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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2002  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 25/01/2002   
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Contents >> Labour >> Level of earnings

Statistical measures of earnings relate to remuneration paid to employees. Earnings statistics provide information about the means of living, the adequacy of available employment, and labour costs incurred by employers.

Earnings levels are usually measured through estimates of average weekly earnings. These can be compared between various demographic groups, occupations or industries. The ABS has introduced the Wage Cost Index as a more accurate measure of movements in wage and salary costs. This is explained in more detail in the section Changes in the price of labour.

The quarterly Survey of Average Weekly Earnings measures earnings during a one week reference period in the middle month of a quarter. Irregular earnings not related to the reference period are excluded.

Weekly total earnings include ordinary time and overtime pay. Weekly ordinary time earnings relate only to that part of total earnings attributable to award, standard or agreed hours of work.

Table 6.36 shows average weekly earnings for male and female employees from May 1996 to May 2001. Average weekly total earnings increased more in the latest year for male employees than for female employees (4.2% compared to 3.9%). The level of earnings for females is also still much lower than for males, with average weekly total earnings at $789.40 for males compared to $524.70 for females.


6.36 AVERAGE WEEKLY EARNINGS(a)

1996

$
1997

$
1998

$
1999

$
2000

$
2001

$

MALES

Full-time adult employees -
- Average weekly ordinary time earnings
715.80
740.70
773.20
798.40
832.80
873.30
- Average weekly total earnings
774.20
795.80
829.90
853.40
884.90
923.40
All male employees -
- Average weekly total earnings
671.50
687.10
714.50
733.00
757.70
789.40

FEMALES

Full-time adult employees -
- Average weekly ordinary time earnings
594.10
620.30
646.90
669.60
697.90
737.10
- Average weekly total earnings
607.90
634.80
660.60
683.50
714.50
750.60
All female employees
- Average weekly total earnings
441.10
457.40
468.30
483.00
504.80
524.70

PERSONS

Full-time adult employees -
- Average weekly ordinary time earnings
672.60
696.60
726.90
750.80
782.60
824.10
- Average weekly total earnings
715.20
736.80
767.80
790.60
821.50
861.00
All employees -
- Average weekly total earnings
564.40
577.80
596.20
611.10
634.70
662.60

(a) At May.

Source: Average Weekly Earnings, Australia (6302.0).


Average weekly earnings data are also available from the biennial Employee Earnings and Hours (EEH) survey. This survey produces complementary information, by providing statistics on the composition of average weekly earnings which enable comparison of earnings for various categories of employees, by occupation groups and industries.

Table 6.37 presents average weekly earnings in May 2000 by industry, with ordinary-time and overtime earnings separated. The largest amounts of overtime earnings were recorded for full-time adult employees in Mining ($117.50), Construction ($111.80) and Communication services ($108.30), while Education had the lowest overtime earnings ($2.40).


6.37 AVERAGE WEEKLY EARNINGS(a), Industry(b) by Composition of Earnings - May 2000

Industry
Ordinary-time earnings

$
Overtime earnings

$
Total earnings

$

Mining
1,214.10
117.50
1,331.60
Manufacturing
668.70
93.50
762.20
Electricity, gas and water supply
920.30
69.50
989.80
Construction
738.00
111.80
849.80
Wholesale trade
672.70
38.40
711.00
Retail trade
586.40
25.70
612.10
Accommodation, cafes and restaurants
575.30
13.40
588.70
Transport and storage
746.40
81.30
827.70
Communication services
857.40
108.30
965.70
Finance and insurance
782.50
17.70
800.20
Property and business services
767.10
*25.10
792.10
Government administration and defence
761.90
28.70
790.50
Education
875.70
2.40
878.00
Health and community services
739.50
25.70
765.20
Cultural and recreational services
720.30
19.80
740.10
Personal and other services
791.50
35.30
826.90
All industries
736.90
46.60
783.50

(a) For full-time, non-managerial adult employees.
(b) Classified according to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC).

Source: Employee Earnings and Hours, Australia (6306.0).


Table 6.38 shows average weekly total earnings for different occupation groups and categories of employees in May 2000. Average weekly total earnings vary considerably across occupations, with persons in lower skilled jobs tending to receive lower wages. In May 2000, full-time Managers and administrators received estimated average weekly total earnings of $1,307.90. In contrast, full-time Elementary clerical, sales and service workers earned on average $592.90 per week.

