1410.0 - Data by Region, 2011-16  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 14/11/2017   
   Page tools: Print Print Page Print all pages in this productPrint All RSS Feed RSS Bookmark and Share Search this Product

Population and People
Economy and Industry
Income (including Government Allowances)
Education and Employment
Health and Disability
Family and Community
Land and Environment


INTRODUCTION

1
Data by Region presents a standard set of data for a range of geographies, including states, territories and Australia based on the Australian Statistical Geography Standard 2016 (ASGS). Below state or territory level, data are available for the following regions of the ASGS: Statistical Areas 2, 3 and 4; Greater Capital City Statistical Areas; Local Government Areas (LGA). LGA boundaries at 2016 are being used for this edition. See Statistical Geography for further information about the regions in the ASGS. This edition provides data for the period 2011-2016.

2
There is a standard set of data for each region type, depending on the availability of statistics for particular geographies. Users interested in creating their own customised tables can do this by accessing data in ABS.Stat.

3
Data are sourced from a wide variety of collections, both ABS and non-ABS. When analysing these statistics, care needs to be taken as time periods, definitions, methodologies, scope and coverage can differ across collections. Where available, data have been presented as a time series - to enable users to assess changes over time. However, when looked at on a period to period basis, some series may sometimes appear volatile. When analysing the data, users are encouraged to consider the longer term behaviour of the series, where this extra information is available. All information about the data in these Explanatory Notes are relevant for the period 2011-2016.

4
While information on the datasets and terms used in Data by Region are included below and in the accompanying Glossary, more detailed information about the data can be obtained by referring to the relevant source listed for each dataset. Further information about statistical terms can be found in Statistical Language! (cat. no. 1332.0.55.002).

5
All data presented are on geographic boundaries as described in the 2016 edition of the ASGS. For further information see the Statistical Geography page of the ABS website, or the following: Australian Statistical Geography Standard, Volume 1 - Main Structure and Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (cat. no. 1270.0.55.001); Australian Statistical Geography Standard, Volume 3 - Non-ABS Structures, July 2016 (cat. no. 1270.0.55.003). See Geographic Correspondences for further information on how data have been presented on ASGS 2016. Data for Local Government Areas (LGAs) have been presented at 2016 boundaries.

6
Previous releases are available via the 'Past & Future Releases' tab of this product. Care should be taken in comparing data within previous and current releases of Data by Region as:

    • some data have been revised
    • releases prior to September 2017 use the 2011 edition Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS); and
    • releases prior to 2011 are based on a different statistical geography, the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC), and different releases of Data by Region (formerly known as the National Regional Profile) used different editions of that statistical geography (ASGC).

7
Some data values in Data by Region have been randomly adjusted or suppressed to avoid the release of confidential details. Care should be taken when interpreting cells with small numbers. In some cases small cells have been randomly altered to zero. Caution should be exercised in deducing that there are no people or units with particular characteristics in a given area.

8
These Explanatory Notes have been presented under the following broad themes or topics:
    • Population and People
    • Economy and Industry
    • Income (including Government Allowances)
    • Education and Employment
    • Health and Disability
    • Family and Community
    • Land and Environment

CHANGES FROM PREVIOUS ISSUE

9
There have been a number of changes to the data items and series included in this issue. These changes are summarised in the following table. Please see the relevant sections in these Explanatory Notes for more detailed descriptions.


Data Series
Change
Census of Population and HousingAdditional data items: Religious Affiliation, Year of Arrival in Australia, Australian Citizenship, Total Personal Income (Weekly), Median equivalised total household income (weekly), Highest Year of School Completed, Social Marital Status & Registered Marital Status, Unpaid Child Care, Average number of all children in a family, Housing Suitability, and Tenure Type.
Births and Deaths, Regional Internal Migration Estimates (RIME), Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA)Temporarily rotated out as data on ASGS 2016 boundaries were not available at time of processing.
Personal InsolvenciesAdditional data items: Selected causes of personal insolvencies and Occupations of debtors entering personal insolvencies included for the first time, sourced from the Australian Financial Security Authority.
Residential Property Prices New data source for 2014-15 data, supplied to the ABS by CoreLogic RP Data.
Agricultural CensusSlight changes to data items and change in available geographies. Data for Statistical Area Level 2 temporarily removed as not available on ASGS 2016 boundaries at time of processing.
Health Small Area EstimatesModelled estimates on need for assistance with core activities, smoking, psychological distress, fair or poor self-assessed health and high blood pressure included for the first time.
Early Childhood data - Pre-school enrolmentsNew data sourced from the National Early Childhood Education and Care Collection has been added.
Pensions and AllowancesReduced time series with most data only available for 2015 and 2016 for ASGS. Note: 2011 to 2016 for LGA still available.
Solar Installations Percentage increase in installations from previous year included for the first time.




POPULATION AND PEOPLE

Estimated Resident Population

10
Population data in the profiles, unless otherwise stated, are the estimated resident population (ERP) for the selected region as at 30 June for the year shown. Data are shown to the nearest whole number without rounding, but accuracy to the last digit should not be assumed.

11
The concept of ERP links people to a place of usual residence within Australia. Usual residence is defined as that place where each person has lived or intends to live for six months or more in a given reference year.

12
Population estimates for most sub-state regions in Data by Region are built up from Statistical Area Level 2 (SA2). The ERP as at Census date is calculated based on usual residence Census counts, excluding short-term overseas visitors in Australia, with an allowance for Census net undercount and the number of residents temporarily overseas at Census date. As the Census is not held on 30 June (the 2011 and 2016 Census was held on 9 August), further adjustments taking into account births, deaths and migration for the intervening period are made to obtain ERP at 30 June.

13
For Post-censal years, estimates at the Australian level take into account natural increase and net overseas migration, while estimates for states and territories also use estimated interstate migration. The absence of migration data at the SA2 level means that it is not possible to estimate SA2 populations by taking into account natural increase and net migration. Instead, ERP for most SA2s is calculated using a mathematical model, where relationships are established between changes in population and changes in indicator data between the two most recent Census. Current indicators include dwelling approvals, Medicare enrolments and counts of people on the Australian Electoral Roll. Changes in these indicators are used to estimate changes in the population of each area since the Census.

14
Estimates for SA2 are apportioned into Statistical Area Level 1 (SA1) regions using Census counts and indicator data. Estimates for Local Government Areas (LGAs) are aggregated from SA1 estimates, including split SA1s where they cross LGA boundaries.

15 Users will notice that there is no ERP data for the unincorporated LGAs in WA, Queensland and Tasmania. This is because they do not have geographically defined unincorporated areas. In contrast, the Population Census does show data for these unincorporated LGAs, depicting mainly off-shore and migratory populations.

Working Age Population

16
The working age population (aged 15-64 years) measure is used to give an estimate of the total number of potential workers within an economy.

Median Age

17
For any distribution, the median value is that which divides the relevant population into two equal parts, half falling below the value, and half exceeding it. Thus, the median age is the age at which half the population is older and half is younger.

