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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2004  
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Contents >> Agriculture >> Crops

Table 14.11 shows the area of crops in the states and territories of Australia since 1880-81, and table 14.12 is a summary of the area, production and gross value of the principal crops in Australia over recent years.

14.11 AREA OF CROPS

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
NT
ACT
Aust.
’000 ha
’000 ha
’000 ha
’000 ha
’000 ha
’000 ha
’000 ha
’000 ha
'000 ha

1880-81
245
627
46
846
26
57
-
-
1,846
1890-91
345
822
91
847
28
64
-
-
2,197
1900-01
990
1,260
185
959
81
91
-
-
3,567
1910-11
1,370
1,599
270
1,112
346
116
-
-
4,813
1920-21
1,807
1,817
316
1,308
730
120
-
1
6,099
1930-31
2,756
2,718
463
2,196
1,939
108
1
2
10,184
1940-41
2,580
1,808
702
1,722
1,630
103
-
2
8,546
1949-50
2,295
1,881
832
1,518
1,780
114
-
4
8,424
1959-60
2,888
1,949
1,184
1,780
2,628
130
1
3
10,564
1969-70
4,999
2,212
2,208
2,290
3,912
98
6
2
15,728
1979-80
5,243
2,243
2,334
2,771
5,281
79
2
1
17,954
1990-91
4,073
2,063
2,872
2,933
5,359
75
6
-
17,382
1991-92
3,846
2,039
2,302
2,920
5,216
76
5
-
16,404
1992-93
3,906
2,258
2,316
3,073
5,668
73
4
1
17,297
1993-94
4,209
2,317
2,394
2,940
6,100
78
5
-
18,043
1994-95
3,432
2,296
2,056
2,991
6,182
77
4
-
17,040
1995-96
4,757
2,439
2,495
3,219
6,419
75
4
-
19,409
1996-97
5,589
2,552
2,685
3,279
6,950
73
5
-
21,133
1997-98
5,648
2,565
2,682
3,290
7,328
78
4
-
21,595
1998-99
6,173
2,749
3,014
3,648
7,597
76
7
-
23,264
1999-2000
6,114
3,081
3,130
3,670
7,691
77
6
-
23,769
2000-01
6,723
3,044
2,955
3,982
7,731
79
6
1
24,520
2001-02
6,635
2,958
2,683
4,175
7,525
78
6
-
24,060

Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0); Agriculture, Australia (7113.0).

14.12 SELECTED CROPS, Area, production and gross value

Area
Production
Gross value



1999-2000
2000-01
2001-02
1999-2000
2000-01
2001-02
1999-2000
2000-01
2001-02
’000 ha
’000 ha
’000 ha
’000
tonnes
’000
tonnes
’000
tonnes
$m
$m
$m

Cereals for grain
Barley
2,596
3,454
3,707
5,032
6,743
8,280
865
1,343
1,725
Grain sorghum
622
758
823
2,116
1,935
2,021
260
279
349
Maize
82
74
83
406
345
454
62
65
90
Oats
584
650
784
1,118
1,050
1,434
118
138
251
Rice
131
177
144
1,084
1,643
1,192
289
350
327
Wheat
12,168
12,141
11,529
24,757
22,108
24,299
4,831
5,130
6,356
Lupins for grain
1,347
1,180
1,139
1,968
1,055
1,215
286
217
304
Crops cut for hay
Cereal crops for hay
357
419
434
1,429
1,657
1,716
146
184
204
Non-cereal crops for hay
47
42
^41
159
115
124
^25
17
19
Other crops
Sugar cane cut for crushing
428
403
426
38,165
28,117
31,424
882
657
989
Tobacco
3
2
^2
8
6
6
^49
39
37
Cotton
435
536
458
698
666
675
1,416
1,305
1,327
Peanuts (in shell)
20
17
^15
40
39
^29
^27
28
^21
Soybean
56
33
32
104
49
63
36
18
^22
Canola
1,911
1,459
1,332
2,460
1,775
1,756
760
545
675
Sunflower
162
82
79
170
77
70
64
27
^27
Orchard fruit
Oranges
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
510
550
451
276
277
281
Apples
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
320
325
321
274
282
348
Pears (excl. Nashi)
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
156
169
145
72
90
99
Peaches
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
86
74
89
74
73
76
Other fruit
Bananas
12
12
13
257
358
313
284
409
415
Pineapples
3
3
3
139
120
119
44
44
40
Grapes
111
131
143
1,311
1,546
1,754
1,118
1,518
1,578
Vegetables
Carrots
7
8
8
283
321
331
154
189
199
Potatoes
37
40
38
1,200
1,302
1,333
382
458
485
Tomatoes
8
10
8
414
556
425
190
257
^230
All crops (excl. pastures and grasses)
23,769
24,520
24,060
. .
. .
. .
16,316
17,759
20,625

Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0).

Cereal grains

In Australia, cereals are divided into autumn-winter-spring growing (winter cereals) and spring-summer-autumn growing (summer cereals). Winter cereals such as wheat, oats, barley and rye are usually grown in rotation with some form of pasture such as subterranean clover, medics or lucerne. In recent years, alternative winter crops such as canola, field peas and lupins have been introduced to crop rotation in areas where they had not previously been grown. Rice, maize and sorghum are summer cereals, the latter being grown in association with winter cereals in some areas. In northern Australia there are two rice growing seasons.

Wheat

Wheat is Australia's largest crop. It is produced in all states but primarily on the mainland in a narrow crescent known as the wheat belt. Inland of the Great Dividing Range, the wheat belt stretches in a curve from central Queensland through New South Wales, Victoria and southern South Australia. In Western Australia, the wheat belt continues around the south-west of the state and some way north, along the western side of the continent (map 14.13).

Final estimates for the 2001-02 season show that wheat production increased by 10% over the 2000-01 season to 24.3 million tonnes (table 14.14). Western Australia recorded the largest increase in production, up by 33% to 7.8 million tonnes, followed by South Australia which was up by 15% to 4.8 million tonnes. New South Wales was the largest producer of wheat with a harvest of 8.0 million tonnes in 2001-02.

14.13 WHEAT FOR GRAIN, Production - 2000-01(a)
Map - 14.13 Wheat for grain, Production - 2000-01
(a) This map has been generated using Agricultural Census data at the Statistical Local Area level for 2000-01.
Source: AgStats on GSP (7117.0.30.001) CD-ROM product 1996-97 to 2000-01.

14.14 WHEAT FOR GRAIN

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
Aust.

AREA (’000 ha)

1996-97
3,192
963
980
1,535
4,264
2
10,936
1997-98
2,936
857
1,001
1,438
4,205
3
10,441
1998-99
3,174
949
1,139
1,762
4,515
4
11,543
1999-2000
3,425
1,235
1,096
1,850
4,556
6
12,168
2000-01
3,671
1,143
885
1,976
4,460
7
12,141
2001-02
3,446
1,136
604
1,987
4,350
6
11,529

PRODUCTION (’000 tonnes)

1996-97
8,363
2,262
1,980
2,795
7,516
8
22,925
1997-98
5,906
1,503
1,392
2,689
7,725
12
19,227
1998-99
6,563
1,462
1,941
3,310
8,170
18
21,465
1999-2000
8,602
2,642
1,904
2,586
9,004
20
24,757
2000-01
7,867
3,080
1,157
4,162
5,814
26
22,108
2001-02
8,043
2,791
901
4,778
7,760
25
24,299

Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0).

Oats

Oats are traditionally grown in moist, temperate regions. However, improved varieties and management practices have enabled oats to be grown over a wider range of soil and climatic conditions. They have a high feed value and produce a greater bulk of growth than other winter cereals; they need less cultivation and respond well to superphosphates and nitrogen. Oats have two main uses: as a grain crop, and as a fodder crop (following sowing, fallow or rough sowing into stubble or clover pastures). Fodder crops can either be grazed and then harvested for grain after removal of livestock, or else mown and baled or cut for chaff.

Map 14.15 shows the production of oats for grain in Australia in 2000-01.

14.15 OATS FOR GRAIN, Production - 2000-01(a)
Map - 14.15 Oats for grain, Production - 2000-01
(a) This map has been generated using Agricultural Census data at the Statistical Local Area level for 2000-01.
Source: AgStats on GSP (7117.0.30.001) CD-ROM product 1996-97 to 2000-01.

