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7 In some cases, a profile has not been produced for every region. This is usually because there are insufficient data for that region across the full range of data items, or the populations are relatively small. For example, there are no profiles produced for Other Territories (Jervis Bay, Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands).
8 Some data values in Data by Region have been randomly adjusted or suppressed to avoid the release of confidential details. Care should be taken when interpreting cells with small numbers. In some cases small cells have been randomly altered to zero. Caution should be exercised in deducing that there are no people or units with particular characteristics in a given area.
9 These Explanatory Notes have been presented under the following broad themes or topics:
CHANGES FROM PREVIOUS ISSUE
10 There have been a small number of changes to the data items and series included in this issue of the profiles. These changes are summarised in the following table. Please see the relevant sections in these Explanatory Notes for more detailed descriptions. The format of the Data by Region interface has changed with the re-categorising of data into seven different categories (up from four).
POPULATION AND PEOPLE
Estimated Resident Population
11 Population data in the profiles, unless otherwise stated, are the estimated resident population (ERP) for the selected region as at 30 June for the year shown. Data are shown to the nearest whole number without rounding, but accuracy to the last digit should not be assumed.
12 The concept of ERP links people to a place of usual residence within Australia. Usual residence is defined as that place where each person has lived or intends to live for six months or more in a given reference year.
13 Population estimates for most sub-state regions in Data by Region are built up from Statistical Area Level 2 (SA2). The ERP as at Census date is calculated based on usual residence Census counts, excluding short-term overseas visitors in Australia, with an allowance for Census net undercount and the number of residents temporarily overseas at Census date. As the Census is not held on 30 June (the 2011 Census was held on 9 August), further adjustments taking into account births, deaths and migration for the intervening period are made to obtain ERP at 30 June.
14 For Post-censal years, estimates at the Australian level take into account natural increase and net overseas migration, while estimates for states and territories also use estimated interstate migration. The absence of migration data at the SA2 level means that it is not possible to estimate SA2 populations by taking into account natural increase and net migration. Instead, ERP for most SA2s is calculated using a mathematical model, where relationships are established between changes in population and changes in indicator data between the two most recent Census. Current indicators include dwelling approvals, Medicare enrolments and counts of people on the Australian Electoral Roll. Changes in these indicators are used to estimate changes in the population of each area since the Census.
15 Estimates for SA2 are apportioned into Statistical Area Level 1 (SA1) regions using Census counts and indicator data. Estimates for Local Government Areas (LGAs) are aggregated from SA1 estimates, including split SA1s where they cross LGA boundaries.
16 Users will notice that there is no ERP data for the unincorporated LGAs in WA, Queensland and Tasmania. This is because they do not have geographically defined unincorporated areas. In contrast, the Population Census does show data for these unincorporated LGAs, depicting mainly off-shore and migratory populations.
Working Age Population
17 The working age population (aged 15-64 years) measure is used to give an estimate of the total number of potential workers within an economy.
18 For any distribution, the median value is that which divides the relevant population into two equal parts, half falling below the value, and half exceeding it. Thus, the median age is the age at which half the population is older and half is younger.
19 Data on births are presented on the basis of the usual residence of the mother regardless of where in Australia the birth occurred or was registered. The data refer to live births registered during the calendar year shown, and are supplied to the Australian Bureau of Statistics by each state and territory Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages for compilation into the aggregate statistics in this publication. For more information refer to Births, Australia (cat. no. 3301.0).
Total Fertility Rate
20 This is the sum of age-specific fertility rates (live births at each age of mother per 1,000 females of the estimated resident population of that age) divided by 1,000. It represents the number of children a female would bear during her lifetime if she experienced current age-specific fertility rates at each age of her reproductive life.
21 Data on deaths are presented on the basis of the usual residence of the deceased regardless of where in Australia the death occurred or was registered. The data refer to deaths registered during the calendar year shown, and are supplied to the Australian Bureau of Statistics by each state and territory Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages for compilation into the aggregate statistics in this publication. For more information refer to Deaths, Australia (cat. no. 3302.0).
Standardised Death Rate
22 Standardised death rates (SDRs) enable the comparison of death rates between populations with different age structures by relating them to a standard population. SDRs are expressed per 1,000 persons.
23 The population density for a region is calculated by dividing Estimated Resident Population data (paragraphs 11 to 16) by the Land Area (paragraph 151) to obtain the
number of persons per square kilometre.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
24 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing and includes people who identified their origin as being Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander, or both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander. Census data are being used in this issue of Data by Region.