Population Density

18
The population density for a region is calculated by dividing Estimated Resident Population data by the Land Area to obtain the number of persons per square kilometre.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people


19
These data are from the Census of Population and Housing and includes people who identified their origin as being Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander, or both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander.

Overseas Born Population

20
These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. Country of birth is the basis for determining if a person was born overseas. The Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC) (cat. no 1269.0) was used to classify responses for birthplace of individuals.

Religious Affiliation

21 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. The Australian Standard Classification of Religious Groups (ASCRG), 2016 (cat. no. 1266.0) was used to classify responses for a person's religious affiliation. Answering this Census question is optional.

Year of Arrival in Australia

22 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. This item is applicable to those born overseas who will be in Australia for more than one year. Country of birth is the basis for determining if a person was born in Australia or overseas. The Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC) (cat. no 1269.0) was used to classify responses for birthplace of individuals.

23 The year 2016 refers to the period from 1st January 2016 to 9th August 2016 only.

24 The data shown exclude persons who did not state their country of birth and persons born in Australia (includes Other Territories).

Australian Citizenship

25 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing and records whether a person has Australian citizenship.

Speaks language other than English

26
These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. These data identify the language spoken at home, and are coded using the Australian Standard Classification of Languages (ASCL) (cat. no. 1267.0). Only one language is coded for each person.

ECONOMY AND INDUSTRY


Counts of Businesses, Entries and Exits

27 Counts of Australian Businesses, Entries and Exits data are based on snapshots of actively trading businesses as at June in each reference year, from the Australian Bureau of Statistics Business Register (ABSBR). Further details can be found in Counts of Australian Businesses, including Entries and Exits (cat. no. 8160).

28 Most businesses in Australia need to obtain an Australian Business Number (ABN). These businesses are then included on the whole of government register of businesses, the Australian Business Register (ABR). The results of these studies are based, in part, on tax data supplied by the ATO under the Taxation Administration Act 1953 and ABR data supplied by the Registrar under A New Tax System (Australian Business Number) Act 1999. The Taxation Administration Act 1953 requires that such data are only used for the purpose of administering the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and the Australian Business Number Act 1999 requires that such data are only used for the purpose of carrying out functions of the ABS. Further information about the two Acts can be found at www.comlaw.gov.au. Information about the ABR can be obtained from the ABR website www.abr.gov.au or the ATO website www.ato.gov.au/business. The ABS uses information from the ABR to populate its internal register of businesses, the Australian Bureau of Statistics Business Register (ABSBR), which is used as a source for business survey frames and business counts.

29
Counts of businesses produced from the ABSBR comprise actively trading businesses in the Australian economy. The population includes employing and non-employing, single location and multiple location businesses. It should be noted that it is not currently possible to account for those businesses which operate out of multiple locations, other than at their main location. This is particularly relevant for larger businesses, which commonly establish outlets in numerous states and regions across Australia. The reason for this is that data for individual business locations are not currently available from the ABSBR. Users should therefore be aware of this limitation when using counts of businesses.

30
Excluded from these counts are entities which are not considered to be actively trading in the market sector such as the Reserve Bank of Australia, General Government and Not for profit institutions serving households. Examples of some of the other excluded entities are: Social and sporting clubs, Charitable institutions; Trade Unions and other associations; Other unincorporated entities; Police services; Fire protection and other emergency services; Religious services; Business and professional associations; Labour association services; Other interest group services; and Private households employing staff. Businesses which have not submitted a Business Activity Statement (BAS) and/or have reported zero dollar amounts over five consecutive quarters (or three consecutive years for annual BAS remitters) have been excluded.

31 The data published have been confidentialised so as not to reveal the identity of any business units. The confidentiality process perturbs data in such a way that the data presented at these detailed levels will not always be additive. For example, opening stock from the beginning of the financial year, plus entries, minus exits, may not equal the closing stock for the end of the financial year. Additionally, the total counts of businesses may not be equal to the total counts of businesses by industry. This is due to the fact that each of those components are individually rounded.

32 The LGA data have been geocoded and confidentialised. Some regional suppressions may have also been applied. The final estimates therefore should not be assumed to reflect exact numbers of business counts in any LGA, and in particular no reliance should be placed on very small counts.

Building Approvals

33 Data for building work approvals are compiled from:
    • permits issued by local government authorities and other principal certifying authorities;
    • contracts let or day labour work authorised by Commonwealth, state, semi-government and local government authorities;
    • major building activity in areas not subject to normal administrative approval (e.g. building on remote mine sites).

34
The data included in this profile relate to all residential building approvals valued at $10,000 or more and all approved non-residential building jobs valued at $50,000 or more.

35 Building ownership is classified as either public or private sector and is based on the intended owner of the completed building at the time of approval.

36 Type of work can include 'new', 'alterations and additions' and 'conversions'. Unless otherwise specified, building (and building value) data relate to total building, which is the sum of new, alterations and additions, and conversions.

37 Counts of dwellings and houses refer only to building approvals for new houses or dwellings.

38 The type of building is the building's intended predominant function according to the ABS Functional Classification of Buildings 1999 (revision 2011) (cat. no. 1268.0.55.001).

39
Construction activity not defined as building (e.g. construction of roads, bridges, railways etc) is excluded from building statistics.

40
The data relate to the financial years ending 30 June, 2011 to 2016. For further information see Building Approvals, Australia (cat. no 8731.0)

Residential Property Prices

41 All Australian residential property sales data are now supplied to the ABS by CoreLogic RP Data. This dataset is a combination of residential property sales data obtained from State and Territory Land Titles Office or Valuers General Offices in each capital city (collectively referred to as VGs) and real estate agents data provided to CoreLogic RP Data. The ABS applies classifications to the dataset provided by CoreLogic RP Data to create the residential property sales dataset, from which these statistics are produced. Further information can be found in Residential Property Price Indexes (cat. no 6416.0). There are differences in the numbers produced using the new data source compared to the previous data source (which contained VGs data only).

42 This product provides estimates for median price and transfer counts of established houses and attached dwellings.

43 Dwellings in scope are:
    • Ordinary detached houses;
    • A house with an office;
    • A house with a flat;
    • Rural residential houses (within a capital city and not part of a farming business);
    • Semi-detached, row and terrace houses;
    • Townhouses; and
    • Flats, units and apartments.

44 The ABS has confidentialised any regional data cells with very small values. Due to geographical relationships across regions, extra cells may also be confidentialised.
Patent and Trademark Applicants

45 The patent and trademark applicants data is collected by IP Australia, and sourced (as an SA3 file) from the Office of the Chief Economist, Department of Industry, Innovation and Science. Further information on data produced by IP Australia can be sourced at data.gov.au.

46 The numbers of Patents and Trademarks relate to applicants. They are a yearly aggregate of applicants at 31 December for the year shown. The SA3 level data have been created and published by the Office of the Chief Economist, based on Postcode (of applicant) data provided by IP Australia.

