3419.0 - Insights from the Australian Census and Temporary Entrants Integrated Dataset, 2016  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 14/02/2019  First Issue
   Page tools: Print Print Page Print all pages in this productPrint All RSS Feed RSS Bookmark and Share Search this Product

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

About this data

This is combined data from the ABS Census of Population and Housing and data on temporary visa holders (temporary entrants) provided by the Department Home Affairs.

Consistent with international definitions, in this data:

  • People who indicated in the Census that they usually lived in another country and were visiting Australia for less than one year are considered overseas visitors.
  • People who either have stayed or intended to stay in Australia for twelve months or more are considered temporary residents.

See the Appendix below for more information about the types of temporary entrants included in this data.

Who’s included?

On Census Night 2016, there were 1,635,503 temporary entrants in Australia. These people comprised:

  • 1,500,409 temporary residents and 135,093 overseas visitors.
  • 41% Special Category (New Zealand citizen) visa holders - 664,957 persons (634,250 residents and 30,705 overseas visitors).
  • 30% Student visa holders - 487,012 persons (449,883 residents and 37,125 overseas visitors).
  • 10% Temporary Work (Skilled) visa holders - 170,407 persons (165,351 residents and 5,055 overseas visitors).
  • 8% Working Holiday Makers - 129,442 persons (78,763 residents and 50,680 overseas visitors).
  • 11% Other Temporary visa holders (including Bridging visa holders) - 183,677 persons (or 172,155 residents and 11,524 overseas visitors).

Holders of visitor visas are not included.

The information which follows focuses on temporary residents (the largest group about whom most information is available).

Temporary residents in Australia

About the 1.5 million temporary residents in Australia in 2016:

  • Just over half were male (53%).
  • There were slightly more males than females in all visa groups except Working Holiday Makers (where 52% were female).
  • They tended to be younger than the general population with a median age of 28 years (according to the June 30 2016 Estimated Resident Population, the median age of all Australians was 38 years).
  • Student visa holders were the youngest (median age of 24 years) and Special Category (New Zealand citizen) visa holders were the oldest (median age of 37 years).


Graph 1. Selected temporary residents, median age by visa type

Selected temporary residents, median age by visa type


Capital cities

In 2016:

  • 81% of temporary residents lived in capital cities compared with 67% of all Australians (according to the June 30 2016 Estimated Resident Population).
  • Student visa holders were most likely to live in capital cities (92%).
  • Least likely to live in capital cities were Working Holiday Makers (68%).
  • 27% of temporary residents lived in Sydney, 24% lived in Melbourne and 14% in Brisbane.
  • Temporary Work (Skilled) visa holders were most likely to live in Sydney (36%) followed by Melbourne (24%).
  • Student visa holders were also most likely to live in Sydney (34%) or Melbourne (31%).
  • In contrast, Special Category (New Zealand citizen) visa holders were most likely to live in Brisbane (20%), with similar proportions living in Melbourne and Sydney (both 18%).
  • 32% of Other Temporary visa holders and 26% of Working Holiday Makers lived in Sydney.


Graph 2. Temporary residents, total proportion residing in capital cities by visa type

Temporary residents, total proportion residing in capital cities by visa type

Source: Australian Census and Temporary Entrants Integrated Dataset, 2016


Table 1. Temporary residents by visa type and Greater Capital City Statistical Area of residence, 2016


Visa type


Region
Special Category
(New Zealand citizen)

%
Student visa

%
Temporary Work
(Skilled)

