2
18.6
18.2
8.7
-
-
269.5
Bore/well
**3.3
**2.7
*13.5
np
np
*2.7
-
-
23.5
Other(c)
*5.2
np
*11.0
np
np
*4.3
-
-
29.5
Total households
1 034.9
576.7
844.4
170.6
198.2
116.3
-
-
2 941.1
Total state/territory
Mains/town water
2 249.9
1 674.4
1 198.7
414.7
651.1
149.8
53.5
122.3
6 514.4
Rainwater tank
196.3
162.0
205.8
143.5
73.9
29.6
np
np
813.3
Purchased bottled water
215.5
140.4
131.8
87.4
72.5
12.7
np
np
668.8
Bore/well
**3.3
**2.7
*13.5
**0.8
*3.9
*2.7
**3.6
-
30.5
Other(c)
*7.3
*5.2
*13.2
*4.8
*4.2
*4.3
-
-
38.9
Total households
2 672.3
1 984.8
1 563.0
651.1
805.5
199.1
61.4
128.7
8 065.9

PROPORTION (%)

Capital city
Mains/town water
92.2
93.3
87.1
74.5
86.8
86.3
87.3
95.0
89.4
Rainwater tank
**0.4
np
*3.3
10.6
3.5
*8.9
np
np
2.5
Purchased bottled water
7.3
5.5
9.3
14.3
8.9
4.8
np
np
7.8
Bore/well
-
-
-
np
np
-
**5.9
-
*0.1
Other(c)
**0.1
np
*0.3
np
np
-
-
-
0.2
Balance of state/territory
Mains/town water
71.6
62.4
67.8
33.3
62.6
67.4
-
-
65.7
Rainwater tank
18.3
np
21.5
54.2
26.6
19.2
-
-
23.3
Purchased bottled water
9.3
10.9
7.7
10.9
9.2
7.5
-
-
9.2
Bore/well
**0.3
**0.5
*1.6
np
np
*2.3
-
-
0.8
Other(c)
*0.5
np
*1.3
np
np
*3.7
-
-
1.0
Total state/territory
Mains/town water
84.2
84.4
76.7
63.7
80.8
75.3
87.3
95.0
80.8
Rainwater tank
7.3
8.2
13.2
22.0
9.2
14.9
np
np
10.1
Purchased bottled water
8.1
7.1
8.4
13.4
9.0
6.4
np
np
8.3
Bore/well
**0.1
**0.1
*0.9
**0.1
*0.5
*1.3
**5.9
-
0.4
Other(c)
*0.3
*0.3
*0.8
*0.7
*0.5
*2.2
-
-
0.5

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
** estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered too unreliable for general use
- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated
(a) Northern Territory data refers to mainly urban areas only.
(b) No regional split between capital city and balance of state/territory for the NT and ACT as the sample does not support any breakdown beyond the whole territory.
(c) Includes spring, river/creek/dam, water delivered in tanker and rainwater collected in container other than water tank.

2.18 Households main source of water for drinking

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
NT(a)
ACT
Aust.

MARCH 2007 (%)

Mains/town water
84.2
84.4
76.7
63.7
80.8
75.3
87.3
95.0
80.8
Rainwater tank
7.3
8.2
13.2
22.0
9.2
14.9
np
np
10.1
Purchased bottled water
8.1
7.1
8.4
13.4
9.0
6.4
np
np
8.3
Bore/well
**0.1
**0.1
*0.9
**0.1
*0.5
*1.3
**5.9
-
0.4
Other(b)
*0.3
*0.3
*0.8
*0.7
*0.5
*2.2
-
-
0.5

MARCH 2004 (%)