47 ABS has aggregated the SA3 data to create details for the SA4, GCCSA, state, territory and Australia geographic levels. As such, the SA4, GCCSA, state or territory and Australia totals of applicants are not official aggregates provided by IP Australia or the Office of the Chief Economist.

48 ABS has suppressed data for regions in certain circumstances to prevent the identification of individuals.

Insolvencies

49 Counts of Business related and Non-business related personal insolvencies by region have been provided by the Australian Financial Security Authority (AFSA) from their extensive Personal Insolvency collection. See www.afsa.gov.au for more information.

50 Unless an individual declares their situation to be directly related to a proprietary interest in a business, all other insolvencies (even those for which details are not stated) are classified as Non business related.

Motor Vehicle Census

51
Motor Vehicle Census data refer to vehicles registered with a motor vehicle registration authority, for 2011-2016 this was as at 31 January.

52
The Motor Vehicle Census includes all vehicles registered with a state, territory or other government motor vehicle registry for unrestricted use on public roads with the following exceptions:
      • recreational vehicles such as trail bikes and sand dune buggies intended for off-road use in most states (in Victoria and Queensland these vehicles must be registered and are included in the statistics);
      • consular vehicles;
      • vehicles registered by the defence forces.

53
Vehicles on register are those vehicles registered at the date of the census, or had registration expire less than one month before that date.

54
Motor Vehicle Census data are presented by region of owner, and based on the Postcode of the owner. A geographic correspondence has been used in order to present the Postcode data on ASGS boundaries. Due to rounding, the sum of the individual components of vehicles will not necessarily add up to total registered motor vehicles. See Geographic Correspondences for further information.

55
The Australia total includes records that could not be allocated to a state or territory. Therefore aggregating state and territory totals will not equal the Australia total. Similarly, aggregating lower levels of the ASGS (SA2, SA3, LGA, etc.) within a state will not equal the state totals, due to the nature of corresponding data from Postcodes.

56
Further information can be found in Motor Vehicle Census, Australia (cat. no. 9309.0).

Tourist Accommodation Establishments

57 Data on the number of tourist accommodation establishments are derived from the quarterly Survey of Tourist Accommodation (STA). The STA is a mail-out collection that completely enumerates all in-scope accommodation establishments within Australia.

58
The in-scope establishments presented in this profile include: hotels, resorts, motels, private hotels, guest houses and serviced apartments with 15 or more rooms or units.

59
The main source for coverage is the Australian Automobile Association through AAA Tourism Pty Ltd. This is supplemented by notification of new tourism developments and their likely opening dates in selected guides, major tourism journals and periodicals and newspapers. Periodic comparison with lists of accommodation establishments provided by the various tourism organisations and industry associations is also undertaken.


60 The STA does not have a sample component and the data are not subject to sampling variability. However, other inaccuracies collectively referred to as non-sampling error may affect the data. These non-sampling errors may arise from a number of sources, including:
    • errors in the reporting of data by providers;
    • errors in the process of capturing data;
    • imputation for missing data;
    • definition and classification errors;
    • incomplete coverage.

61
Every effort has been made to reduce non-sampling error to a minimum by careful design and testing of questionnaires, and efficient operating procedures and systems used to compile statistics.

62
Further information on these statistics can be found in Tourist Accommodation, Small Area Data, Australia (cat. no. 8635.0).

Agricultural Commodities

63
Agricultural Commodities data are estimates obtained from the Agricultural Census, data from both 2011 and 2016 are presented. The scope of the 2016 Census was all businesses undertaking agricultural activity recorded on the ABS Business Register (ABSBR) above a minimum size cut off of $40,000. The measure of size was based on the ABS' Estimated Value of Agricultural Operations (EVAO) or a derived value based on Business Activity Statement turnover if EVAO was not available. For the previous 2011 Agricultural Census, the cut-off was $5,000.

64
Since not all of the businesses that were selected provided data, there are estimated data components. The estimates are subject to sampling variability; that is, they may differ from the figures that would have been produced if all businesses had provided data. One measure of the likely difference is given by the Standard Error (SE) which indicates the extent to which an estimate might vary by chance because only a sample was taken or had responded. There are about two chances in three that a 'sample' estimate will differ by less than one SE from the figure that would have been obtained if all businesses had responded, and about nineteen chances in twenty that the difference will be less than two SE.

65
In Agriculture data, sampling variability of the estimates is measured by the Relative Standard Error (RSE) which is obtained by expressing the Standard Error as a percentage of the estimate to which it refers. In Data by Region, Agriculture data with an RSE greater than 50% are not presented.

66
For further information see Agricultural Commodities, Australia (cat. no. 7121.0).

Gross Value of Agricultural Production


67
The value of agricultural production estimates are derived by the multiplication of price and quantity of individual agricultural commodities. Remaining commodity data (livestock disposals and livestock products excluding eggs) are obtained from other ABS collections with some information from non-ABS sources. Price information refers to the average unit value of a given commodity realised in the market place. More specifically, price information for livestock slaughterings and wool is obtained from ABS collections. Price information for other commodities is obtained from non-ABS sources, including marketing authorities and industry sources.

68
The estimates of gross value are subject to sampling error. (See above or a discussion of sampling error in Agriculture data). In Data by Region, Agriculture data with a relative standard error (RSE) greater than 50% are not presented.

69
Further information on Value of Agricultural Production can be obtained in the ABS publication Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia (cat. no 7503.0).

Industry of Employment

70 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing and are for all employed people aged 15 years and over.

71
Industry is coded using the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification, 2006 (ANZSIC) (cat. no. 1292.0). The industry code assigned is based on the main job held during the week prior to Census Night.


INCOME (INCLUDING GOVERNMENT ALLOWANCES)

Estimates of Personal Income

72 Due to the different sources of collection and different coverage of the population of income earners, care should be taken in comparing the income data from different sources. Some of the differences between Estimates of Personal Income and income data, sourced from the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) from the Census of Population and Housing is highlighted in the table below:

Difference
Estimates of Person Income (Australian Tax Office)
Census of Population and Housing
Reference period2010-11 to 2014-15 financial yearsAugust 2016
PopulationIndividuals with income reported to the ATO (approx 13 million records per year), either through a personal income tax form, or through a PAYG statement.All persons aged 15 years and above (approx 20 million records)
Method of reportingReporting in a personal income tax return, often with a group certificate or other supporting evidence of income, where required by ATO. Reporting is in more detail, showing different sources, and dollar values.Self reported income is reported in ranges on a Census form
Missing incomeSome income is not reported to the ATO. 

People who earn under the tax free threshold or receive payments that are not assessable (such as some Government benefits and allowances).
None - The Census form asks people to include all income when answering income questions.

73 Further information about income in the Census of Population and Housing can be found in the Census of Population and Housing.

74 Personal income tax data are supplied by the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) under the Taxation Administration Act 1953, which requires that such data be only used for the purpose of administering the Census and Statistics Act 1905. Any discussion of data limitations or weaknesses in these Notes is in the context of using the data for statistical purposes; it is not related to the ability of the data to support the ATO's core operational requirements. Readers should note that legislative requirements to ensure privacy and secrecy of this data have been adhered to. In accordance with the Census and Statistics Act 1905, results have been confidentialised to ensure that they are not likely to enable identification of a particular person or organisation.

