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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2004  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 27/02/2004   
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Contents >> Manufacturing >> Structure and performance of the manufacturing industry

The major source for the statistics used in this section is the Economic Activity Survey (EAS) of employing businesses conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). This collection is a combination of sample surveys encompassing the manufacturing industry as well as other industries in the economy. Businesses in this collection are classified on the basis of their 'predominant' activity, using the 1993 version of the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC).

Production of an industry can be measured in terms of industry value added (IVA), in much the same way as industry GVA. However unlike industry GVA, the national accounts concept of production, IVA is not adjusted for a number of national accounting conventions, as the information to make these adjustments cannot be collected through the EAS. The advantage of IVA, however, is the availability of more detailed industry and state estimates.

Summary of operations in 2000-01

At 30 June 2001, manufacturing businesses in Australia employed 945,900 persons. This includes full-time and part-time employees, but does not include directors who are not paid a salary or self-employed persons such as contractors, owner drivers, consultants or persons paid solely by commission without a retainer. During 2000-01, manufacturing businesses paid $42,920m in labour costs, generated $251,759m of sales of goods and services income, and $71,945m of IVA (table 18.3).

The manufacturing industry subdivisions with the most persons employed at 30 June 2001 were: machinery and equipment manufacturing (202,200); food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing (189,600); and metal product manufacturing (147,000). The non-metallic mineral product manufacturing industry was the smallest employer, accounting for only 37,200 (or 3.9%) of persons employed in the manufacturing industry.

Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing was the largest contributor to total manufacturing sales and service income and total manufacturing IVA. This industry's sales and service income of $56,626m was 22% of the total for manufacturing, and its IVA of $14,709m accounted for 20%. Other industry subdivisions making major contributions were: machinery and equipment manufacturing (20% of sales and service income and 19% of IVA); petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing (19% and 14%); and metal product manufacturing (16% and 19%).

18.3 SUMMARY OF OPERATIONS - 2000-01

Employment
at 30 June
Labour costs(a)
Sales of goods and
services income
Industry value
added
Industry subdivision
’000
$m
$m
$m

Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing
189.6
8,173
56,626
14,709
Textile, clothing, footwear and leather manufacturing
57.8
1,951
9,111
2,583
Wood and paper product manufacturing
65.0
2,751
15,077
4,929
Printing, publishing and recorded media
91.6
4,213
15,929
6,599
Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing
101.3
5,537
47,115
9,960
Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing
37.2
1,903
9,777
3,606
Metal product manufacturing
147.0
6,999
40,517
13,655
Machinery and equipment manufacturing
202.2
9,621
50,645
13,487
Other manufacturing
54.2
1,772
6,963
2,417
Total manufacturing
945.9
42,920
251,759
71,945

(a) Includes wages and salaries, payroll tax, fringe benefits taxes, workers compensation costs and employers contributions to superannuation.
Source: Manufacturing Industry, Australia, 2000-01 (8221.0).

The generally close relationship between share of employment and contribution to IVA is indicated in graph 18.4. The three largest industry subdivisions for both employment and IVA, namely machinery and equipment manufacturing; food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing; and metal product manufacturing, employed 57% of the manufacturing workforce in 2000-01 and contributed 58% of IVA.

Graph - 18.4 Industry value added and employment, By industry subdivision - 2000-01


State distribution of activity

In 2000-01, New South Wales and Victoria continued to be the largest contributors to manufacturing IVA, each accounting for 32% of total manufacturing IVA (table 18.5). New South Wales contributed 40% of the total IVA of the printing, publishing and recorded media industry and between 26% and 33% of the total IVA of the remaining manufacturing industries. Victoria contributed 50% of the total IVA of the textile, clothing, footwear and leather manufacturing industry, 39% of the total IVA of the machinery and equipment manufacturing industry and between 24% and 37% of the total IVA of the remaining manufacturing industries.

Although Queensland accounted for 14% of overall manufacturing IVA, it contributed 17% for both metal product manufacturing and food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing. The contributions of South Australia and Western Australia to total manufacturing IVA were similar at 8.6% and 9.4% respectively, although the structure of the manufacturing industry was very different. Machinery and equipment manufacturing was the largest manufacturing industry in South Australia, accounting for 29% of state production and 13% of the total IVA for the industry. South Australia also contributed between 5.9% and 11% of the total IVA of the remaining manufacturing industries. Western Australia contributed 17% of total IVA for metal product manufacturing and 13% of non-metallic mineral product manufacturing. Metal product manufacturing was the largest manufacturing industry in the state, accounting for 34% of state production.

Manufacturing was not as significant for the remaining state and territories. Tasmania, which accounted for 2.4% of total manufacturing IVA, contributed 6.6% of total IVA for wood and paper product manufacturing. The share of national production for the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory were each less than 1%.