Production of oats increased by 36% to 1.4 million tonnes in 2001-02, with the largest state production being in Western Australia, increasing 75% to 557,000 tonnes. New South Wales production increased 30% to 320,000 tonnes, whilst production in Victoria decreased by 5% to 334,000 tonnes. Production in South Australia increased by 74% to 203,000 tonnes (table 14.16).

14.16 OATS FOR GRAIN

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
Aust.

AREA (’000 ha)

1996-97
393
175
39
121
316
8
1,052
1997-98
325
172
16
111
305
8
937
1998-99
354
188
18
112
228
8
909
1999-2000
160
138
10
70
199
6
584
2000-01
168
140
13
75
248
7
650
2001-02
231
142
^11
^108
287
6
784

PRODUCTION (’000 tonnes)

1996-97
607
304
26
156
546
14
1,653
1997-98
488
369
13
153
596
15
1,634
1998-99
669
458
15
178
463
14
1,798
1999-2000
284
296
12
78
439
10
1,118
2000-01
246
351
6
117
317
13
1,050
2001-02
320
334
^7
^203
557
12
1,434

Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0).

Barley

This cereal contains two main groups of varieties, 2-row and 6-row. The former is generally, but not exclusively, preferred for malting purposes. Barley is grown principally as a grain crop, although in some areas it is used as a fodder crop for grazing, with grain being subsequently harvested if conditions are suitable. It is often grown as a rotation crop with wheat, oats and pasture. When sown for fodder, sowing may take place either early or late in the season, as barley has a short growing period. It may therefore provide grazing or fodder supplies when other sources are not available. Barley grain may be crushed to meal for stock or sold for malting. Map 14.17 shows the production of barley for grain in Australia in 2000-01.

14.17 BARLEY FOR GRAIN, Production - 2000-01(a)
Map - 14.17 Barley for grain, Production - 2000-01
(a) This map has been generated using Agricultural Census data at the Statistical Local Area level for 2000-01.
Source: AgStats on GSP (7117.0.30.001) CD-ROM product 1996-97 to 2000-01.

Barley production increased by 23% to 8.3 million tonnes in 2001-02 (table 14.18). The largest increase in production occurred in Western Australia, where production increased by 67% to 2.3 million tonnes. South Australia was the largest producer of barley, accounting for 2.8 million tonnes.

14.18 BARLEY FOR GRAIN
NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
Aust.

AREA (’000 ha)

1996-97
668
585
180
1,009
909
15
3,366
1997-98
701
618
135
1,017
1,036
13
3,521
1998-99
638
568
163
975
811
11
3,167
1999-2000
476
585
130
845
550
9
2,596
2000-01
615
693
112
1,041
983
10
3,454
2001-02
665
700
96
1,151
1,088
7
3,707

PRODUCTION (’000 tonnes)

1996-97
1,483
1,189
429
1,923
1,635
35
6,696
1997-98
1,365
928
205
2,027
1,926
31
6,482
1998-99
1,247
870
320
2,051
1,469
30
5,987
1999-2000
1,040
1,189
254
1,409
1,117
22
5,032
2000-01
1,253
1,670
115
2,320
1,358
26
6,743
2001-02
1,382
1,656
171
2,782
2,263
26
8,280

Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0).

Grain sorghum

The sorghums are summer growing crops which are used in a number of ways: grain sorghum for grain; sweet or fodder sorghum, Sudan grass and, more recently, Columbus grass for silage, green feed and grazing; and broom millet for brooms and brushware. However, the grain is used primarily as stockfeed and is an important source for supplementing other coarse grains for this purpose.

Grain sorghum has been grown extensively only in the last two decades, with Queensland producing 62% of the total harvest of 2.0 million tonnes in 2001-02 (table 14.19). Grain sorghum is the third biggest cereal crop (in terms of production) in Australia despite it only being grown in significant quantities in Queensland and New South Wales.

14.19 GRAIN SORGHUM

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
Aust.