75 For the purposes of providing statistical measures for the entire population, the ATO database has some limits to its coverage. Persons who receive an income below certain levels are not necessarily required to lodge a tax return. This can include persons who derive their income from Government pensions and allowances. Consequently, the coverage of low income earners, including people receiving government pensions and allowances, is incomplete in ATO records. In addition, some Commonwealth of Australia Government pension, benefit and allowance payments are exempt from income tax and are therefore do not need to be reported in tax returns. As such, the ATO data should be regarded as an indicative though not complete picture of all individual income earned in Australia.

76 This release contains a five year time series of data from the ATO. The data is collated by the ATO from individual tax returns and employer payment summaries that have been lodged for the financial years of 2010-11 to 2014-15 inclusive. Lodgements are captured for a 16 month period after each financial year.

77 This release contains regional estimates of the sources of personal income that people received for the financial years of 2010-11 to 2014-15 for the following sources - employee, own unincorporated business, investment, superannuation and annuities, other income (excluding Government pensions and allowances) - and total income from these component sources.

78 Employee income is the total (or gross) income received as a return to labour from an employer or from a person's own incorporated business (when they are employed by this business). This source of income includes the following data items on the individual income tax return:
    • Total income from wage and salary (before tax and application of Medicare levy) as shown on the 'PAYG payment summary - individual non-business';
    • Allowances, earnings, tips, director's fees, etc;
    • Employer lump sum payments (adjusted to gross value);
    • Employment termination payments;
    • Attributed personal services income;
    • Employee share schemes;
    • Reportable fringe benefits (gross value not adjusted);
    • Reportable employer superannuation contributions (superannuation contributions (within concessional cap limits) from pre-tax income, usually made under salary sacrifice agreements);
    • Exempt foreign employment income; and
    • Other net foreign employment income.

79 Non-lodgers have being included in the Employee income data. The ABS defines non-lodgers as individuals that have a payment summary issued by an employer but who do not lodge an income tax return. Previously they were not included, however by gaining access to the data from payment summaries, the ABS is able to go some way in filling the wage and salary income gap for this non-lodger population.

80 Own unincorporated business income is the profit or loss that accrues to owners of, or partners in, their own unincorporated businesses. Profit or loss is the value of the gross output of the enterprise after the deduction of operating expenses, including reportable superannuation contributions, depreciation and operating costs, but before income tax is taken out. Losses occur when operating expenses are greater than receipts and are treated as negative income. This category includes the following data items from the individual income tax return:

    • Distributions from partnerships and trusts (including any franked distributions) for primary production activities;
    • Distributions from partnerships (including any franked distributions) for non-primary production activities, less foreign income;
    • Net personal services income; and
    • Net income (or loss) from business.

81 Investment income includes the following data items on the individual income tax returns:
    • Gross interest;
    • Dividends unfranked amount;
    • Dividends franked amount;
    • Dividends franking credit;
    • Distribution from trusts less net capital gains, foreign income and franked distributions- non-primary production ;
    • Franked distributions from trusts - non-primary production;
    • Australian franking credits from a New Zealand company;
    • Net foreign rent; and
    • Net rent.

82 Superannuation and annuity income includes the following data items on the individual income tax returns:

    • Australian annuities and superannuation income streams;
    • Australian annuities and superannuation income streams - lump sum in arrears;
    • Australian superannuation lump sum payments; and
    • Bonuses from life insurance companies and friendly societies.

83 A change to legislation relating to superannuation, taking effect from 1 July 2007, meant that people aged 60 years and over who receive superannuation income in the form of a lump sum or income stream (such as a pension) from a taxed source, receive that income tax free. Therefore, these persons are not required to report this income at on their individual tax return. Also, if such persons have no other income, or their total income is below the tax-free threshold, then they are also not required to lodge a tax return. Due to such changes, the superannuation estimates (persons, income) published in this publication are regarded as partial, subject to under-coverage. ABS is currently investigating ways of achieving fuller superannuation estimates for regions. A more comprehensive snapshot of superannuation income (at aggregate state and territory level) can be obtained from the ABS Survey of Income and Housing - see Household Income and Wealth, Australia.

84 Other income (excluding Government pensions and allowances) comprises income items reported on the individual income tax return that were not allocated to one of the above categories. For example, other income can include transfer or trust income, controlled foreign company income, net foreign pension and annuity income, and foreign investment and life assurance income. Other income (excluding Government pensions and allowances) includes the following data items on the individual income tax returns:

    • Foreign entities - transfer or trust income;
    • Foreign investment fund and/or foreign life assurance policy income;
    • Controlled foreign company income;
    • Net foreign pension/annuity income;
    • Other net foreign source income; and
    • Other income.

85 Total income (excluding Government pensions and allowances) is the sum of all employee income, own unincorporated business, superannuation and annuities, investment and other income (excluding Government pensions, benefits or allowances) derived from the individual income tax returns, as defined above. As the sources of income other than employee income cannot be captured for the non-lodger population, they have been excluded from the estimates of total income included in this release.

86 As indicated, Government pensions, benefits or allowances are excluded from the ABS income data and do not appear in other income or total income. Pension recipients can fall below the income threshold that necessitates them lodging a tax return, or they may only receive tax free pensions or allowances. Hence they will be missing from the personal income tax data set. Recent estimates from the ABS Survey of Income and Housing (which records Government pensions and allowances) suggest that this component can account for between 9 to 11% of total income.

87 Individuals may receive income from a number of sources. Also, net income from a specific source may be positive or negative. For example, an individual may have positive income from employee income yet negative net income from investment. The number of individuals for each income source includes all persons with either positive or negative net income from that source.

88
The total number of individuals in receipt of income from at least one source should not be confused with the sum of the individuals in each income category, since people can have more than one source of income in any given year.

89 Access to more detailed ATO information has enabled the production of median age of earners, main source of income and median income estimates for all income types. Gini coefficient, percentile ratios, quartiles and income share income distribution indicators are also available for total income.

90 Percentile ratios summarise the relative distance between two points in a distribution. When all persons in the tax form lodging population are ranked from the lowest to the highest based on total income, they can be divided into 100 equal sized groups or percentiles. The median or top of the 50th percentile is denoted as P50. P20, P50 and P80 denote the highest values in the 20th, 50th and 80th percentiles respectively. Ratios of values at the top of selected percentiles, such as P80/P20, are termed percentile ratios. For personal income tax data, the P80/P20 ratio was chosen to illustrate the magnitude of the range within which the income of the majority of people fall. The P80/P50 and P50/20 ratios focus on comparing the ends of the income distribution with the midpoint.