Overseas Born Population
25 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing. The Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), Second Edition, Revision 1 (cat. no 1269.0) was used to classify responses for birthplace of individuals. This classification used the current names of countries, so if a person uses a former name the current name is coded. For example, Siam would be coded to Thailand. If an individual's birthplace was not stated on the Census form, an attempt was made to derive it from other answers.
26 The data shown exclude overseas visitors, persons at sea at the time of the Census, and persons whose responses on the Census form inadequately described their country of birth or for whom the birthplace was not stated (and could not be derived).
Internal Regional Migration
27 Regional internal migration estimates (RIME) are sourced from Migration, Australia, 2014-15 (cat no. 3412.0).
28 Regional internal migration is the movement of people from one region to another within Australia (both interstate and intrastate). For example, it incorporates moves from an SA2 to any other SA2 within the country. Net regional internal migration is the net gain or loss of population through this movement.
29 In August 2012, experimental regional internal migration estimates were released in the 2010-11 issue of Migration, Australia (cat. no. 3412.0), based on the 2011 edition of the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC). The method used to prepare these estimates was summarised in Discussion Paper: Assessment of Methods for Developing Experimental Historical Estimates of Regional Internal Migration (cat. no. 3405.0.55.001). The same method has been used to prepare the current series of regional internal migration, however the more recent series has been updated to the current statistical geography (ASGS).
30 Estimates for years 2011 to 2015 have been constrained to interstate migration estimates. Very small regional data cells have been randomised. Also, for some regions with very small populations and unreliable data, internal migration estimates were assumed to be zero.
31 RIME data are not directly comparable with estimated resident population (ERP) details because of the different methods and data sources used to prepare each series. The combination of natural increase and net migration (internal and overseas) therefore may not correspond with changes suggested by ERP. For information on how ERP is prepared see the Explanatory Notes of Regional Population Growth, Australia (cat. no. 3218.0).
ECONOMY AND INDUSTRY
38 Data for building work approvals are compiled from:
39 The data included in this profile relate to all residential building approvals valued at $10,000 or more and all approved non-residential building jobs valued at $50,000 or more.
40 Building ownership is classified as either public or private sector and is based on the intended owner of the completed building at the time of approval.
41 Type of work can include 'new', 'alterations and additions' and 'conversions'. Unless otherwise specified, building (and building value) data relate to total building, which is the sum of new, alterations and additions, and conversions.
42 Counts of dwellings and houses refer only to building approvals for new houses or dwellings.
43 The type of building is the building's intended predominant function according to the ABS Functional Classification of Buildings 1999 (revision 2011) (cat. no. 1268.0.55.001).
44 Construction activity not defined as building (e.g. construction of roads, bridges, railways etc) is excluded from building statistics.
45 The data relate to the financial years ending 30 June, 2011 to 2016. For further information see Building Approvals, Australia (cat. no 8731.0)
Residential Property Prices
46 The Australian residential property sales data was provided by the state and territory Land Titles Office or Valuers General Office in each capital city. The ABS then applies classifications to create the residential property sales dataset, from which these statistics are produced. Further information can be found in Residential Property Price Indexes (cat. no 6416.0).
47 This product provides estimates for median price and transfer counts of established houses and attached dwellings.
48 Dwellings in scope are:
49 The ABS has confidentialised any regional data cells with very small values. Due to geographical relationships across regions, extra cells may also be confidentialised.
50 The patent and trademark applicants data is collected by IP Australia, and sourced (as an SA3 file) from the Office of the Chief Economist, Department of Industry, Innovation and Science. Further information on data produced by IP Australia can be sourced at data.gov.au.
51 The numbers of Patents and Trademarks relate to applicants. They are a yearly aggregate of applicants at 31 December for the year shown. The SA3 level data have been created and published by the Office of the Chief Economist, based on Postcode (of applicant) data provided by IP Australia.
52 ABS has aggregated the SA3 data to create details for the SA4, GCCSA, state, territory and Australia geographic levels. As such, the SA4, GCCSA, state or territory and Australia totals of applicants are not official aggregates provided by IP Australia or the Office of the Chief Economist.
