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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2005  
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Contents >> Mining >> Production and trade of major minerals, oil, gas and petroleum

Mineral, oil and gas production

Table 16.20 shows the quantity produced for selected minerals, oil and gas. In the period 1998-99 to 2002-03 the most significant increases in production were for nickel in mine products (65.4%), manganese ore and concentrate (51.7%), uranium (44.4%), zinc ore and concentrate (31.2%) and iron ore (30.1%). The sharp increase in nickel production in 2000-01 was driven by increased production in Western Australia which accounts for all Australian production. Increased production was the result of expanded operations and capacity of existing producers, and the start up of new projects. Production continued to increase in the next two years spurred by the rise in metal prices and strong growth in demand, particularly from China.

Production of diamonds, gold, ilmenite and rutile decreased between 1998-99 and 2002-03 with the largest falls recorded for diamonds and gold, 11.0% and 8.3% respectively. Diamond production changed significantly during the period with an increase of 36.5% in 2001-02 after falling by 17.5% in 1999-2000 and 24.3% in 2000-01.


16.20 VOLUME OF MINERAL, OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION, Selected minerals, oil and gas
Units
1998-99
1999-2000
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
Percentage change from 1998-99 to 2002-03

Metallic minerals
Bauxite
Mt
46
51
55
54
54
17.3
Copper ore and concentrate
’000 t
2,088
2,340
2,577
2,590
2,555
22.4
Gold in mine products(a)
t
303
299
296
265
278
-8.3
Iron ore and concentrate
Mt
153
160
176
185
199
30.1
Lead ore and concentrate
’000 t
963
974
1,000
1,020
970
0.7
Manganese ore and concentrate
’000 t
1,630
1,755
1,948
1,850
2,472
51.7
Nickel in mine products(a)
’000 t
127
141
197
205
210
65.4
Ilmenite
’000 t
2,156
2,134
2,092
1,843
2,069
-4.0
Rutile
’000 t
214
185
209
207
208
-2.8
Synthetic rutile
’000 t
569
566
650
612
673
18.3
Titanium dioxide pigment
’000 t
164
168
181
186
189
15.2
Uranium
t
6,387
8,217
9,549
7,964
9,222
44.4
Zinc ore and concentrates
’000 t
2,139
2,343
2,697
2,715
2,806
31.2
Zircon concentrate
’000 t
385
372
377
389
458
19.0
Coal
Black coal (saleable)
Mt
225
239
258
273
274
21.8
Brown coal
Mt
67
67
65
68
67
0.0
Other minerals
Diamonds
'000 ct
35,948
29,672
22,475
30,676
32,006
-11.0
Salt
'000 t
9,203
9,610
9,492
9,213
10,305
12.0
Oil and gas
Crude oil and condensate
ML
27,897
37,447
38,705
36,100
33,321
19.4
Natural gas
Mm3
30,681
31,180
31,524
32,136
33,162
8.1
LPG (naturally occurring)
ML
4,368
4,832
4,056
4,612
4,682
7.2

(a) 'In mine products' relates to the metal content of the mineral.

Source: ABARE, 'Australian Mineral Statistics' for figures on copper ore and concentrate, lead ore and concentrate, zinc ore and concentrate and natural gas; ABARE, 'Australian Commodity Statistics, 2003', for other figures.


Mineral and oil processing and treatment

As few minerals, oil and gas can be directly used in the form in which they are mined, most of these undergo processing and treatment before use.

Table 16.21 shows the production of the main manufactured products of mineral and oil origin.


16.21 PRODUCTION OF PRINCIPAL MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS OF MINERAL AND OIL ORIGIN

Units
1998-99
1999-2000
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03

METALS

Non-ferrous
Alumina
’000 t
14,207
15,307
16,098
16,417
16,413
Refined aluminium
’000 t
1,686
1,742
1,788
1,809
1,855
Refined copper
’000 t
306
477
517
561
537
Lead bullion
’000 t
157
165
153
201
181
Refined lead
’000 t
199
233
215
275
267
Refined zinc
’000 t
323
405
534
572
570
Refined tin
t
595
602
1,039
829
708
Ferrous
Raw steel
’000 t
8,549
8,053
8,003
8,311
9,399
Precious
Refined gold
t
419
383
361
346
386
Refined silver
t
410
543
532
616
672

PETROLEUM

Petroleum products
Diesel automotive oil
ML
12,968
12,737
13,212
13,064
13,335
Industrial and marine fuel
ML
32
60
98
105
117
Fuel oil
ML
1,634
1,839
1,951
1,684
1,441
Petrol
ML
18,705
18,652
17,887
18,000
17,984

BUILDING MATERIALS

Clay bricks
m
1,609
1,711
1,436
1,516
1,639
Portland cement
’000 t
7,704
7,937
6,821
7,236
7,517

CHEMICALS

Superphosphates
’000 t
1,464
1,429
1,379
1,585
1,205

Source: Manufacturing Production, Australia (8301.0); ABARE, 'Australian Mineral Statistics', various issues.