91 Main source of income is the source from which a person derives most of their income. In this publication, main source of earners is presented as a proportion of the population in that region. If a region is particularly reliant on one source, it may be susceptible to policy or economic changes that affect that income type - hence the inclusion. Where persons receive exactly the same amount across multiple sources of income, they have been excluded from the derivation of this indicator. Persons with negative or nil income total income have also been excluded. The non-lodger population has also been excluded from this calculation as the sources of income other than employee income cannot be captured.

92 Income share (% of income held by the top 1%, 5% and 10% of all earners, per region) has also been produced for total income. The aggregate income of the units in each percentile is divided by the overall aggregate income of the entire population to derive income shares.

93 Quartiles are groupings that result from ranking all persons who lodged tax returns in ascending order according to total income, and then dividing them into four equal groups, each comprising 25% of the reference population. In this publication Australia's quartile ranges are used to compare the income distributions of regions to Australia.

94 The Gini coefficient is a single statistic that lies between 0 and 1 and is a summary indicator of the degree of inequality in income between members of the tax form lodging population. Values closer to 1 represent greater inequality. The Gini coefficients shown in this publication are subject to under-coverage for certain income groups and are calculated from gross personal income rather than equivalised disposable income. They can be regarded as indicative but not definitive and are not directly comparable to apparently similar ABS information at state/territory level, as per Household Income and Wealth, Australia.

95 Further information on these statistics can be found in Estimates of Personal Income for Small Areas (cat. no. 6524.0.55.002).

Gross Capital Gains

96 These data are sourced from the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) an relate to the total current year capital gains as reported by taxpayers. Data are presented for the financial years of 2010-11 to 2014-15 inclusive. Lodgements are captured for a 16 month period after each financial year.

97 Capital gains is the profit that results from the sale of a capital asset, where the sales price exceeds the purchase price and attracts capital gains tax. Conversely, a capital loss can arise if proceeds from a sale are less than the original purchase price. Capital gains cover the sale of assets such as: land, units in a unit trust and other investment properties, company shares, licenses, rights, options and leases; various collectables (paintings, antiques, coins, jewellery and similar) with an original market value of over $500; and personal use assets such as boats, furniture and electrical goods with an original value of over $10,000. More ATO information on this topic is available from Capital Gains and Exemptions.

98 Capital gains are not part of the existing ABS investment income, other income or total income framework, but are presented here as supplementary information of interest.

Selected Government Pensions and Allowances

99 Data on the number of individuals receiving selected Government pensions and allowances have been provided by the Department of Social Services (DSS), and the Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA). In more detail:
    • Age pension data has been provided by DSS for those individuals receiving an Age pension through Centrelink, while DVA has provided data for those individuals receiving an Age Pension through DVA;
    • DSS has provided data on Disability Support Pension, Carer Payment, and Family Tax Benefit (A and/or B).
    • DSS has provided data on Newstart Allowance, Youth Allowances (Other), and Parenting Payment.
    • DSS has provided data on Youth Allowances for apprentices and students.
    • DVA has provided data on persons receiving an Income Support Supplement or Service Pension.

100 Selected Government Pensions and Allowances Data have been provided to the ABS on an aggregate basis (at LGA and SA2 level (SA3 level from DVA). Totals are also available for Australia, states and territories. All data have been provided to the ABS in confidentialised form.

101 Age pension is a payment for persons who have reached Age Pension age and qualify to receive the Age Pension. Age Pension age depends on the individual's date of birth:

For men:
    • if born before 1/7/1952, Age Pension age is 65

For women:
    • if born before 1/7/1935, Age Pension age is 60
    • if born between 1/7/1935 and 31/12/1936, Age Pension age is 60.5
    • if born between 1/1/1937 and 30/6/1938, Age Pension age is 61
    • if born between 1/7/1938 and 30/12/1939, Age Pension age is 61.5
    • if born between 1/1/1940 and 30/6/1941, Age Pension age is 62
    • if born between 1/7/1941 and 31/12/1942, Age Pension age is 62.5
    • if born between 1/1/1943 and 30/6/1944, Age Pension age is 63
    • if born between 1/7/1944 and 31/12/1945, Age Pension age is 63.5
    • if born between 1/1/1946 and 30/6/1947, Age Pension age is 64
    • if born between 1/7/1947 and 31/12/1948, Age Pension age is 64.5
    • if born between 1/1/1949 and 30/6/1952, Age Pension age is 65

For men and women:
    • if born between 1/7/1952 and 31/12/1953, Age Pension age is 65.5
    • if born between 1/1/1954 and 30/6/1955, Age Pension age is 66
    • if born between 1/7/1955 and 31/12/1956, Age Pension age is 66.5
    • if born 1/1/1957 or later, Age Pension age is 67

102 The majority of Age Pensions are paid by Centrelink. Age pensioners who also receive a Disability Pension from the Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA) have the choice of having their Age Pension paid by either the DVA or Centrelink. There are therefore two separate data items, Age Pension (Centrelink) and Age Pension (DVA), published in Data by Region. The Centrelink Age Pension data are provided by DSS and include overseas pension recipients in the Australian total. Both Age Pension totals for Australia also include persons whose address could not be coded to a specific region.

103 The purpose of Disability Support Pension (DSP) is to provide income support for people who have a permanent physical, intellectual or psychiatric impairment. DSP is designed to give people an adequate means of support if they are unable to work for at least 15 hours per week at or above the relevant minimum wage, independent of a program or support. DSP data have been provided by DSS and include overseas pension recipients and persons whose address could not be coded to a specific region in the total for Australia.

104 Carer Payment is for people who are unable to support themselves through participation in the workforce while caring for someone with a disability, severe medical condition, or who is frail and aged. Carer Payment data have been provided by DSS and include persons whose address could not be coded to a specific region in the total for Australia.

105 Newstart Allowance is a payment for people who are looking for work and allows them to participate in activities designed to increase their chances of finding work. In the period covered by these data, persons must have been aged 21 years or older but under Age Pension age to qualify. Newstart Allowance data have been provided by DSS.

106 Youth Allowance is a payment for young people who are studying, undertaking training or an Australian Apprenticeship, looking for work, or sick. Persons must be aged 15 to 24 years to qualify. Youth Allowance (Other) data as well as Youth Allowance data for apprentices and students have been sourced from DSS.

107 Parenting Payment is a payment for persons who are primary carers of children. Parenting Payment data have been provided by DSS.

108 Family Tax Benefit is paid to help with the costs of raising children. Around 75% of all families with at least one dependent child aged under 16 years are eligible to receive Family Tax Benefit. Family Tax Benefit data have been provided by DSS. The Family Tax Benefit data for 2016 are preliminary data; the fuller, finalised count will be released in the next issue of the Data by Region.

109 Family Tax Benefit Part A can be paid to a parent, guardian or an approved care organisation to help with the costs of raising children. There are eligibility requirements involving the age and educational status of the child, residency and income. Family Tax Benefit Part B is an extra payment for single parents and families with one main income to help with the costs of raising children. Part B is limited to families where the primary earner has an adjusted taxable income of $100,000 or less per financial year (from June 2015, previously was $150,000 or less). There are also additional eligibility requirements. Approximately three-quarters of FTB customers receive both Part A and Part B. Data presented in regard to Family Tax Benefit refer only to fortnightly instalment customers paid directly by Centrelink. The information excludes an additional 10% (approximately) who are paid by a lump sum which is claimable at the end of a financial year. The Family Tax Benefit data for 2016 are preliminary only; users should refrain from making direct comparisons with data from earlier years in past issues of Data by Region (formerly know as the National Regional Profile).

