4402.0 - Childhood Education and Care, Australia, June 2017 Quality Declaration 
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 23/04/2018   
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SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

Table 1 - Key Indicators, Childhood Education and Care, Australia, 2011, 2014 and 2017

Indicator
Year
Differences
2011
2014(a)
2017(a)
2011 to 2017
2014 to 2017

Children aged 0-12 years
Usually attended care
Children using formal and/or informal care
52.2%
48.1%
49.3%
-2.9pts
(c)1.2pts
Only using formal care(d)
13.6%
15.3%
17.4%
3.8pts
2.1pts
Only using informal care(d)
28.5%
24.2%
22.2%
-6.3pts
-2.0pts
Using both formal and informal care
10.1%
8.5%
9.7%
(c)-0.4pts
(c)1.2pts
All children using formal care(e)
23.7%
23.9%
27.2%
3.5pts
3.3pts
All children using informal care(e)
38.6%
32.7%
31.9%
-6.7pts
(c)-0.8pts
Hours and cost per child who attended formal care usually
Mean hours per week
15.2hrs
(b)16.0hrs
16.0hrs
(c)0.8hrs
(c)0.0hrs
Mean cost (after subsidies) per week(f)(g)
$74.30
(b)$100.50
$110.50
$36.20
$10.00
Mean cost (after subsidies) per hour(f)(g)
$5.50
(b)$7.20
$8.00
$2.50
$0.80
Requirements for additional formal care or preschool
Additional formal care or preschool currently required
5.6%
10.0%
9.3%
3.7pts
(c)-0.7pts
Additional formal care currently required
4.1%
6.5%
6.2%
2.1pts
(c)-0.3pts
Additional preschool currently required
1.8%
4.6%
4.0%
2.2pts
(c)-0.6pts
Additional formal care or preschool not currently required
94.4%
90.0%
90.7%
-3.7pts
(c)0.7pts

Families with children aged 0-12 years
Usually attended care
Formal and/or informal care
62.8%
59.3%
57.6%
-5.2pts
(c)-1.7pts
Only using formal care(d)
21.1%
22.1%
21.7%
(c)0.6pts
(c)-0.4pts
Only using informal care(d)
31.1%
27.3%
21.7%
-9.4pts
-5.6pts
Using both formal and informal care
16.9%
14.5%
14.1%
-2.8pts
(c)-0.4pts
Costs for families with children who attended formal care usually
Mean cost (after subsidies) per week(f)(g)
$99.40
(b)$132.80
$148.40
$49.00
$15.60
Use of flexible work arrangements by employed parents to care for children
Male parent used work arrangements
40.4%
41.4%
42.3%
(c)1.9pts
(c)0.9pts
Female parent used work arrangements
74.3%
70.8%
69.5%
-4.8pts
(c)-1.3pts

(a) Data has been randomly adjusted to avoid the release of confidential data. Discrepancies may occur between sums of the component items and totals.
(b) Perturbation was not applied to these estimates
(c) The difference between periods is not statistically significant. See the Significance Testing article in this publication for more information: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/6227.0.55.002
(d) The proportion that only use this type of care.
(e) The proportion that use this type of care, regardless of whether they also use other types of care.
(f) The subsidies that were available to eligible families were the Child Care Benefit and the Child Care Rebate.
(g) In 2017 dollars, adjusted using changes in the Consumer Price Index.

USE OF CARE

Children aged 2 or 3 years are the most likely to attend formal and/or informal care (71.8% and 71.1% respectively); while children aged under 1 year are the least likely to attend care (30%). (Table 1)

Graph 2: Usually attended care by age of child
Source: Childhood Education and Care, Australia, June 2017

Children aged 2 or 3 years are the most likely to attend formal care only (37.2% and 37.6% respectively). Use of informal care is more common for older children. (Table 1)

Graph 3: Type of care usually attended, by age of child
Source: Childhood Education and Care, Australia, June 2017

The most common types of care usually attended for children aged 0 to 12 years who who attend school are Grandparents (18.6%) and Before and/or after school care (14.8%). The most common types of care for children who don't attend school are Long day care (36.9%) and Grandparents (25.8%).