AREA (’000 ha)

1996-97
117
1
424
-
1
-
544
1997-98
123
3
379
-
1
-
507
1998-99
216
**
367
-
*2
-
587
1999-2000
200
*1
419
-
*2
-
622
2000-01
258
2
494
-
2
-
758
2001-02
258
**
562
-
**
-
823

PRODUCTION (’000 tonnes)

1996-97
417
3
1,003
-
2
-
1,425
1997-98
382
6
691
-
2
-
1,081
1998-99
822
**
1,059
-
*6
-
1,891
1999-2000
804
**
1,308
-
*2
-
2,116
2000-01
770
4
1,156
-
4
-
1,935
2001-02
767
*4
1,247
-
**
-
2,021

Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0).

Maize

Maize is a summer cereal demanding specific soil and climatic conditions. Maize for grain is almost entirely confined to the south-east regions and the Atherton Tablelands of Queensland, and the north coast, northern slopes and tablelands, and the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area in New South Wales. Small amounts are grown for green feed and silage in association with the dairy industry.

In 2001-02, maize for grain production increased by 32% to 454,000 tonnes (table 14.20).

14.20 MAIZE FOR GRAIN

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
Aust.

AREA (’000 ha)

1996-97
31
1
34
-
1
-
67
1997-98
22
1
34
-
-
-
57
1998-99
27
1
37
**
*-
-
64
1999-2000
22
1
59
-
*-
-
82
2000-01
26
1
47
-
*-
-
74
2001-02
28
*1
53
-
**
-
83

PRODUCTION (’000 tonnes)

1996-97
256
7
130
-
5
-
398
1997-98
161
10
97
-
3
-
272
1998-99
186
3
145
**
*4
-
338
1999-2000
178
4
224
-
*-
-
406
2000-01
178
8
159
-
*-
-
345
2001-02
246
*9
198
-
*-
-
454

Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0).

Rice

Nearly all of Australia's rice is grown in New South Wales, with production centred in the Murrumbidgee and Murray Irrigation Areas. It was first grown commercially in 1924-25 in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area, which remains the largest individual producing region to this day.

Rice production fell in 2001-02 by 27% to 1.2 million tonnes (table 14.21).

14.21 RICE FOR GRAIN

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
Aust.

AREA (’000 ha)

1996-97
151
1
-
-
-
-
152
1997-98
146
1
-
-
-
-
147
1998-99
148
1
-
-
-
-
148
1999-2000
131
-
-
-
**
-
131
2000-01
175
2
-
-
*-
-
177
2001-02
143
^2
-
-
-
-
144

PRODUCTION (’000 tonnes)

1996-97
1,248
6
-
-
-
-
1,255
1997-98
1,320
4
-
-
-
-
1,324
1998-99
1,357
5
-
-
-
-
1,362
1999-2000
1,084
-
-
-
**
-
1,084
2000-01
1,625
18
-
-
*-
-
1,643
2001-02
1,179
*14
-
-
-
-
1,192

Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0).

Vegetables and fruit

Vegetables

In 2001-02 the area sown to vegetables was 131,700 ha, a decrease of 4% from the previous year. Potatoes were by far the largest vegetable crop in terms of area and production, accounting for 29% of the total area of vegetables planted in 2001-02 (tables 14.22 and 14.23).

14.22 SELECTED VEGETABLES, Area

French and runner beans
Carrots
Onions
Green peas
Lettuces
Potatoes
Pumpkins
Tomatoes
All vegetables
’000 ha
'000 ha
’000 ha
’000 ha
'000 ha
'000 ha
’000 ha
’000 ha
'000 ha

1996-97
7.9
7.0
4.8
9.3
4.7
41.1
6.3
8.8
129.7
1997-98
6.6
7.2
5.6
7.0
5.7
42.6
5.9
8.0
130.6
1998-99
5.9
6.5
5.4
6.2
6.2
41.3
7.5
8.5
130.2
1999-2000
6.6
7.0
5.3
5.5
5.2
36.8
9.0
8.3
127.4
2000-01
6.6
8.0
5.0
5.8
5.8
39.6
8.3
9.6
137.1
2001-02
6.6
7.7
5.5
6.0
6.0
37.9
6.5
8.5
131.7

Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0).