110 A Service Pension can be paid to veterans on the grounds of age or invalidity, and to eligible partners, widows and widowers. The Service Pension data have been provided by DVA.

111 Income Support Supplement is an income support pension paid to: eligible war widows and widowers under the Veterans’ Entitlements Act 1986 (VEA); and persons receiving wholly dependent partners’ compensation under the Military Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 2004 (MRCA). Income Support Supplement data have been provided by DVA.

112 All Government Pensions and Allowances shown in the Profile data refer to a point in time (i.e. the number of persons receiving payment as at the pay period closest to 30 June each year) and therefore do not represent all the customers in receipt of payments during the entire financial year. Customers who have been suspended or not paid at that point of time are not included in these data.

113 All data have been provided on ASGS 2011 boundaries. For privacy reasons, all administrative data from non-ABS sources has been confidentialised before being supplied to the ABS. The cells suppressed through confidentialisation on Data by Region may differ to other publications that contain DSS data.

114 Where a person could not be allocated to a region within a state and territory, they have been included in the totals for the states and territories. Where a person could not be allocated to a state or territory, they have been included in the total for Australia.

115 More information about specific payments can be accessed from the Department of Social Services and the Department of Veterans' Affairs.

Total Personal Income (Weekly)

116 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing and are for all employed people aged 15 years and over. It indicates the total income that the person usually receives each week.

Equivalised Total Household Income

117 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing.

118 Equivalised total household income is total household income adjusted by the application of an equivalence scale to facilitate comparison of income levels between households of differing size and composition. The 'modified OECD' equivalence scale is used.

119 Equivalised total household income can be viewed as an indicator of the economic resources available to a standardised household. For a lone person household it is equal to household income. For a household comprising more than one person, it is an indicator of the household income that would be needed by a lone person household to enjoy the same level of economic wellbeing.


EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT

Early Childhood - Enrolment and Attendance in Preschool Programs

120 This publication contains statistics on children aged 4 or 5 years who as at 1 July in the collection year were enrolled and attending preschool programs across Australia. These data are from the National Early Childhood Education and Care Collection. The Collection is derived from administrative data provided by state and territory and Australian government departments and the Catholic Education Office of the Archdiocese of Canberra and Goulburn.

121 For the purposes of the Collection, a preschool program is defined as a structured, play based learning program, delivered by a degree qualified teacher, aimed primarily at children in the year or two before they commence full-time schooling. This is irrespective of the type of institution that provides it or whether it is government funded or privately provided.

122 To be considered as enrolled, the child must have attended the preschool program for at least one hour during the reference period, or be absent due to illness or extended holiday leave and expected to return.

123 Care needs to be taken when interpreting Queensland child counts as there may be some duplication of children across different provider types. This is due to the inclusion of child aggregate data from some service providers.

124 Where the finer regional details of enrolments are not stated or unknown, these are included in the State/Territory totals but not shown separately elsewhere.

125 Further information on these statistics can be found in Preschool Education, Australia (cat. no 4240.0) and Microdata: Preschool Education, Australia (cat. no. 4240.0.55.003).

Post School Qualifications

126
These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. These data are for persons aged 15 years and over and show the level of education based on the highest completed non-school qualification of persons (e.g. bachelor degree, diploma).

127
The full classification for levels of education and fields of study, together with an explanation of the conceptual basis of the classification, can be found in the publication Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED), 2001 (cat. no. 1272.0).

Higher Education Loan Program (HELP) Repayments

128 These data are sourced from the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) and are a count of taxpayers who have made repayments on their HELP debt in the reference year.

129 Data is presented for the financial years of 2010-11 to 2014-15 inclusive. Lodgements are captured for a 16 month period after each financial year. Tax returns with a HELP repayment lodged after the 16 month cut off are excluded from this publication.

130 For the compulsory HELP repayments to be made, taxpayers must be earning above the minimum repayment income threshold ($53,345 for the 2014-15 financial year). Further information on repayment income thresholds for other years, and repayment rates can be found on the ATO website.

Highest Year of School Completed

131 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing and are for people aged 15 years and over. They relate to the highest level of primary or secondary schooling completed.

132 Data are coded using the Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED), 2001 (cat. no. 1272.0).

Occupation of Employed Persons

133
These data are from the Census of Population and Housing and are for employed people aged 15 years and over. Two occupation questions are used in the Census. The first of these asks for occupation title, while the second asks for the main tasks usually performed by the person in their occupation. Collecting both occupation title and task information ensures more accurate coding of occupations.

134
Occupations are coded using the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO) (cat. no. 1220.0). The Occupation code assigned is based on the main job held during the week prior to Census Night.

Youth Engagement in Work or Study

135 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. They relate to persons aged 15-19 years and are derived from questions about whether the person was working or attending a school or any other educational institution.

Labour Force

136 These data are sourced from the Census of Population and Housing. Data are for persons aged 15 years or more, and are derived from the questions about whether the person had a job in the week before Census Night, whether they actively looked for work in the last four weeks before Census Night, and if they could have started work in the last week before Census night.

HEALTH AND DISABILITY

137 The health and disability data presented in this product are modelled estimates for sub-state regions or small areas.


138 The modelled small area estimates can be interpreted as the expected value for a typical area in Australia with the same characteristics. There will be differences between the characteristic prediction and the actual number of people with that characteristic (not accounted for in the measure of accuracy). One explanation for this is that significant local information about particular small areas exists, but has not been collected for all areas and cannot be incorporated into the models. They should be viewed as a tool that when used in conjunction with local area knowledge as well as the consideration of the modelled estimates reliability, can provide useful information that can assist with decision making for small geographic areas. Care needs to be taken to ensure decisions are not based on inaccurate estimates.


139 The errors associated with the modelled estimates fall into four categories; sampling error, non-sampling error, modelling error, and prediction error. The relative root mean squared error (RRMSE) provides an indication of the deviation of the modelled estimate from the true value.

140 Estimates have been confidentialised to ensure they meet ABS requirements.


Disability Estimates

141 The disability data are modelled estimates based on random effects logistic regression models fitted to data from the 2012 Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers (SDAC), 2011 Australian Census of Population and Housing, 2012 Estimated Resident Population (ERP), and aggregated administrative data from the Department of Social Services, 2012.

142 This product presents the modelled count and percentage of persons with a disability living in private dwellings.

143 These modelled estimates were originally produced as a consultancy for the NSW Department of Family and Community Services, applying ABS methods and quality standards.