Mains/towns water
82.4
83.6
79.3
60.1
82.3
76.9
89.4
93.2
80.3
Rainwater tank
8.3
9.9
14.1
26.3
8.7
15.6
(c)2.2
(c)0.3
11.3
Purchased bottled water
8.8
5.9
5.7
13.0
7.9
5.4
(c)4.3
6.4
7.6
Bore/well
(c)0.2
(c)0.1
(c)0.6
(c)0.1
(c)0.7
(c)0.8
(c)3.7
-
0.3
Other(d)
(c)0.3
(c)0.5
(c)0.4
(c)0.5
(c)0.4
(c)1.2
(c)0.5
(c)0.1
0.4

MARCH 2001 (%)

Mains/town water
85.0
83.7
79.4
49.9
84.1
80.9
93.3
97.2
80.7
Rainwater tank
7.1
10.5
13.9
33.1
7.3
13.6
(c)1.3
(c)0.5
11.4
Purchased bottled water
7.5
5.4
4.7
16.0
7.4
3.7
(c)2.2
(c)2.3
6.9
Bore/Well
(c)0.1
(c)0.1
1.3
(c)0.2
(c)0.8
(c)1.0
(c)3.2
-
0.4
Other
(c)0.3
(c)0.3
(c)0.8
(c)0.7
(c)0.5
(c)0.9
-
-
0.5

MARCH 1998 (%)

Mains/towns water
84.6
83.9
78.5
47.3
86.2
80.8
89.8
96.4
80.4
Rainwater tank
10.1
11.6
15.6
37.6
6.5
14.2
(c)3.4
(c)0.2
13.3
Purchased bottled water
4.7
3.6
3.6
13.7
6.6
2.9
(c)0.9
(c)3.4
5.1
Other
(c)0.6
(c)1.0
(c)2.4
(c)1.4
(c)0.7
(c)2.1
(c)6.0
-
1.1

MARCH 1994 (%)

Mains/town water
89.8
87.6
81.3
53.3
85.8
81.5
92.9
99.1
84.1
Rainwater tank
7.7
11.0
15.6
36.7
8.8
14.9
(c)1.6
-
12.6
Purchased bottled water
1.9
0.7
1.6
7.9
2.9
(c)0.1
(c)1.3
(c)0.9
2.1
Other
0.5
0.7
1.5
2.1
2.6
3.4
(c)4.1
-
1.2

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
** estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered too unreliable for general use
- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated
(a) Northern Territory data refers to mainly urban areas only.
(b) Includes spring, river/creek/dam, water delivered in tanker and rainwater collected in container other than rainwater tank.
(c) Estimate is subject to sampling variability too high for most practical purposes.
(d) Includes spring and river/creek/dam.

2.19 Households use of water filters for drinking water(a)

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
NT(b)
ACT
Aust.

MARCH 2007

Number ('000)
Used water filter
685.3
414.4
484.5
216.3
246.6
42.9
8.3
18.2
2 116.5
Did not use water filter
1 771.5
1 429.9
946.7
347.5
486.5
143.5
50.7
104.3
5 280.6
Total households
2 456.8
1 844.4
1 431.2
563.8
733.1
186.4
59.0
122.5
7 397.1
Proportion (%)
Used water filter
27.9
22.5
33.8
38.4
33.6
23.0
14.1
14.8
28.6
Did not use water filter
72.1
77.5
66.2
61.6
66.4
77.0
85.9
85.2
71.4

MARCH 2004

Proportion (%)
Used water filter
25.9
22.4
27.4
30.2
29.0
20.8
8.3
12.6
25.5
Did not use water filter
74.1
77.6
72.6
69.8
71.0
79.2
91.7
87.4
74.5

MARCH 2001

Proportion (%)
Used water filter
20.2
18.8
24.0
22.7
23.6
18.9
11.9
11.8
20.9
Did not use water filter
79.8
81.2
76.0
77.3
76.4
81.1
88.1
88.2
79.1

MARCH 1998

Proportion (%)
Used water filter
19.2
16.2
20.1
17.1
20.5
14.1
12.4
9.5
18.2
Did not use water filter
80.8
83.8
79.9
82.9
79.5
85.9
87.6
90.5
81.8

(a) Excludes households that mainly drink bottled water.
(b) Northern Territory data refers to mainly urban areas only.