53 ABS has suppressed data for regions in certain circumstances to prevent the identification of individuals.
54 Counts of Business related and Non-business related bankrupts (or bankruptcies) by region have been provided by the Australian Financial Security Authority (AFSA) from their extensive Personal Insolvency collection. See www.afsa.gov.au for more information.
55 Unless an individual declares their situation to be directly related to a proprietary interest in a business, all other bankruptcies (even those for which details are not stated) are classified as Non business related.
Employed Persons by Industry
56 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing and are for all employed people aged 15 years and over.
57 Industry is coded using the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification, 2006 (ANZSIC) (cat. no. 1292.0). The industry code assigned is based on the main job held during the week prior to Census Night.
Motor Vehicle Census
58 Motor Vehicle Census data refer to vehicles registered with a motor vehicle registration authority, for 2011-2016 this was as at 31 January.
59 The Motor Vehicle Census includes all vehicles registered with a state, territory or other government motor vehicle registry for unrestricted use on public roads with the following exceptions:
60 Vehicles on register are those vehicles registered at the date of the census, or had registration expire less than one month before that date.
61 Motor Vehicle Census data are presented by region of owner, and based on the Postcode of the owner. A geographic correspondence has been used in order to present the Postcode data on Australian Statistical Geography Standard 2011 boundaries. Due to rounding, the sum of the individual components of vehicles will not necessarily add up to total registered motor vehicles. Further information on Geographic Correspondences can be found in paragraphs 171-174.
62 The Australia total includes records that could not be allocated to a state or territory. Therefore aggregating state and territory totals will not equal the Australia total. Similarly, aggregating lower levels of the ASGS (SA2, SA3, LGA, etc.) within a state will not equal the state totals, due to the nature of corresponding data from Postcodes.
63 Further information can be found in Motor Vehicle Census, Australia (cat. no. 9309.0).
Tourist Accommodation Establishments
64 Data on the number of tourist accommodation establishments are derived from the quarterly Survey of Tourist Accommodation (STA). The STA is a mail-out collection that completely enumerates all in-scope accommodation establishments within Australia.
65 The in-scope establishments presented in this profile include: hotels, resorts, motels, private hotels, guest houses and serviced apartments with 15 or more rooms or units.
66 The main source for coverage is the Australian Automobile Association through AAA Tourism Pty Ltd. This is supplemented by notification of new tourism developments and their likely opening dates in selected guides, major tourism journals and periodicals and newspapers. Periodic comparison with lists of accommodation establishments provided by the various tourism organisations and industry associations is also undertaken.
69 All data have been classified according to ASGS 2011.
70 Further information on these statistics can be found in Tourist Accommodation, Small Area Data, Australia (cat. no. 8635.0).
71 Agricultural Commodities data are estimates obtained from the 2010-11 Agricultural Census. The scope of the Census was all businesses undertaking agricultural activity recorded on the ABS Business Register (ABSBR) above a minimum size cut off of $5,000. The measure of size was based on the ABS' Estimated Value of Agricultural Operations (EVAO) or a derived value based on Business Activity Statement turnover if EVAO was not available.
72 Since not all of the businesses that were selected provided data, there are estimated data components. The estimates are subject to sampling variability; that is, they may differ from the figures that would have been produced if all businesses had provided data. One measure of the likely difference is given by the Standard Error (SE) which indicates the extent to which an estimate might vary by chance because only a sample was taken or had responded. There are about two chances in three that a 'sample' estimate will differ by less than one SE from the figure that would have been obtained if all businesses had responded, and about nineteen chances in twenty that the difference will be less than two SE.
73 In Agriculture data, sampling variability of the estimates is measured by the Relative Standard Error (RSE) which is obtained by expressing the Standard Error as a percentage of the estimate to which it refers. In Data by Region, Agriculture data with an RSE greater than 50% are not presented.
74 Agriculture Census data have been produced on Australian Statistical Geography Standard 2011 (ASGS 2011).
75 For further information see Agricultural Commodities, Australia (cat. no. 7121.0).
Gross Value of Agricultural Production
76 The value of agricultural production estimates are derived by the multiplication of price and quantity of individual agricultural commodities. Quantity data for most crops were collected in the 2010-11 Agricultural Census. Remaining commodity data (livestock disposals and livestock products excluding eggs) are obtained from other ABS collections with some information from non-ABS sources. Price information refers to the average unit value of a given commodity realised in the market place. More specifically, price information for livestock slaughterings and wool is obtained from ABS collections. Price information for other commodities is obtained from non-ABS sources, including marketing authorities and industry sources.