%
Working Holiday
Maker

%
Other Temporary

%
Total

%

Greater Sydney
17.9
34.1
36.1
26.0
32.3
26.8
Greater Melbourne
18.3
30.8
23.8
17.0
28.9
23.8
Greater Brisbane
20.4
10.3
8.4
11.3
8.2
14.1
Greater Adelaide
1.7
5.5
2.3
1.9
4.1
3.2
Greater Perth
12.2
7.8
12.1
9.7
9.5
10.4
Greater Hobart
0.3
0.7
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.4
Greater Darwin
0.5
0.5
1.4
1.5
0.7
0.7
Australian Capital Territory
0.6
2.6
1.4
0.7
2.7
1.5
Total capital cities
71.8
92.2
85.7
68.4
86.8
81.0
Rest of NSW
4.7
2.6
3.4
4.8
3.1
3.8
Rest of Vic.
2.4
0.9
1.8
3.1
2.2
1.9
Rest of Qld
16.2
3.7
5.6
12.7
5.3
9.8
Rest of SA
0.5
0.0
0.7
1.3
0.4
0.4
Rest of WA
3.3
0.1
2.1
3.5
1.1
2.0
Rest of Tas.
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.5
0.2
0.3
Rest of NT
0.3
0.0
0.3
0.8
0.4
0.3
Total rest of Australia(a)
28.2
7.9
14.3
31.6
13.2
19.0

Total Australia (b)
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

(a) Includes the Other Territories.
(b) Excludes offshore, shipping and migratory and no usual address. Also the sum of components may not exactly match the totals due to rounding.
Source: Australian Census and Temporary Entrants Integrated Dataset, 2016.


Country of Birth

In 2016, the top three countries of birth among temporary residents were:

  • All temporary residents: New Zealand (32%), followed by China (11%), and India (8%).
  • Student visa holders: China (27%), followed by India (13%) and Vietnam (5%).
  • Temporary Work (Skilled) visa holders: India (20%), England (12%), China (7%).
  • Special Category (New Zealand citizen) visa holders: New Zealand (75%) followed by Australia (6%) and Samoa (3%).
  • Working Holiday Makers: South Korea (17%) followed by Taiwan (16%) and England (14%).
  • Other Temporary visa holders: China (13%), followed by India (11%) and Iran (5%).


Table 2. Temporary residents, top five countries of birth by visa type, 2016

Visa type
Ranking
Special Category
(New Zealand citizen)
No.
%
Student

No.
%
Temporary Work (Skilled)
No.
%
Working Holiday Maker
No.
%
Other
Temporary
No.
%

1
New Zealand
470 761
75.1
China (a)
122 642
27.4
India
33 379
20.2
South Korea
13 499
17.4
China (a)
22 389
13.2
2
Australia
36 212
5.8
India
57 121
12.8
England
19 602
11.9
Taiwan
12 072
15.6
India
19 209
11.3
3
Samoa
19 600
3.1
Vietnam
20 942
4.7
China(a)
10 850
6.6
England
11 168
14.4
Iran
9 005
5.3
4
England
16 715
2.7
Malaysia
20 572
4.6
Philippines
10 078
6.1
Japan
5 500
7.1
England
8 588
5.1
5
South Africa
8 908
1.4
Nepal
20 087
4.5
Ireland
7 142
4.3
Italy
5 160
6.6
Sri Lanka
7 123
4.2

(a) Excludes Special Administrative Regions (SAR's) and Taiwan.
Source: Australian Census and Temporary Entrants Integrated Dataset, 2016.


Country of Citizenship

In 2016, the most common countries of citizenship for temporary residents were:

  • All temporary residents: New Zealand (42%) followed by China (11%), India (8%), United Kingdom (4%) and South Korea (3%).
  • Temporary Work (Skilled) visa holders: India (22%), followed by United Kingdom (16%) and China (7%).
  • Student visa holders: China (27%), followed by India (13%) and Vietnam (5%).
  • Working Holiday Makers: the United Kingdom (18%), South Korea (17%) and Taiwan (16%).
  • Other Temporary visa holders: China (13%), followed by India (12%) and the United Kingdom (7%).

Year of Arrival

  • Most (63%) temporary residents in Australia in 2016 had arrived from 2011 onwards.
  • Just under a quarter (23%) arrived in Australia in 2006 or earlier.
  • Just over half (52%) of Special Category (New Zealand citizen) visa holders had arrived in 2006 or earlier, consistent with their visas permitting them to stay in Australia indefinitely, to work, study or live and leave and enter Australia at will.

Note that the Census collects information on when a person first arrived in Australia to live, and some people may not have been continuously resident in Australia (or on the same visa) since that time.