2.20 Households with Mains/Town Water, Satisfaction with quality of water - 2007

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
NT(a)(b)
ACT(b)
Aust.

NUMBER ('000)

Capital city
Satisfied
1 334.5
1 220.3
542.3
318.2
431.8
62.8
49.0
112.9
4 071.9
Not satisfied
236.0
140.6
138.6
119.3
147.0
10.2
5.8
13.7
811.1
Don't drink mains tap water
40.7
23.9
15.4
26.1
np
np
np
np
119.5
Don't know
19.7
8.2
*4.8
4.9
np
np
np
np
44.0
Total households
1 630.9
1 392.9
701.1
468.5
593.6
74.5
56.3
128.7
5 046.5
Balance of state/territory
Satisfied
644.6
322.3
523.8
74.4
110.3
67.9
-
-
1 743.3
Not satisfied
207.9
115.0
149.1
38.3
47.6
22.0
-
-
579.8
Don't drink mains tap water
52.5
27.5
27.1
26.7
np
np
-
-
144.9
Don't know
*5.7
*5.4
*5.0
**1.7
np
np
-
-
19.9
Total households
910.7
470.3
704.9
141.0
168.3
92.7
-
-
2 487.9
Total state/territory
Satisfied
1 979.1
1 542.6
1 066.1
392.6
542.1
130.6
49.0
112.9
5 815.1
Not satisfied
443.9
255.5
287.7
157.5
194.6
32.1
5.8
13.7
1 390.9
Don't drink mains tap water
93.2
51.4
42.5
52.8
18.6
*3.7
np
np
264.4
Don't know
25.4
13.6
9.7
6.6
6.6
**0.7
np
np
63.9
Total households
2 541.6
1 863.2
1 406.1
609.5
761.8
167.2
56.3
128.7
7 534.4

PROPORTION (%)

Capital city
Satisfied
81.8
87.6
77.3
67.9
72.7
84.3
87.0
87.8
80.7
Not satisfied
14.5
10.1
19.8
25.5
24.8
13.6
10.2
10.6
16.1
Don't drink mains tap water
2.5
1.7
2.2
5.6
np
np
np
np
2.4
Don't know
1.2
0.6
*0.7
1.1
np
np
np
np
0.9
Balance of state/territory
Satisfied
70.8
68.5
74.3
52.7
65.6
73.2
-
-
70.1
Not satisfied
22.8
24.4
21.2
27.1
28.3
23.7
-
-
23.3
Don't drink mains tap water
5.8
5.9
3.8
18.9
np
np
-
-
5.8
Don't know
*0.6
*1.2
*0.7
**1.2
np
np
-
-
0.8
Total state/territory
Satisfied
77.9
82.8
75.8
64.4
71.2
78.2
87.0
87.8
77.2
Not satisfied
17.5
13.7
20.5
25.8
25.5
19.2
10.2
10.6
18.5
Don't drink mains tap water
3.7
2.8
3.0
8.7
2.4
*2.2
np
np
3.5
Don't know
1.0
0.7
0.7
1.1
0.9
**0.4
np
np
0.8

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
** estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered too unreliable for general use
- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated
(a) Northern Territory data refers to mainly urban areas only.
(b) No regional split between capital city and balance of state/territory for NT and ACT as the sample does not support any breakdown beyond the whole territory.

2.21 Households with problems with the quality of the mains/town water (a)(b) - 2007

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
NT(c)
ACT
Aust.