144 The level at which modelled estimates have been produced varies by jurisdiction, as follows:

Small area level*

New South WalesLocal Government Area
VictoriaStatistical Area Level 2
QueenslandStatistical Area Level 2
South AustraliaStatistical Area Level 2
Western AustraliaLocal Government Area
TasmaniaLocal Government Area
Northern TerritoryStatistical Area Level 2
Australian Capital TerritoryStatistical Area Level 2

* LGA estimates produced using a 2012 correspondence.

145 Disability data with a relative root mean squared error (RRMSE) greater than 25% are not presented.

146 Further information on these statistics can be found in Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia: Additional data cubes, 2012 (cat. no. 4430.0.55.009).


Health Estimates

147 The health data are modelled estimates based on random effects logistic regression models fitted to data from the 2011-12 and 2014-15 National Health Survey (NHS), 2011 Australian Census of Population and Housing, 2012 and 2015 Estimated Resident Population (ERP), and aggregated administrative data such as from the Department of Social Services.

148 This product presents the modelled count and percentage of persons living in private dwellings, with the following health characteristics:
    • Males and females aged 18 years and over who were current smokers.
    • Persons aged 18 years and over with high or very high psychological distress, based on the Kessler 10 (K10) scale.
    • Persons aged 15 years and over, with fair or poor self-assessed health.
    • Persons aged 18 years and over who had high blood pressure (measured systolic/diastolic blood pressure was equal to or greater than 140/90 mmHg).

149 These modelled estimates were originally produced as a consultancy for the Public Health Information Development Unit (PHIDU), applying ABS methods and quality standards.

150 Data has been produced for Statistical Area Level 3 regions.

Private Health

151 These data are sourced from the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) and relate to taxpayers who report having private health insurance.

152 Data are presented for the financial years of 2010-11 to 2014-15 inclusive. Lodgements are captured for a 16 month period after each financial year. Tax returns with a reported private health insurance lodged after the 16 month cut off are excluded from this publication.

153 As described above, the data included in this publication is limited to the taxpayer population. An estimate of how many adults in Australia have private health insurance can be obtained from the ABS National Health Survey - see Health Service Usage and Health Related Actions, Australia (cat. no. 4364.0.55.002).




FAMILY AND COMMUNITY

Gifts/donations Reported by Taxpayers

154 These data are sourced from the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) and relate to gifts or donations reported by taxpayers.

155 Data is presented for the financial years of 2010-11 to 2014-15 inclusive. Lodgements are captured for a 16 month period after each financial year. Tax returns with a reported gifts or donations lodged after the 16 month cut off are excluded from this publication.

Method of Travel to Work

156
These data are from the Census of Population and Housing and are from the question about how the person got to work on the day of the Census.

Households

157
These data are from the Census of Population and Housing and describe the type of household within a dwelling. Family households can contain non-family members (unrelated persons and visitors). A maximum of three families can be coded to a household. Lone person households can contain visitors.

Families

158
These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. Families have been classified in terms of the relationships that exist between a single family reference person and each other member of that family. Different types of families are distinguished based on the presence or absence of couple relationships, parent-child relationships, child dependency relationships or other blood relationships, in that order of preference.

159 The family type is derived from people enumerated in the household who usually reside there and who share a familial relationship. Partners and dependent children usually present but temporarily absent are also included in this derivation. Boarders and other non-family members are excluded.

Social Marital Status & Registered Marital Status

160 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. Social marital status shows a person's relationship status based on their current living arrangements. Where a couple relationship exists in the household the type of relationship is identified as a registered marriage or a de facto marriage. All persons aged 15 years and over, who are usually resident and present in the household on Census night and who are not in a couple relationship are identified as 'Not married'. Registered marital status records a person's formal registered marital status as married, separated, divorced, widowed or never married.

Access to Internet at Home

161 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. These data show the proportion of occupied private dwellings in the region that have access to the internet.

162 The categories of access are: 'no internet connection', 'broadband', 'dial-up' and 'other'. Broadband access includes ADSL, cable, wireless and satellite connections. Dial-up includes analogue modem and ISDN connections. Other includes access through mobile phones.

Rent and Mortgage Payments

163 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing and are household rent and mortgage payments including site fees if the dwelling is a caravan, or manufactured home in a caravan park, or a manufactured home estate.

Unpaid Work

164 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. Data on unpaid work show the proportion of persons usually resident in the region who did any voluntary work in the last twelve months, or any unpaid work (caring for own children, caring for other children, caring for family members or others) in the last two weeks.

Count of All Children

165 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing and counts the number of dependent and non-dependent children in family households. It includes up to three children who were temporarily absent from the household on Census night.

Housing Suitability

166 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing. This variable is a measure of housing utilisation based on a comparison of the number of bedrooms in occupied private dwellings with a series of household demographics, such as the number of usual residents, their relationship to each other, age and sex. The criteria are based on the Canadian National Occupancy Standard. It can be used to identify if a dwelling is either under or over utilised.

Dwelling Structure

167 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing, and record the structure of private dwellings.

Tenure Type

168 These data are from the Census of Population and Housing, and describe whether an occupied private dwelling is owned, being purchased or rented.


LAND AND ENVIRONMENT

Land Area

169
The land area data are based upon the boundaries in the Australian Statistical Geography Standard 2016. The areas of the regions were calculated using ABS standard Geographic Information Systems software using the digital boundaries of the regions.

Protected Land Areas

170 This data refers to areas of land dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biodiversity. The information is sourced from the Collaborative Australian Protected Areas Database (CAPAD), Commonwealth of Australia (2012), as maintained and updated by the Department of the Environment.

171 The Department has especially converted CAPAD data (for Reported, Gazetted Areas) into ABS Statistical Geographies - such as Statistical Area Level 2 (SA2) and Local Government Areas (LGA) - to match the geographic preferences of the ABS Data by Region dataset. Where there is no Gazetted Area for a record, the GIS Area (based on current spatial data and an Albers Equal Area Projection for Australia) has been sourced to enable geographic conversions.

172 The process of splitting CAPAD into geographic regions can generate many small areas. Slivers of land - with an area less than 1 hectare and which are less than 2 per cent of the unsplit protected area - have been removed. Therefore there is a small difference between area totals for States when compared with LGA or SA2 regions. Also, the numbers of Protected Land Areas (PLAs) should be considered as indicative only.

173 Data are presented for: number of Protected Land Areas (PLAs) by selected types (for example, Nature Reserves, Indigenous Protected Areas); area of PLAs (hectares); and PLAs (hectares) as a percentage of total regional land area. Much other data, for example relating to PLA types, land governance arrangements and marine regions, are readily available from the Department of the Environment. For more information please refer to Department of Environment and Energy CAPAD.

Solar Installations

174 Small-scale solar panel installations and Solar Water Heater installations data have been sourced from the Clean Energy Regulator (CER). The Clean Energy Regulator administers the Small-Scale Renewable Energy Scheme (SRES) as part of the federal governments Renewable Energy Target (RET), and the installations presented in this publication are those recorded under the SRES. The SRES is governed by the Renewable Energy (Electricity) Act 2000 and the Renewable Energy (Electricity) Regulations 2001.