14.23 SELECTED VEGETABLES, Production

French and runner beans
Carrots
Onions
Green peas
(pod weight)
Lettuces
Potatoes
Pumpkins
Tomatoes
’000 tonnes
’000 tonnes
’000 tonnes
’000 tonnes
’000 tonnes
’000 tonnes
’000 tonnes
’000 tonnes

1996-97
37.6
257.4
196.5
94.2
110.8
1,286.1
87.1
393.1
1997-98
35.6
266.5
218.9
76.0
129.1
1,371.6
84.8
380.1
1998-99
30.4
256.6
224.0
65.7
131.1
1,326.8
87.6
394.4
1999-2000
34.5
283.3
247.1
66.9
151.9
1,199.6
108.8
413.6
2000-01
32.8
320.9
221.9
57.7
152.7
1,302.1
109.4
556.2
2001-02
33.7
331.1
282.5
62.4
135.0
1,333.2
96.3
425.0

Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0).

Fruit (excluding grapes)

A wide variety of fruit is grown in Australia, ranging from pineapples, mangoes and pawpaws in the tropics to pome, stone and berry fruits in temperate regions. Table 14.24 shows the number of trees for the main types of orchard fruit, and the area under cultivation for bananas and pineapples.

The most significant crops in terms of gross value of production are bananas, oranges and apples. In 2001-02, the value of the apple crop increased 34% (table 14.25). While bananas, oranges and apples remain the principal fruit crops in Australia, some other fruit types have experienced considerable growth in recent years, for example, mandarins and strawberries.

14.24 SELECTED FRUIT, Number of trees(a) and area

Orchard fruit
Area of tropical fruit


Apples
Apricots
Oranges
Peaches
Pears
Plums and prunes
Bananas
Pineapples
All area of fruit and nuts (excluding grapes)
’000 trees
'000 trees
’000 trees
’000 trees
’000 trees
'000 trees
ha
ha
ha

1996-97
5,656
629
6,736
1,475
1,416
931
9,589
2,668
137,086
1997-98
5,845
569
6,667
1,498
1,381
1,015
10,478
2,762
144,082
1998-99
5,969
565
6,400
1,509
1,401
1,024
11,405
2,821
145,265
1999-2000
6,115
520
6,945
1,972
1,401
1,420
11,730
2,817
154,049
2000-01
6,455
498
6,669
1,674
1,373
1,328
11,737
2,733
170,545
2001-02
8,070
^411
6,767
1,587
1,312
1,325
12,583
2,963
161,439

(a) Refers to trees of bearing age, that is four years and over for apples, six years and over for other fruit.
Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0).

14.25 SELECTED FRUIT, Quantity and value of production

Apples
Apricots
Oranges
Peaches
Pears
Plums and prunes
Bananas
Pineapples

QUANTITY OF PRODUCTION (’000 tonnes)

1996-97
353.1
25.9
522.6
72.1
167.6
25.2
199.6
123.0
1997-98
308.9
19.9
499.8
64.8
152.9
26.4
223.0
123.0
1998-99
334.4
21.5
445.8
66.0
156.7
22.7
225.2
131.4
1999-2000
319.7
19.9
510.0
86.0
156.4
24.2
256.9
139.3
2000-01
324.6
20.6
550.2
74.1
168.9
31.3
358.4
119.6
2001-02
320.5
^12.4
450.6
88.7
144.9
25.5
313.3
119.3

GROSS VALUE OF PRODUCTION ($m)

1996-97
378.4
39.1
256.3
60.1
106.2
38.6
216.6
39.3
1997-98
272.7
31.0
257.9
53.4
107.8
44.1
230.3
37.3
1998-99
321.1
27.9
296.2
65.5
112.4
42.4
266.3
39.4
1999-2000
273.7
^31.8
276.4
74.3
72.1
43.4
283.8
43.7
2000-01
282.0
29.5
276.8
72.7
90.2
58.5
408.6
44.0
2001-02
377.5
18.1
280.8
75.7
99.4
52.7
415.3
40.1

Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0)

Grapes

Grapes are a temperate crop requiring predominantly winter rainfall and warm to hot summer conditions for ripening. An absence of late spring frosts is essential if the loss of the developing fruit is to be prevented. Grapes are grown for winemaking, drying and, to a lesser extent, for table use. Some of the better known grape producing areas are the Adelaide Hills, Barossa Valley, Clare Valley, Riverland, McLaren Vale and Coonawarra in South Australia; Sunraysia and the Yarra Valley in Victoria; the Hunter and Riverina in New South Wales; the Swan Valley and Margaret River in Western Australia; and the Tamar Valley and Coal River Valley in Tasmania.