Men have higher average earnings than women within the same occupation group. Average weekly total earnings for full-time employees are closest for Managers and administrators (women's average earnings are 85% of men's) and furthest apart for Tradespersons and related workers (women's earnings 70% of men's).


6.38 AVERAGE WEEKLY TOTAL EARNINGS, Occupation(a) by Category of Employee - May 2000

Full-time employees

Managerial

Non-managerial

Total

Occupation
Adult

$
Adult

$
Junior

$
Total

$
Adult

$
Total

$
Part-time
employees

$
All
employees

$

MALES

Managers and administrators
1,363.20
1,132.70
. .
1,132.70
1,355.80
1,355.80
*338.00
1,315.30
Professionals
1,286.30
1,039.60
457.00
1,038.80
1,086.00
1,085.30
439.90
1,000.30
Associate professionals
859.40
944.60
368.50
939.00
909.80
906.70
350.00
869.00
Tradespersons and related workers
679.40
810.00
378.80
759.90
798.20
753.40
321.90
723.90
Advanced clerical and service workers
712.60
806.40
407.00
803.40
799.20
796.50
403.90
739.10
Intermediate clerical, sales and service workers
849.60
751.30
311.50
734.20
754.20
737.40
282.60
623.40
Intermediate production and transport workers
621.10
796.30
393.40
790.70
789.90
784.60
301.30
711.90
Elementary clerical, sales and service workers
580.90
684.50
381.60
666.10
682.00
664.20
229.00
431.10
Labourers and related workers
644.30
696.60
366.20
681.80
695.30
680.90
238.50
531.20
All occupations
1,132.90
835.90
370.70
814.80
902.70
883.80
289.00
780.20

FEMALES

Managers and administrators
1,153.00
1,012.50
. .
1,012.5
1,145.80
1,145.80
569.80
1,078.00
Professionals
1,056.10
896.70
326.80
896.50
908.00
907.90
458.60
725.50
Associate professionals
706.90
747.90
372.00
743.30
734.50
731.50
365.90
640.00
Tradespersons and related workers
*592.80
584.50
276.70
523.10
584.80
525.00
283.90
431.50
Advanced clerical and service workers
519.60
696.60
387.50
693.70
669.30
667.00
344.90
566.20
Intermediate clerical, sales and service workers
699.00
624.40
330.20
610.30
626.00
612.20
298.30
458.70
Intermediate production and transport workers
374.20
585.70
315.70
574.40
582.80
571.70
246.90
413.60
Elementary clerical, sales and service workers
452.40
563.50
315.40
534.40
560.90
532.70
223.10
303.80
Labourers and related workers
n.p.
566.20
361.70
561.00
564.40
559.30
224.90
329.80
All occupations
889.60
706.20
320.20
691.30
731.50
717.70
305.60
520.60

PERSONS

Managers and administrators
1,315.90
1,094.30
. .
1,094.30
1,307.90
1,307.90
451.10
1,257.50
Professionals
1,227.90
967.30
435.90
966.90
1,002.00
1,001.60
454.80
844.60
Associate professionals
809.30
863.90
370.20
858.60
843.30
840.10
361.80
770.00
Tradespersons and related workers
676.90
792.70
364.90
740.00
782.70
735.20
305.60
689.80
Advanced clerical and service workers
535.80
715.00
390.20
712.10
689.60
687.30
348.80
588.60
Intermediate clerical, sales and service workers
764.10
671.10
324.20
655.60
673.40
658.20
295.60
505.40
Intermediate production and transport workers
610.30
772.80
371.50
765.90
767.20
760.70
279.30
660.30
Elementary clerical, sales and service workers
513.40
620.80
335.60
594.70
618.20
592.90
224.60
344.80
Labourers and related workers
618.90
666.00
365.50
653.90
665.10
653.20
230.90
454.00
All occupations
1,066.60
783.50
352.30
765.10
837.80
821.00
301.00
652.80

(a) Classified according to the Australian Standard Classification of Occupations (ASCO), Second Edition.

Source: Employee Earnings and Hours, Australia (6306.0).


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