175 The installations data sourced from the CER include new, upgraded and replacement installations, and include stand alone (off-grid) installations. The data only represent installations that have passed the CERs auditing process and relevant standards, and have had Small-scale Technology Certificates (STCs) validly created under the SRES. The data do not include installations that have resulted in failed STC creation, or are pending STC creation. Installations under the SRES may include residential and commercial systems, and include installations of no more than 100 kilowatts in panel array capacity.

176 CER data is based on the Postcode of the installation, and a geographic correspondence has been applied by ABS to create data on ASGS and LGA 2016 boundaries. See Geographic Correspondences for further information. The Australian total of small-scale solar panel installations and solar water heater installations has been taken directly from CER source data, whereas all other geographical boundaries have been converted from Postcode data. Therefore aggregations of the regional data may not exactly match the Australian total. The CER advises it is unable to provide further analysis of this installations data for users.

Water Use on Australian Farms

177
Water use data are from the Agricultural Census. Data was collected from agricultural businesses on the ABS Business Register undertaking agricultural activity above a minimum size cut off of $40,000.

178
The estimates are based on responses to the Agricultural Census and since not all of the businesses that were selected provided data, the estimates are subject to sampling variability. That is, estimates may differ from figures that would be produced if all businesses had provided data. In Data by Region, Water Use data with a relative standard error (RSE) greater than 50% are not presented.

179 Area of agricultural land (ha) and Area irrigated (ha) may not correspond entirely to the region the data is assigned. In some circumstances a farm may be across more than one region, the agricultural land and area irrigated will be typically assigned to the region that the address of the farm is located.

1
80 For further information see Water Use on Australian Farms (cat. no. 4618.0).

STATISTICAL GEOGRAPHY

181
The Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) is used by the ABS for the collection and dissemination of geographically classified statistics. The ASGS replaced the Australian Standard Geographic Classification (ASGC) from July 2011.

182
The ASGS is an essential reference for understanding and interpreting the geographic context of statistics published, not only by the ABS but also by other organisations, and its use enables comparability across datasets.

183
This issue of Data by Region uses ASGS 2016. Where available, data has been sourced for regions of the ASGS directly. In some cases, historical data has not been available on ASGS, and so has not been available to include in the profiles. Some data have been converted to ASGS 2016 regions using geographic correspondences. Data for Local Government Areas (LGAs) are presented at 2016 boundaries.

Geographic correspondences

184
The use of geographic correspondences enables data to be converted from one type of geographic region to another. Geographic correspondences are usually provided as conversion factors based on relative population distributions and/or land area shares.

185
The application of correspondences allows:
    • the source data to be more easily compared with standard ABS output;
    • the source data to be output for other standard ABS geographic areas such as Statistical Areas 2-4 and Local Government Areas (LGA); and
    • extra flexibility, in that data can be provided for a variety of geographies of interest to data users.

186
When analysing data produced by correspondences, the following limitations need to be taken into account:
    • in applying the correspondences it is assumed that the particular characteristics of any data item are uniformly distributed across the region. Therefore, data produced by correspondences may not truly reflect the distribution of the characteristics of the population. In some cases, where the same region is split across two or more new regions and there are no other contributing regions, distinct numerical estimates will be derived but rates or averages will be identical for each new region (as these will be equivalent to the original rate or average of the contributing regions);
    • the conversion factors are usually based on total population only but have been applied across all data items in a series;
    • some official Postcodes (such as Post Office boxes, etc.) do not correspond to residential areas but may still have been reported under the current home address field in certain administrative data series. Data for these and other 'invalid' Postcodes - such as those due to incorrect reporting or processing errors - are included in state and territory totals or for Australia where the state or territory was not known; and
    • figures produced by correspondences have been rounded. Therefore, there may be small differences between the sum of the component items and the totals shown.

187
While care was taken in producing the correspondences the ABS can not guarantee the accuracy of data produced by correspondences. ASGS correspondences are found on the Statistical Geography page of the ABS website.

Geographic regions

188
The statistics in this product are presented according to the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS), 2016. Under this classification, statistical areas below Australia and state or territory level are defined as follows:
  • Local Government Areas (LGAs): These areas are the spatial units which represent the geographical areas of incorporated local government councils. As at 2016 boundaries, there are 563 ABS defined Local Government Areas, including Unincorporated areas. The various types of LGAs are Cities (C), NSW Areas (A), Boroughs (B), Rural Cities (RC), Towns (T), Shires (S), District councils (DC), Municipalities/Municipal Councils (M), SA Regional Councils (RegC), Qld Regional Councils (R) and SA Aboriginal councils (AC). Note: In some states or territories, there is an 'Unincorporated' LGA region, which represents the balance of the state or territory that is not incorporated.
  • Statistical Area 2 (SA2): Statistical Areas Level 2 are a medium-sized general purpose areas. SA2s aim to represent a community that interacts together socially and economically. There are 2,310 SA2s covering the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. On average they have a population of approximately 10,000 people. Most are designed to be within the population range 3,000 - 25,000.
  • Statistical Area 3 (SA3): Statistical Areas Level 3 (SA3) are geographical areas built from whole SA2s. There are 358 SA3 regions covering the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. SA3s are designed to provide a regional breakdown of Australia. They generally have a population of between 30,000 and 130,000 people. In the major cities, they represent the area serviced by a major transport and commercial hub. They often closely align to large urban Local Government Areas (e.g. Gladstone, Geelong). In regional areas, they represent the area serviced by regional cities that have a population over 20,000 people. In outer regional and remote areas, they represent areas which are widely recognised as having a distinct identity and have similar social and economic characteristics.
  • Statistical Area 4 (SA4): Statistical Areas Level 4 are geographical areas built from whole SA3s. The SA4 regions have been designed for the output of a variety of regional data, including data from the 2016 Census of Population and Housing. There are 107 SA4 regions covering the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. In regional areas, SA4s tend to have populations of between 100,000 to 300,000 people. In metropolitan areas, SA4s tend to have larger populations (300,000 – 500,000 people).
  • Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (GCCSA): Greater Capital City Statistical Areas are geographical areas that are designed to represent the functional extent of each of the eight state and territory capital cities. Within each state and territory, the area not defined as being part of the greater capital city is represented by a Rest of State region. There are 16 GCCSA regions covering the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. These consist of 8 regions representing each of the Australian State and Territory capital cities, and 8 regions covering the rest of each State and the Northern Territory. The ACT only has one GCCSA region for the entire Territory. The category of Other Territories in GCCSA includes the Other Territories of Jervis Bay, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands and Norfolk Island.

189 For more information see the Statistical Geography page of the ABS website, or the following: Australian Statistical Geography Standard, Volume 1 - Main Structure and Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (cat. no. 1270.0.55.001); Australian Statistical Geography Standard, Volume 3 - Non-ABS Structures, July 2016 (cat. no. 1270.0.55.003). Maps of Statistical Areas 2-4 and GCCSA can be found in the Downloads tab of cat. no 1270.0.55.001.