The gross value of grape production for 2001-02 increased by 4% from the previous year, to $1.6b. Table 14.26 and 14.27 shows the area of vines and the grapes produced by grape variety.

14.26 VITICULTURE, Area, production and value

Area
Production of grapes for
Total production(a)



Bearing
Total
Winemaking
Drying
Quantity
Gross value
’000 ha
’000 ha
’000 tonnes
fresh weight
’000 tonnes
fresh weight
’000 tonnes
fresh weight
$m

1996-97
72
90
743
136
943
721.4
1997-98
78
99
871
177
1,112
998.2
1998-99
95
123
1,076
119
1,266
1,200.1
1999-2000
111
140
1,111
133
1,311
1,118.2
2000-01
131
148
1,391
90
1,546
1,517.5
2001-02
143
159
1,515
153
1,754
1,577.7

(a) Includes grapes used for table and other purposes.
Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0); Australian Wine and Grape Industry (1329.0).

14.27 VITICULTURE, Area and production - 2001-02

Area of vines at harvest
Production of grapes used for


Bearing
Not yet bearing
All vines
Winemaking
Drying
Other
Total
Variety
ha
ha
ha
tonnes
fresh weight
tonnes
fresh weight
tonnes
fresh weight
tonnes
fresh weight

Red grapes
Cabernet Sauvignon
27,383
2,190
29,573
257,223
95
279
257,597
Currant
751
127
879
549
12,103
315
12,968
Grenache
2,328
200
2,528
26,260
34
184
26,477
Mataro
1,113
125
1,238
12,452
18
66
12,537
Pinot Noir
3,785
629
4,414
21,341
66
27
21,435
Shiraz
33,827
3,204
37,031
326,564
27
276
326,866
Other red grapes
18,915
2,592
21,506
203,341
2,307
29,604
235,251
Total
88,102
9,067
97,169
847,730
14,650
30,751
893,131
White grapes
Chardonnay
18,597
3,127
21,724
256,328
528
40
256,896
Doradillo
244
3
247
6,977
19
120
7,116
Muscat Gordo Blanco
2,424
107
2,530
51,064
5,771
155
56,990
Palomino and Pedro Ximenes
197
13
210
2,462
50
-
2,514
Riesling
3,431
532
3,962
27,838
223
12
28,072
Semillon
6,422
188
6,610
100,785
215
76
101,076
Sultana
10,340
565
10,906
65,358
124,212
26,650
216,219
Waltham Cross
277
10
287
831
2,368
889
4,087
Other white grapes
13,438
1,615
15,055
156,126
4,868
27,830
188,827
Total
55,271
6,153
61,425
666,771
138,213
55,772
860,757
Total grapes
143,373
15,222
158,594
1,514,501
152,863
86,524
1,753,888

Source: Australian Wine and Grape Industry, 2002 (1329.0).

Selected other crops

Oilseeds

The oilseeds industry is a relatively young industry by Australian agricultural standards. The specialist oilseed crops grown in Australia include sunflower, soybeans, canola and safflower. Sunflower and soybeans are summer crops while the others are winter crops. In Australia, oilseeds are crushed for their oil, which is used for edible and industrial purposes, and for protein meals for livestock feeds.

The 1990s saw the emergence of canola as the main oilseed crop, with production increasing from around 70,000 tonnes in 1990-91 to 2.5 million tonnes in 1999-2000 prior to dropping to 1.8 million tonnes in 2001-02 (table 14.12). Canola production accounted for over 90% of the total Australian oilseed crop of 1.9 million tonnes in 2001-02 (table 14.28). Before the emergence of canola, the main specialist oilseed crop was sunflower seed. Peanuts and cotton are also major sources of oil, but as a by-product to their main outputs, which are food and fibre.