Exports of major minerals, oil and gas

Export earnings of minerals, oil and gas from the Australian resources sector fell to $54.9b in 2002-03, a decrease of $1.1b on the previous year. The resources sector covering minerals and energy production includes some commodities which are processed outside the mining industry (as defined by ANZSIC).

As shown in table 16.22, black coal (including coking and steaming) was the greatest export earner in 2002-03 ($11.9b), followed by crude oil and other refinery feedstock ($6.4b), iron ore and pellets ($5.3b), refined gold ($5.1b), aluminium ($3.7b) and alumina ($3.7b).


16.22 EXPORTS OF MAJOR MINERALS, OIL AND GAS, Value and quantity

Units
1999-2000
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03





Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value

Alumina
kt
$m
11,654
3,471
12,721
4,507
13,091
4,114
13,168
3,660
Aluminium (ingot metal)
kt
$m
1,364
3,302
1,471
4,229
1,490
3,965
1,551
3,696
Coal, black
Coking
Mt
$m
97
5,184
106
6,597
106
8,038
108
7,448
Steaming
Mt
$m
79
3,114
88
4,204
92
5,294
100
4,449
Copper
kt
$m
582
1,616
694
2,286
749
2,159
689
2,006
Diamonds
'000 ct
$m
51,095
601
25,513
634
25,811
512
32,274
649
Gold, refined
t
$m
330
4,803
302
4,887
280
4,950
282
5,133
Iron and steel
Iron ore and pellets
Mt
$m
149
3,779
157
4,903
156
5,160
181
5,342
Iron and steel
kt
$m
2,941
1,265
2,931
1,484
3,297
1,484
3,599
1,853
Lead
kt
$m
727
607
672
637
731
729
735
660
Magnesia
t
$m
174,854
45
161,236
53
151,760
56
143,372
52
Manganese ore and concentrate
kt
$m
1,301
185
1,522
261
1,660
299
1,999
316
Oil and gas
Crude oil and other refinery feedstock
ML
$m
20,877
5,292
24,044
8,137
23,936
6,390
20,949
6,402
LNG
Mt
$m
8
1,949
8
2,671
8
2,613
8
2,607
LPG
ML
$m
2,857
648
2,785
830
3,211
721
3,194
855
Salt
kt
$m
8,389
221
8,636
253
8,912
267
10,168
233
Tin
t
$m
9,934
70
9,660
76
8,026
49
5,963
38
Titanium minerals
Ilmenite concentrate
kt
$m
1,133
151
1,012
154
914
138
1,020
135
Rutile concentrate
kt
$m
179
131
190
161
190
167
193
148
Uranium oxide
t
$m
8,025
367
9,722
497
7,367
361
9,593
427
Zinc
kt
$m
1,120
1,233
1,456
1,882
1,488
1,529
1,549
1,424
Zircon concentrate
kt
$m
374
180
375
228
388
274
445
281

Source: ABARE, 'Australian Commodity Statistics, 2003'.


Graph 16.23 shows the value of Australia's four largest mineral and oil exports during the period 1995-96 to 2002-03. The export values of black coal, crude oil and other refinery feedstock, and iron ore and pellets have been growing with crude oil and other refinery feedstock recording the largest increase (282%) followed by iron ore and pellets (87%) and black coal (53%). Black coal export value peaked in 2001-02 mainly as a result of an increase in unit values of coking and steaming coal exports. A similar peak was observed for the export value of crude oil and other refinery feedstock although it occurred in 2000-01. Since then, the export value of crude oil and other refinery feedstock has remained around $6.4b in the past two years.