Graph 4: Type of care usually attended
Source: Childhood Education and Care, Australia, June 2017

EMPLOYMENT AND CARE

For children aged 0 to 12 years in couple families, children usually attend formal care more when both parents are employed (35%), than when one parent is employed (16%) or neither parent is employed (13%). (Table 3)

For children aged 0 to 12 years in one parent families, children usually attend formal care more when the parent is employed (34%) than when the parent is not employed (16%). (Table 3)


Source: Childhood Education and Care, Australia, June 2017

USE OF FLEXIBLE WORK ARRANGEMENTS TO CARE FOR CHILDREN BY EMPLOYED PARENTS

The use of flexible work arrangements to care for children aged 0 to 12 years decreased for female parents between 2011 (74.3%) and 2017 (69.5%) (Endnote B).

The use of flexible work arrangements to care for children aged 0 to 11 years (Endnote B):
  • Increased for male parents between 1996 and 2008, then was steady from 2008 to 2017.
  • Increased for female parents between 1996 and 2005, but then decreased from 2011 to 2017.

Graph 6: Employed parents of children aged 0 to 11 years that used flexible work arrangements
Source: Childhood Education and Care, Australia, June 2017

COSTS AND HOURS OF CARE

After adjusting for inflation, the mean cost per week (after subsidies) (Endnote D) of usually attending formal care increased from $74.30 in 2011, to $100.50 in 2014, then to $110.50 in 2017. The average hours attended per week stayed about the same between 2011 and 2017. (Tables 6, 8 & 11)

REQUIREMENTS FOR ADDITIONAL FORMAL CARE OR PRESCHOOL

Additional preschool or formal care is currently required by 9.3% of children aged 0 to 12 years. The main types of additional care currently required by children aged 0 to 12 years are:
  • Formal care (6.2%).
  • Preschool (4.0%).

Children aged 0 to 12 years are more likely to require additional preschool or formal care if they already usually attend formal care or preschool (17.3%) than if they only usually attend informal care (6.8%), or if they did not usually attend care or preschool (4.9%). (Table 17)

Children aged 0 to 12 years are more likely to require additional formal care or preschool when their female parent is unemployed (22.2%), than when they are employed (8.3%) or not in the labour force (10.1%). Children require about the same amount of additional formal care or preschool regardless of the labour force status of their male parent.

ADDITIONAL FORMAL CARE NEEDS

The main type of additional formal care that is required by children aged 0 to 12 years who attend school is Before and/or after school care (84.9%), while children who don't attend school are most likely to require additional Long day care (76.2%).

The most common reason that children require additional before and/or after school care is work-related (84.5%); whereas the most common reasons children require additional long day care are work-related (61.8%) and for the benefit of the child (55.6%). (Table 18)

PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN INFORMAL LEARNING ACTIVITIES

Children aged 0 to 2 years are more likely than children aged 3 to 8 years not to have participated in any informal learning activities with their parents in the last week (8.2% and 0.9% respectively). (Table 19 & 20)

The most common informal learning activity children aged 0 to 2 years did with their parents was Read from a book or told a story at 83.6%. For children aged 3 to 8 years, the most common informal learning activity was Told stories, read or listened to the child read at 95.4%. The proportion for children aged 0 to 2 years was lower than for children aged 3 to 8 years (noting the activities are slightly different). However, children aged 0 to 2 years were more likely than children aged 3 to 8 years to have had their parents read from a book or tell a story every day in the last week (57.2% compared with 47.8%). (Table 19 & 20)

Children aged 0 to 2 years who were born in Australia were more likely to have had parents read from a book and tell a story (83.8%) than children who were not born in Australia (62.8%). However, children aged 3 to 8 years were similarly likely to have had parents who Told stories, read or listened to the child read, regardless of whether they were born in Australia or not.

Endnote B: Prior to 2005 the survey included families with children aged 0 to 11 years. From 2005 the survey included families with children aged 0 to 12 years. Some time-series going back to 2005 for children aged 0 to 12 years are supplemented by time-series going back to 1996 for children aged 0 to 11 years.

Endnote C: The subsidies that were available to eligible families were the Child Care Benefit and the Child Care Rebate.