Australian Bureau of Statistics
1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2005
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 21/01/2005
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Mineral, oil and gas production
Mineral and oil processing and treatment
As few minerals, oil and gas can be directly used in the form in which they are mined, most of these undergo processing and treatment before use.
Table 16.21 shows the production of the main manufactured products of mineral and oil origin.
Exports of major minerals, oil and gas
Export earnings of minerals, oil and gas from the Australian resources sector fell to $54.9b in 2002-03, a decrease of $1.1b on the previous year. The resources sector covering minerals and energy production includes some commodities which are processed outside the mining industry (as defined by ANZSIC).
As shown in table 16.22, black coal (including coking and steaming) was the greatest export earner in 2002-03 ($11.9b), followed by crude oil and other refinery feedstock ($6.4b), iron ore and pellets ($5.3b), refined gold ($5.1b), aluminium ($3.7b) and alumina ($3.7b).
Graph 16.23 shows the value of Australia's four largest mineral and oil exports during the period 1995-96 to 2002-03. The export values of black coal, crude oil and other refinery feedstock, and iron ore and pellets have been growing with crude oil and other refinery feedstock recording the largest increase (282%) followed by iron ore and pellets (87%) and black coal (53%). Black coal export value peaked in 2001-02 mainly as a result of an increase in unit values of coking and steaming coal exports. A similar peak was observed for the export value of crude oil and other refinery feedstock although it occurred in 2000-01. Since then, the export value of crude oil and other refinery feedstock has remained around $6.4b in the past two years.
The major markets for Australian mineral and oil exports are Japan, Republic of (South) Korea, United Kingdom, Singapore and Taiwan (graph 16.24). Asia is the most significant region for exports of Australian minerals and oil, accounting for 66% ($35b) of all Australian mineral and oil exports in 2002-03. Of the countries in this region, Japan is consistently the main destination for Australian minerals and oil for the period 1988-89 to 2002-03. Its share of total exports of minerals and oil was 27% ($14b) in 2002-03. The main minerals and oil exported to this country are coal, crude oil and other refinery feedstock, LPG, iron ore and pellets. Of this, coal is the most significant. In 2002-03, 52 Mt of steaming coal and 41 Mt of coking coal were exported to Japan (52% and 38% respectively of total Australian exports for these commodities). In the same year, 3,402 megalitres (ML) of crude oil and other refinery feedstock, 2,786 ML of LPG and 75,747 kilotonne (kt) of iron ore and pellets were also exported to this country. These exports respectively accounted for 16%, 87% and 42% of Australia's total exports of crude oil and other refinery feedstock, LPG and iron ore and pellets.
After Japan, the Republic of (South) Korea, Singapore and Taiwan are the main export destinations. The Republic of (South) Korea and Taiwan were other main markets for Australia's black coal. The steaming coal sent to these destinations amounted to 14 Mt (14% of total exported steaming coal) and 11 Mt (11%) respectively in 2002-03. Iron ore and pellets, and crude oil and other refinery feedstock were also exported to the Republic of (South) Korea. Singapore was a major market for Australian crude oil and other refinery stock, importing 6,564 ML from Australia in 2002-03, 30% of the total volume exported.
In the period 1988-89 to 2002-03 exports to United Kingdom had more than doubled. In 2002-03 the exports to this country were valued at $3b. Gold was the most significant mineral exported and amounted to 116 tonnes, 41% of Australia's total gold exports.
Imports of major minerals and petroleum
Many imported mineral and petroleum commodities have had a certain amount of manufacturing applied to their raw forms. Table 16.25 provides details of the major commodities imported in the period 1998-99 to 2002-03. In terms of value, the largest imports for 2002-03 were for crude oil and other refinery feedstock ($9b) followed by gold ($3b). The major sources of Australian imports of crude oil and other refinery feedstock were Indonesia and Vietnam with a combined value of $4b (or 44% of the total import value for this commodity).
Graph 16.26 shows imports of selected major minerals and petroleum during the period 1996-97 to 2002-03. The imports of crude oil and other refinery feedstock were significantly larger than the imports of other minerals particularly in 2000-01.
While the volumes of imports of crude oil and other refinery feedstock fluctuated over the period 1997-98 to 2002-03, the large changes in the value of imports between 1998-99 and 2002-03 were mainly due to significant unit value rises in 1999-2000 (up 84%) and 2000-01 (up 42%), and a decline in unit value in 2001-02 (down 18%).
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