77 The estimates of gross value are subject to sampling error. (See paragraph 72 for a discussion of sampling error in Agriculture data). In Data by Region, Agriculture data with a relative standard error (RSE) greater than 50% are not presented.
78 Further information on Value of Agricultural Production can be obtained in the ABS publication Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia (cat. no 7503.0).
INCOME (INCLUDING GOVERNMENT ALLOWANCES)
Estimates of Personal Income
79 Personal income tax data are supplied by the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). The statistics are based on individual income tax returns lodged for the financial year ended 30 June, and processed within sixteen months of the financial year to which they relate.
80 The ABS has suppressed regional table cells with very small values, to protect the confidentiality of individuals.
81 For the purposes of providing statistical measures for the entire population, the ATO database has some limits to its coverage. Persons who receive an income below certain levels are not necessarily required to lodge a tax return. This can include persons who derive their income from Government pensions and allowances. Consequently, the coverage of low income earners, including people receiving government pensions and allowances, is incomplete in ATO records. In addition, some Commonwealth of Australia Government pension, benefit and allowance payments are exempt from income tax and are therefore do not need to be reported in tax returns. As such, the ATO data should be regarded as an indicative though not complete picture of all individual income earned in Australia.
82 Due to changes in how the data is sourced from the ATO as well as changes in tax legislation, the 2012-13 data signifies a break with information previously published and provides an opportunity to build a new harmonised data series with better data comparability over time.
83 This release contains regional estimates of the sources of personal income that people received for the 2012-13 financial year for the following sources - employee, own unincorporated business, investment, superannuation and annuities, other income (excluding Government pensions and allowances) - and total income from these component sources.
84 Employee income is the total (or gross) income received as a return to labour from an employer or from a person's own incorporated business (when they are employed by this business). This source of income includes the following data items on the individual income tax return:
85 Own unincorporated business income is the profit or loss that accrues to owners of, or partners in, their own unincorporated businesses. Profit or loss is the value of the gross output of the enterprise after the deduction of operating expenses, including reportable superannuation contributions, depreciation and operating costs, but before income tax is taken out. Losses occur when operating expenses are greater than receipts and are treated as negative income. This category includes the following data items from the individual income tax return:
86 The data excludes distributions from trusts for non-primary production activities as this may include aspects of investment income. It also excludes the income of working directors/owners of incorporated businesses who are classified as employees; consequently their income is included under employee income.
88 Investment income includes the following data items on the individual income tax returns:
89 Superannuation and annuity income includes the following data items on the individual income tax returns:
90 A change to legislation relating to superannuation, taking effect from 1 July 2007, meant that people aged 60 years and over who receive superannuation income in the form of a lump sum or income stream (such as a pension) from a taxed source, receive that income tax free. Therefore, these persons are not required to report this income at Q7-J or Q8-Q on their individual tax return. Also, if such persons have no other income, or their total income is below the tax-free threshold, then they are also not required to lodge a tax return.
91 Due to such changes, the superannuation estimates (persons, income) published in this publication are regarded as partial, subject to under-coverage.
92 ABS is currently investigating ways of achieving fuller superannuation estimates for regions. A more comprehensive snapshot of superannuation income (at aggregate state and territory level) can be obtained from the ABS Survey of Income and Housing - see Household Income and Wealth, Australia, 2013-14.
93 Other income (excluding Government pensions and allowances) comprises income items reported on the individual income tax return that were not allocated to one of the above categories. For example, other income can include transfer or trust income, controlled foreign company income, net foreign pension and annuity income, and foreign investment and life assurance income.
Other income (excluding Government pensions and allowances) includes the following data items on the individual income tax returns:
95 As indicated, Government pensions, benefits or allowances are excluded from the ABS income data and do not appear in other income or total income. Pension recipients can fall below the income threshold that necessitates them lodging a tax return, or they may only receive tax free pensions or allowances. Hence they will be missing from the personal income tax data set. Recent estimates from the ABS Survey of Income and Housing (which records Government pensions and allowances) suggest that this component can account for between 9 to 11% of total income.
96 Individuals may receive income from a number of sources. Also, net income from a specific source may be positive or negative. For example, an individual may have positive income from employee income yet negative net income from investment. The number of individuals for each income source includes all persons with either positive or negative net income from that source.