14.28 OILSEEDS

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
Aust.

AREA (’000 ha)

1996-97
247
115
112
42
107
-
622
1997-98
310
125
89
67
248
-
839
1998-99
496
222
145
136
537
1
1,538
1999-2000
613
319
143
216
879
*1
2,172
2000-01
569
266
79
157
517
-
1,589
2001-02
585
241
^60
165
394
^1
1,447

PRODUCTION (’000 tonnes)

1996-97
432
147
120
57
108
-
864
1997-98
419
142
82
92
270
-
1,005
1998-99
793
268
166
196
615
1
2,039
1999-2000
968
438
151
249
963
*2
2,770
2000-01
894
383
73
206
353
-
1,910
2001-02
796
349
^52
273
419
^1
1,890

Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0).

Cotton

Cotton is grown mainly in New South Wales and Queensland, primarily for its fibre (lint). When the cotton is mature, seed cotton is taken to a gin where it is separated (ginned) into cotton lint and cotton seed. The lint is used for yarn while the cotton seed is further processed at an oil mill, where the short fibres (linters) remaining on the cotton seed after ginning are removed. These fibres are too short to make into cloth, but are used for wadding, upholstery and paper. The seeds are then separated into kernels and hulls. The hulls are used for stock feed and as fertiliser, while the kernels are crushed to extract oil. The oilcake residue (crushed kernels) is ground into meal, which is a protein roughage, and is used as a stock feed.

The estimated preliminary gross value of cotton lint and cotton seed in 2001-02 was $1.3m, a 7% decrease from the previous year (table 14.29).

14.29 COTTON LINT

Area
Quantity
Gross value(a)
’000 ha
’000 tonnes
$m

1996-97
378
560
1,156
1997-98
381
564
1,228
1998-99
446
634
1,353
1999-2000
435
698
1,416
2000-01
536
666
1,305
2001-02
458
675
1,327

(a) Includes value of cotton lint and cotton seed.
Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0).

Sugar

Sugar cane is grown commercially in Australia along the east coast over a distance of some 2,100 kilometres in a number of areas from Maclean in northern New South Wales to Mossman in Queensland. More recently, it has also been grown in Western Australia.

About 90% of production occurs in Queensland (table 14.30), with 75% of the crop grown north of the Tropic of Capricorn in areas where rainfall is reliable and the warm, moist and sunny conditions are ideal for growing sugar cane.

14.30 SUGAR CANE CUT FOR CRUSHING, Area, production and yield

New South Wales
Queensland
Western Australia



Area
harvested
Production
Yield
Area
harvested
Production
Yield
Area harvested
Production
Yield
’000 ha
’000 tonnes
tonnes/ha
’000 ha
’000 tonnes
tonnes/ha
’000 ha
’000 tonnes
tonnes/ha

1996-97
18
2,231
124.0
371
36,232
97.6
1
170
164.7
1997-98
19
2,416
127.0
394
36,790
93.4
3
326
126.7
1998-99
20
2,555
126.0
379
35,587
93.9
3
392
135.5
1999-2000
20
2,493
123.8
405
35,316
87.2
3
355
123.2
2000-01
18
1,826
102.5
382
25,867
67.7
3
423
122.2
2001-02
^25
^2,886
114.4
398
28,250
70.9
3
288
105.9

Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0).

Crops and pastures cut for hay or silage

To counter Australia's seasonal conditions and unreliable rainfall, many farmers use hay and silage as methods of fodder conservation to supplement pasture and natural sources of stockfeed.

Considerable areas of Australia are devoted to fodder crops and pastures, which are either used for grazing (as green feed) or harvested and conserved as hay or silage (table 14.31).

14.31 CROPS AND PASTURES CUT FOR HAY OR SILAGE

Hay
Silage made

Area
Production
Production
'000 ha
'000 tonnes
'000 tonnes

1998-99
1,568
6,245
2,770
1999-2000
1,373
5,331
2,981
2000-01
1,521
6,433
2,960
2001-02
1,416
5,864
2,966

Source: Agricultural Commodities, Australia (7121.0).


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