Graph 16.23: EXPORTS OF SELECTED MINERALS AND OIL



The major markets for Australian mineral and oil exports are Japan, Republic of (South) Korea, United Kingdom, Singapore and Taiwan (graph 16.24). Asia is the most significant region for exports of Australian minerals and oil, accounting for 66% ($35b) of all Australian mineral and oil exports in 2002-03. Of the countries in this region, Japan is consistently the main destination for Australian minerals and oil for the period 1988-89 to 2002-03. Its share of total exports of minerals and oil was 27% ($14b) in 2002-03. The main minerals and oil exported to this country are coal, crude oil and other refinery feedstock, LPG, iron ore and pellets. Of this, coal is the most significant. In 2002-03, 52 Mt of steaming coal and 41 Mt of coking coal were exported to Japan (52% and 38% respectively of total Australian exports for these commodities). In the same year, 3,402 megalitres (ML) of crude oil and other refinery feedstock, 2,786 ML of LPG and 75,747 kilotonne (kt) of iron ore and pellets were also exported to this country. These exports respectively accounted for 16%, 87% and 42% of Australia's total exports of crude oil and other refinery feedstock, LPG and iron ore and pellets.

After Japan, the Republic of (South) Korea, Singapore and Taiwan are the main export destinations. The Republic of (South) Korea and Taiwan were other main markets for Australia's black coal. The steaming coal sent to these destinations amounted to 14 Mt (14% of total exported steaming coal) and 11 Mt (11%) respectively in 2002-03. Iron ore and pellets, and crude oil and other refinery feedstock were also exported to the Republic of (South) Korea. Singapore was a major market for Australian crude oil and other refinery stock, importing 6,564 ML from Australia in 2002-03, 30% of the total volume exported.

In the period 1988-89 to 2002-03 exports to United Kingdom had more than doubled. In 2002-03 the exports to this country were valued at $3b. Gold was the most significant mineral exported and amounted to 116 tonnes, 41% of Australia's total gold exports.

Graph 16.24: EXPORTS OF MINERALS AND OIL, By country of destination



Imports of major minerals and petroleum

Many imported mineral and petroleum commodities have had a certain amount of manufacturing applied to their raw forms. Table 16.25 provides details of the major commodities imported in the period 1998-99 to 2002-03. In terms of value, the largest imports for 2002-03 were for crude oil and other refinery feedstock ($9b) followed by gold ($3b). The major sources of Australian imports of crude oil and other refinery feedstock were Indonesia and Vietnam with a combined value of $4b (or 44% of the total import value for this commodity).


16.25 IMPORTS OF MAJOR MINERALS AND PETROLEUM, Value and quantity

Units
1998-99
1999-2000
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03






Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value

Diamonds
'000 ct
$m
2,827
162
2,528
210
2,598
249
2,431
255
3,218
302
Gold
n.a.
$m
n.a.
2,351
n.a.
2,390
n.a.
1,686
n.a.
2,207
n.a.
2,957
Iron and steel
Iron ore and pellets
kt
$m
4,429
85
4,460
107
4,658
122
3,880
104
4,667
114
Iron and steel
kt
$m
1,127
940
1,128
1,034
896
923
1,354
1,099
1,306
1,226
Petroleum
Crude oil and other refinery feedstock
ML
$m
29,729
3,794
26,936
6,313
26,343
8,753
27,308
7,458
27,958
8,610
LPG
ML
$m
496
64
519
108
633
160
588
116
299
76
Automotive gasoline
ML
$m
890
134
1,065
321
1,189
432
1,436
448
1,673
569
Diesel fuel
ML
$m
1,435
225
1,400
377
1,129
438
1,280
414
1,627
561
Other refinery products
ML
$m
581
312
648
325
902
463
n.a.
953
n.a.
1,971
Phosphate rock
kt
$m
884
64
756
54
823
62
933
72
711
50
Platinum and platinum group metals
kg
$m
8,329
148
3,199
55
2,158
30
1,652
42
2,319
64

Source: ABARE, 'Australian Commodity Statistics, 2003'.


Graph 16.26 shows imports of selected major minerals and petroleum during the period 1996-97 to 2002-03. The imports of crude oil and other refinery feedstock were significantly larger than the imports of other minerals particularly in 2000-01.

While the volumes of imports of crude oil and other refinery feedstock fluctuated over the period 1997-98 to 2002-03, the large changes in the value of imports between 1998-99 and 2002-03 were mainly due to significant unit value rises in 1999-2000 (up 84%) and 2000-01 (up 42%), and a decline in unit value in 2001-02 (down 18%).

Graph 16.26: IMPORTS OF SELECTED MINERALS AND PETROLEUM



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