Graph 3. Temporary residents in 2016 by year of arrival in Australia, 1976 - 2016

Temporary residents in 2016 by year of arrival in Australia, 1976 - 2016

Language spoken at home

In 2016, 57% of temporary residents spoke a language other than English at home:

  • Student visa holders were most likely to speak a language other than English at home (92%).
  • Special Category (New Zealand citizen) visa holders mainly spoke English, with just 20% reporting speaking a language other than English at home.


Proficiency in English

In 2016, of those temporary residents who spoke a language other than English at home:

  • 84% reported speaking English well or very well (i.e. were proficient).
  • People aged 65 years and over were less likely to speak English well or very well (57%) compared with those aged 0 to 14 years (72%) and those aged 15 to 64 years (85%).
  • Special Category (New Zealand citizen) were most likely to report they spoke English well or very well (93%).
  • Working Holiday Makers were least likely to report speaking English very well or well (59%).

Graph 4. Temporary residents that spoke a language other than English at home, by visa type and whether proficient in spoken English, 2016

Temporary residents that spoke a language other than English at home, by visa type and whether proficient in spoken English, 2016


Source: Australian Census and Temporary Entrants Integrated Dataset, 2016

Qualifications

In 2016, over half of temporary residents (aged 15 years and over) held a non-school qualification (57%).

  • 33% held a Bachelor Degree or higher level qualification.
  • Temporary Work (Skilled) visa holders were most likely to have a non-school qualification (82%).
  • Special Category (New Zealand citizen) visa holders were least likely to hold a non-school qualification (51%).
In terms of the level of non-school qualifications held:
  • Over half of Temporary Work (Skilled) visa holders had completed a Bachelor Degree or higher (57%).
  • Similar proportions of Student visa holders and Working Holiday Makers had completed a Bachelor Degree or higher - 40% and 37% respectively.
  • 17% of Special Category (New Zealand citizen) visa holders had completed a Bachelor Degree or higher while 25% held a Certificate level qualification.

Graph 5. Temporary residents aged 15 years and over with a non-school qualification - level of non-school qualification by visa type, 2016

Temporary residents aged 15 years and over with a non-school qualification - level of non-school qualification by visa type, 2016


Labour Force status

In 2016, 68% of temporary residents aged 15 and over were in the labour force.

  • Temporary Work (Skilled) visa holders were the most likely to be in the labour force (86%) and had the lowest unemployment rate (4.0%).
  • 84% of Working Holiday Makers were in the labour force, with 11.3% unemployed.
  • Around half of Student visa holders were in the labour force. This group had the highest unemployment rate at 20.1%.


Graph 6. Temporary residents aged 15 years and over, Labour Force Participation and Unemployment rates by visa type, 2016

 
Temporary residents aged 15 years and over, Labour Force Participation and Unemployment rates by visa type, 2016                                                                             


In 2016, 60% of employed temporary residents worked full-time (35 hours or more). These included:
  • Most Temporary Work (Skilled) visa holders (88%).
  • Special Category (New Zealand Citizen) visa holders (75%) and Working Holiday Makers (64%).
  • In contrast, the vast majority (91%) of Student visa holders were employed part-time. Conditions placed on Student visas limit the number of hours some students may work.



Graph 7. Employed temporary residents aged 15 years and over, Proportion working full-time(a) by visa type, 2016


 Employed temporary residents aged 15 years and over, Proportion working full-time by visa type, 2016


Occupation

In 2016, temporary residents were most likely to be employed as Labourers (19%), Professionals (16%) and Technicians and Trades Workers (15%).

Main occupations varied across the different temporary visa holder groups:
  • Almost a third (30%) of Student visa holders worked as Labourers (such as Cleaners, Food process workers and kitchen hands) while 23% worked as Community and Personal Service Workers (such as Carers and aides, Waiters and Hospitality workers).
  • Similarly, Working holiday makers most commonly worked as Labourers (39%) and Community and Personal Service Workers (21%).
  • 36% of Temporary Work (Skilled) visa holders were Professionals.
10% were Business, Human Resource and Marketing Professionals such as Accountants and Financial brokers.

9% were ICT Professionals such as Business and Systems Analysts and Programmers.