NUMBER ('000)

Salty
*6.8
*6.9
**2.3
6.3
6.3
np
np
-
29.4
Other taste
243.0
149.5
193.6
126.5
119.6
16.2
*2.7
5.3
856.4
Colour
86.6
44.8
35.3
14.7
20.4
9.8
*1.5
*1.2
214.4
Chlorine
120.3
85.2
88.2
49.8
64.9
12.9
*1.7
3.9
426.8
Dirty
93.2
34.9
41.4
23.7
15.9
6.8
**0.4
*3.4
219.7
Odour
63.2
31.2
36.1
30.5
26.9
*7.7
**1.1
2.8
199.5
Microbial/algae contamination
71.0
17.0
21.9
11.7
14.3
*3.6
*0.7
*1.6
141.9
Other chemicals in water
20.5
11.6
np
*4.4
13.1
*1.8
*0.9
np
60.0
Other
29.7
12.6
15.6
7.9
8.1
*1.0
np
np
76.2
Prefer other source of water
13.5
11.5
np
22.9
7.7
np
-
-
68.4
Total households(d)
537.1
307.0
330.3
210.3
213.1
35.8
6.6
15.1
1 655.4

PROPORTION (%)

Salty
*1.3
*2.3
**0.7
3.0
3.0
np
np
-
1.8
Other taste
45.2
48.7
58.6
60.1
56.1
45.3
40.8
35.2
51.7
Colour
16.1
14.6
10.7
7.0
9.6
27.2
*23.3
*8.2
12.9
Chlorine
22.4
27.7
26.7
23.7
30.4
35.9
*26.1
25.7
25.8
Dirty
17.4
11.4
12.5
11.3
7.5
19.1
**6.2
22.7
13.3
Odour
11.8
10.2
10.9
14.5
12.6
21.4
**17.1
18.6
12.1
Microbial/algae contamination
13.2
5.5
6.6
5.6
6.7
*10.0
**10.9
*10.7
8.6
Other chemicals in water
3.8
3.8
np
*2.1
6.1
*5.1
*12.9
np
3.6
Other
5.5
4.1
4.7
3.7
3.8
*2.8
np
np
4.6
Prefer other source of water
2.5
3.7
np
10.9
3.6
np
-
-
4.1

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
** estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered too unreliable for general use
- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated
(a) Includes households who are unsatisfied with the quality of the mains water and households who don't drink the mains water.
(b) These figures are not comparable to those appearing in previous editions (refer to Explanatory Note 18).
(c) Northern Territory data refers to mainly urban areas only.
(d) Totals do not equal the sum of the items in each column as more than one problem can be specified.

2.22 Households with mains/town water, Problems with supply(a) - 2007

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
NT(b)
ACT
Aust.

NUMBER ('000)

No water supply problems
2 187.9
1 610.6
1 171.9
508.1
620.6
138.9
45.4
112.8
6 396.2
Inadequate or low pressure
177.3
94.1
116.1
47.2
66.9
14.7
*3.4
5.7
525.3
Fluctuating pressure
95.5
56.5
75.8
33.7
41.9
10.0
*3.2
3.8
320.4
Supply disruptions
134.1
123.6
69.5
27.0
57.9
7.8
*3.5
4.3
427.6
Other problems with water supply
*13.0
13.6
13.3
6.8
6.1
np
np
3.2
58.9
Don't know
*13.7
15.2
*9.9
*4.6
*5.1
np
np
**0.6
49.7
Total households
2 541.6
1 863.2
1 406.1
609.5
761.8
167.2
56.3
128.7
7 534.4

PROPORTION (%)

No water supply problems
86.1
86.4
83.3
83.4
81.5
83.1
80.6
87.7
84.9
Inadequate or low pressure
7.0
5.1
8.3
7.7
8.8
8.8
6.0
4.4
7.0
Fluctuating pressure
3.8
3.0
5.4
5.5
5.5
6.0
*5.7
2.9
4.3
Supply disruptions
5.3
6.6
4.9
4.4
7.6
4.6
*6.2
3.3
5.7
Other problems with water supply
*0.5
0.7
0.9
1.1
0.8
np
np
2.5
0.8
Don't know
*0.5
0.8
*0.7
*0.7
*0.7
np
np
**0.4
0.7

* estimate has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution
** estimate has a relative standard error greater than 50% and is considered too unreliable for general use
np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated
(a) Refers to problems in the last 12 months.
(b) Northern Territory data refers mainly urban areas only.


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