97 The total number of individuals in receipt of income from at least one source should not be confused with the sum of the individuals in each income category, since people can have more than one source of income in any given year.
98 Access to more detailed ATO information has enabled the production of median income estimates. Median income is that level of income which divides the units in reference population into two equal parts, one half having incomes above the median and the other half having incomes below the median.
99 Further information on these statistics can be found in Estimates of Personal Income for Small Areas, 2012-13 (cat. no. 6524.0.55.002).
Selected Government Pensions and Allowances
100 Data on the number of individuals receiving selected Government pensions and allowances have been provided by the Department of Social Services (DSS), and the Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA). In more detail:
101 Selected Government Pensions and Allowances Data have been provided to the ABS on an aggregate basis (at LGA and SA2 level (SA3 level from DVA). Totals are also available for Australia, states and territories. All data have been provided to the ABS in confidentialised form.
102 Age pension is a payment for persons who have reached Age Pension age and qualify to receive the Age Pension. Age Pension age depends on the individual's date of birth:
104 The purpose of Disability Support Pension (DSP) is to provide income support for people who have a permanent physical, intellectual or psychiatric impairment. DSP is designed to give people an adequate means of support if they are unable to work for at least 15 hours per week at or above the relevant minimum wage, independent of a program or support. DSP data have been provided by DSS and include overseas pension recipients and persons whose address could not be coded to a specific region in the total for Australia.
105 Carer Payment is for people who are unable to support themselves through participation in the workforce while caring for someone with a disability, severe medical condition, or who is frail and aged. Carer Payment data have been provided by DSS and include persons whose address could not be coded to a specific region in the total for Australia.
106 Newstart Allowance is a payment for people who are looking for work and allows them to participate in activities designed to increase their chances of finding work. In the period covered by these data, persons must have been aged 21 years or older but under Age Pension age to qualify. Newstart Allowance data have been provided by DSS.
107 Youth Allowance is a payment for young people who are studying, undertaking training or an Australian Apprenticeship, looking for work, or sick. Persons must be aged 15 to 24 years to qualify. Youth Allowance (Other) data as well as Youth Allowance data for apprentices and students have been sourced from DSS.
108 Parenting Payment is a payment for persons who are primary carers of children. Parenting Payment data have been provided by DSS.
109 Family Tax Benefit is paid to help with the costs of raising children. Around 75% of all families with at least one dependent child aged under 16 years are eligible to receive Family Tax Benefit. Family Tax Benefit data have been provided by DSS. The Family Tax Benefit data for 2016 are preliminary data; the fuller, finalised count will be released in the next issue of the Data by Region.
110 Family Tax Benefit Part A can be paid to a parent, guardian or an approved care organisation to help with the costs of raising children. There are eligibility requirements involving the age and educational status of the child, residency and income. Family Tax Benefit Part B is an extra payment for single parents and families with one main income to help with the costs of raising children. Part B is limited to families where the primary earner has an adjusted taxable income of $100,000 or less per financial year (from June 2015, previously was $150,000 or less). There are also additional eligibility requirements. Approximately three-quarters of FTB customers receive both Part A and Part B. Data presented in regard to Family Tax Benefit refer only to fortnightly instalment customers paid directly by Centrelink. The information excludes an additional 10% (approximately) who are paid by a lump sum which is claimable at the end of a financial year. The Family Tax Benefit data for 2016 are preliminary only; users should refrain from making direct comparisons with data from earlier years in past issues of Data by Region (formerly know as the National Regional Profile).
111 A Service Pension can be paid to veterans on the grounds of age or invalidity, and to eligible partners, widows and widowers. The Service Pension data have been provided by DVA.
112 Income Support Supplement is an income support pension paid to: eligible war widows and widowers under the Veterans’ Entitlements Act 1986 (VEA); and persons receiving wholly dependent partners’ compensation under the Military Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 2004 (MRCA). Income Support Supplement data have been provided by DVA.
113 All Government Pensions and Allowances shown in the Profile data refer to a point in time (i.e. the number of persons receiving payment as at the pay period closest to 30 June each year) and therefore do not represent all the customers in receipt of payments during the entire financial year. Customers who have been suspended or not paid at that point of time are not included in these data.
114 All data have been provided on ASGS 2011 boundaries. For privacy reasons, all administrative data from non-ABS sources has been confidentialised before being supplied to the ABS. The cells suppressed through confidentialisation on Data by Region may differ to other publications that contain DSS data.