7% were Health Professionals such as Medical Practitioners, Health Diagnostic and Promotion Professionals.
 
  • A further 22% of Temporary Work (Skilled) visa holders were Technicians and Trades Workers and 19% were Managers.
  • Special Category (New Zealand citizen) visa holders mainly worked in Professional occupations (15%) or as Technicians and Trades Workers (15%).

Table 3. Employed temporary residents(a) aged 15 years and over. Proportion by visa type and occupation, 2016

Visa type
Occupation
Special
Category
(New Zealand citizen)
%
Student
visa

%
Temporary Work
(Skilled)

%
Working
Holiday
Maker
%
Other
Temporary

%
Total


%

Managers
11.2
2.9
18.7
5.4
8.6
9.7
Professionals
14.9
7.1
35.8
7.6
17.9
15.9
Technicians and Trades Workers
14.5
11.1
21.6
11.5
15.0
14.6
Community and Personal Service Workers
9.7
23.3
5.7
20.5
13.7
13.3
Clerical and Administrative Workers
11.8
4.0
5.2
5.2
8.3
8.3
Sales Workers
7.7
12.8
3.8
5.8
9.2
8.3
Machinery Operators and Drivers
14.0
6.3
1.8
3.1
6.3
9.0
Labourers
14.5
30.4
6.3
38.8
18.6
19.0

Total(a)
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

(a) Excludes not stated or inadequately described. Also the sum of components may not exactly match the totals due to rounding.
Source: Australian Census and Temporary Entrants Integrated Dataset, 2016.


Median income

In 2016, the median personal weekly income of all temporary residents (aged 15 years and over) was $542 per week.

The median varied across the different visa groups:
  • Temporary Work (Skilled) visa holders had the highest median personal weekly income - $1,143 per week.
  • Special Category (New Zealand citizen) visa holders had a median personal weekly income of $814.
  • Working Holiday Makers had a median personal weekly income of $648.
  • Other Temporary visa holders had a median personal weekly income of $486 a week.
  • The lowest median income of $236 per week was recorded by Student visa holder who had lower rates of employment and mainly worked part time.

Housing
  • In 2016, most temporary residents (97%) lived in private dwellings, though 10% of Working Holiday Makers and 6% of Student visa holders lived in non-private dwellings (such as Residential colleges, Boarding houses and Boarding schools).
  • Of those in private dwellings, 70% lived in rented accommodation and a further 28% in properties that were owned outright or with a mortgage.
  • Most Temporary Work (Skilled) visa holders were living in rental accommodation at 88%.
  • 80% of Working Holiday Makers and 78% of Student visa holders were living in rental properties.
  • 42% of Special Category (New Zealand citizen) visa holders were living in properties that were fully owned or being purchased which may reflect their ability to settle and stay in Australia indefinitely.

Graph 8. Temporary residents, housing tenure type by visa type, 2016

Temporary residents, housing tenure type by visa type, 2016

Source: Australian Census and Temporary Entrants Integrated Dataset, 2016


FURTHER INFORMATION

For further information about these and related statistics, please contact the ABS National Information and Referral Service.

Phone: 1300 135 070

Fax: 1300 135 211

Email: client.services@abs.gov.au


APPENDIX

Note: Since data have been randomly adjusted to preserve the confidentiality of respondents, totals may not exactly match the sum of their components.

Temporary entrants included in the 2016 ACTEID include the following groups:
  • Special Category (subclass 444) visa holders - New Zealand citizens who are able to stay in Australia indefinitely to visit, study and work, subject to health and character requirements;
  • Student visa holders - overseas students who undertake full-time study in registered courses;
  • Temporary Work (Skilled) visa holders - (subclass 457) permits holders to travel to Australia to work in their nominated occupation for their approved sponsor for up to four years;
  • Working Holiday Makers - (subclasses 417 and 462) permits young adults from countries with reciprocal bilateral agreements with Australia to holiday in Australia and undertake short-term work and/or study; and
  • Other Temporary visa holders - include holders of Bridging visas, and Temporary Graduate, Skilled Graduate, New Zealand Citizen (Family Relationship) and Investor retirement visas. For more information see the Glossary.