115 Where a person could not be allocated to a region within a state and territory, they have been included in the totals for the states and territories. Where a person could not be allocated to a state or territory, they have been included in the total for Australia.
116 More information about specific payments can be accessed from the Department of Social Services and the Department of Veterans' Affairs.
EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT
Early Childhood - Enrolment in Preschool Programs
117 These data are from the National Early Childhood Education and Care Collection. Statistics from this collection are published in Preschool Education, Australia, 2014 (cat. no 4240.0) and Microdata: Preschool Education, Australia, 201 (cat. no. 4240.0.55.003). For more information about these statistics, please refer to the Explanatory Notes of Preschool Education, Australia, 2014 (cat. no. 4240.0) and National Early Childhood Education and Care Collection: Concepts, Sources and Methods, 2013 (cat. no. 4240.0.55.001).
118 Where the finer regional details of enrolments are not stated or unknown, these are included in the State/Territory totals but not shown separately elsewhere.
Post School Qualifications
119 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing. These data are for persons aged 15 years and over and show the level of education based on the highest completed non-school qualification of persons (e.g. bachelor degree, diploma).
120 The full classification for levels of education and fields of study, together with an explanation of the conceptual basis of the classification, can be found in the publication Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED), 2001 (cat. no. 1272.0).
Occupation of Employed Persons
121 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing and are for employed people aged 15 years and over. Two occupation questions are used in the Census. The first of these asks for occupation title, while the second asks for the main tasks usually performed by the person in their occupation. Collecting both occupation title and task information ensures more accurate coding of occupations.
122 Occupations are coded using the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO) (cat. no. 1220.0). The Occupation code assigned is based on the main job held during the week prior to Census Night.
Youth Engagement in Work or Study
123 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing. They relate to persons aged 15-19 years and are derived from questions about whether the person was working or attending a school or any other educational institution.
124 These data are sourced from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing. Data are for persons aged 15 years or more, and are derived from the questions about whether the person had a job in the week before Census Night, whether they actively looked for work in the last four weeks before Census Night, and if they could have started work in the last week before Census night.
HEALTH AND DISABILITY
125 The regional disability data are modelled estimates based on the 2012 Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers (SDAC), 2011 Australian Census of Population and Housing, 2012 Estimated Resident Population (ERP), and aggregated administrative data from the Department of Social Services, 2012.
126 The modelled regional estimates can be interpreted as the expected value for a typical area in Australia with the same characteristics. There will be differences between the disability characteristic prediction and the actual number of people with that characteristic (not accounted for in the measure of accuracy). One explanation for this is that significant local information about particular small areas exists, but has not been included in the model as it is not readily available to the ABS. It is important to consider local area knowledge, such as information on disability related facilities and businesses in the area, when interpreting the modelled estimates for any region.
129 The errors associated with the modelled estimates for small areas fall into four categories. Sampling error, non-sampling error, modelling error, and prediction error. The relative root mean squared error (RRMSE) provides an indication of the deviation of the modelled estimate from the true value. In Data by Region, Disability data with an RRMSE greater than 25% are not presented.
130 Estimates have been confidentialised to ensure they meet ABS requirements.
131 Further information on these statistics can be found in Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia: Additional data cubes, 2012 (cat. no. 4430.0.55.009).
FAMILY AND COMMUNITY
Speaks language other than English
132 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing. These data identify the language spoken at home, and are coded using the Australian Standard Classification of Languages (ASCL) (cat. no. 1267.0). Only one language is coded for each person.
133 Proficiency in English of Overseas Born Persons
These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing. The data shows English proficiency for overseas born persons.
134 Australian Citizenship of Overseas Born Persons
These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing. The data records whether a overseas born person has Australian citizenship.
Method of Travel to Work
135 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing and are from the question about how the person got to work on Tuesday 9 August 2011.
136 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing and describe the type of household within a dwelling. Family households can contain non-family members (unrelated persons and visitors). A maximum of three families can be coded to a household. Lone person households can contain visitors.
137 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing. Families have been classified in terms of the relationships that exist between a single family reference person and each other member of that family. Different types of families are distinguished based on the presence or absence of couple relationships, parent-child relationships, child dependency relationships or other blood relationships, in that order of preference.
138 The family type is derived from people enumerated in the household who usually reside there and who share a familial relationship. Partners and dependent children usually present but temporarily absent are also included in this derivation. Boarders and other non-family members are excluded.
139 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing. Data on unpaid work show the proportion of persons usually resident in the region who did any voluntary work in the last twelve months, or any unpaid work (caring for own children, caring for other children, caring for family members or others) in the last two weeks.
Access to Internet at Home
140 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing. These data show the proportion of occupied private dwellings in the region that have access to the internet.
141 The categories of access are: 'no internet connection', 'broadband', 'dial-up' and 'other'. Broadband access includes ADSL, cable, wireless and satellite connections. Dial-up includes analogue modem and ISDN connections. Other includes access through mobile phones.
Rent and Mortgage Payments
142 These data are from the 2011 Census of Population and Housing and are household rent and mortgage payments including site fees if the dwelling is a caravan, or manufactured home in a caravan park, or a manufactured home estate.
SEIFA Socio-Economic Indices for Areas
143 SEIFA 2011 is a suite of four summary measures that have been created from 2011 Census information. The indices can be used to explore different aspects of socio-economic conditions by geographic areas. For each index, every geographic area in Australia is given a SEIFA number which shows how disadvantaged that area is compared with other areas in Australia.
144 To determine the SEIFA rank, all the areas are ordered from lowest score to highest score. The area with the lowest score is given a rank of 1, the area with the second-lowest score is given a rank of 2 and so on, up to the area with the highest score which will have the highest rank. While two areas may appear to have the same score due to rounding, every area has an individual score and an individual rank. Caution should be used when separating areas with similar scores and ranks.
145 In interpreting the ranking of each measure, a region with a higher rank or score is generally more advantaged (and less disadvantaged) than a region with a lower score or rank.
146 Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage: is derived from Census variables related to disadvantage, such as low income, low educational attainment, unemployment, and dwellings without motor vehicles.
147 Index of Relative Socio-economic Advantage and Disadvantage: a continuum of advantage (high values) to disadvantage (low values) which is derived from Census variables related to both advantage and disadvantage, like household with low income and people with a tertiary education.
148 Index of Economic Resources: focuses on Census variables like the income, housing expenditure and assets of households.
149 Index of Education and Occupation: includes Census variables relating to the educational and occupational characteristics of communities, like the proportion of people with a higher qualification or those employed in a skilled occupation.
150 The concept of relative socio-economic disadvantage is neither simple, nor well defined. SEIFA uses a broad definition of relative socio-economic disadvantage in terms people's access to material and social resources, and their ability to participate in society. While SEIFA represents an average of all people living in an area, SEIFA does not represent the individual situation of each person. Larger areas are more likely to have greater diversity of people and households.
168 The Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) is used by the ABS for the collection and dissemination of geographically classified statistics. The ASGS replaced the Australian Standard Geographic Classification (ASGC) from July 2011.
169 The ASGS is an essential reference for understanding and interpreting the geographic context of statistics published, not only by the ABS but also by other organisations, and its use enables comparability across datasets.
170 This issue of Data by Region uses ASGS 2011. Where available, data has been sourced for regions of the ASGS. In some cases, historical data has not been available on ASGS, and so has not been available to include in the profiles. Some data based on Postcodes have been converted to data for regions of the ASGS 2011 using geographic correspondences. Data for Local Government Areas (LGAs) are presented at 2014 boundaries.
171 The use of geographic correspondences enables data to be converted from one type of geographic region to another. Geographic correspondences are usually provided as conversion factors based on relative population distributions and/or land area shares.
172 The application of correspondences allows:
173 When analysing data produced by correspondences, the following limitations need to be taken into account:
174 While care was taken in producing the correspondences the ABS can not guarantee the accuracy of data produced by correspondences. ASGS correspondences are found on the Statistical Geography page of the ABS website.Geographic regions
175 The statistics in this product are presented according to the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS), 2011. Under this classification, statistical areas below Australia and state or territory level are defined as follows:
176 For more information see the Statistical Geography page of the ABS website, or the following: Australian Statistical Geography Standard, Volume 1 - Main Structure and Greater Capital City Statistical Areas, July 2011 (cat. no. 1270.0.55.001); Australian Statistical Geography Standard, Volume 3 - Non-ABS Structures, July 2011 (cat. no. 1270.0.55.003). Maps of Statistical Areas 2-4 and GCCSA can be found in the Downloads tab of cat. no 1270.0.55.001.
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