18.5 MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY VALUE ADDED - 2000-01

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
NT
ACT
Aust.
Industry subdivision
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing
4,681
4,571
2,559
1,492
934
409
34
29
14,709
Textile, clothing, footwear and leather manufacturing
681
1,302
211
177
150
58
n.p.
n.p.
2,583
Wood and paper product manufacturing
1,511
1,405
807
540
324
323
5
15
4,929
Printing, publishing and recorded media
2,668
1,976
799
390
540
76
32
119
6,599
Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing
3,105
3,688
1,199
580
1,237
140
8
3
9,960
Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing
1,176
934
602
291
451
103
27
23
3,606
Metal product manufacturing
4,340
3,273
2,362
764
2,269
470
n.p.
n.p.
13,655
Machinery and equipment manufacturing
4,115
5,311
1,368
1,798
651
162
34
49
13,487
Other manufacturing
791
793
417
162
225
15
n.p.
n.p.
2,418
Total manufacturing
23,067
23,251
10,323
6,192
6,780
1,757
301
274
71,946

Source: Manufacturing Industry, Australia, 2000-01 (8221.0).

Graph 18.6 shows relative contributions to overall manufacturing production by states and territories in 2000-01. Victoria and New South Wales contributed approximately two-thirds of Australian manufacturing production between them.

Graph - 18.6 Manufacturing production - 2000-01


Table 18.7 shows the four states in which the manufacturing industry's contribution to state production over time was most significant. The trend for the manufacturing industry's share of the total production in all of these states has been decreasing, even though manufacturing production actually increased over this period. This is because the growth in manufacturing production has been slightly slower than growth in production in other industries in each of these states.

18.7 MANUFACTURING'S CONTRIBUTION TO STATE PRODUCTION(a), Selected states

1992-93
1993-94
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-2000
2000-01
2001-02

New South Wales
13.9
14.4
14.3
14.1
13.5
13.8
13.3
12.8
12.2
11.9
Victoria
17.1
17.2
17.5
17.4
17.2
17.2
16.1
15.5
15.1
14.5
South Australia
16.6
17.0
16.8
16.7
16.6
17.1
15.5
14.9
14.3
14.3
Tasmania
14.6
14.4
14.8
14.9
14.5
14.7
14.9
14.8
14.6
14.2
Australia
13.5
13.9
13.9
13.8
13.5
13.6
12.9
12.4
12.0
11.7

(a) State production as measured by total factor income at current prices.
Source: Australian National Accounts, State Accounts, 2001-02 (5220.0).

Table 18.8 shows the IVA and employment of the manufacturing industry in each state and territory. Victoria and New South Wales were the major contributors to manufacturing employment, accounting for 32% and 31% respectively of total manufacturing employment in Australia. Together they accounted for almost two-thirds of total manufacturing employment at 30 June 2001. In all manufacturing industries, either New South Wales or Victoria was the largest employing state. The proportions contributed by Victoria to persons employed in the various industries ranged from 26% for metal product manufacturing to 47% for textile, clothing, footwear and leather manufacturing while New South Wales' contributions varied from 26% for textile, clothing, footwear and leather manufacturing to 39% for printing, publishing and recorded media manufacturing. Machinery and equipment manufacturing accounted for the largest proportion of persons employed in the manufacturing industry in both these states.

The largest industry employers in the other states and territories were food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing in Queensland (27%) and Tasmania (31%); machinery and equipment manufacturing in South Australia (33%); metal product manufacturing in Western Australia (21%) and Northern Territory (36%); and printing, publishing and recorded media in the Australian Capital Territory (39%).

Table 18.8 also shows IVA per person employed. In 2000-01 total manufacturing IVA per person employed ranged from $67,000 in the Australian Capital Territory and South Australia to $91,000 in the Northern Territory and Western Australia. This difference could be attributed to the industry mix within each state or territory. For instance, the relatively capital intensive petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing, which made up a significant proportion of Western Australia's manufacturing production, had a much higher IVA per person than textile, clothing, footwear and leather manufacturing, which was a relatively small sector in Western Australia.

18.8 MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY VALUE ADDED AND EMPLOYMENT - 2000-01

Industry value added
Employment at 30 June
Industry value added per person employed
$m
’000
$'000

New South Wales
23,067
296
78
Victoria
23,251
302
77
Queensland
10,323
153
68
South Australia
6,192
93
67
Western Australia
6,780
74
91
Tasmania
1,757
21
85
Northern Territory
301
3
91
Australian Capital Territory
274
4
67
Australia
71,946
946
76

Source: Manufacturing Industry, Australia, 2000-01 (8221.0).

Employment

The number of full-time and part-time workers by sex in each manufacturing subdivision is provided in table 18.9. The number of employed persons shown in table 18.9 differs from the employment figures in tables 18.3 and 18.8 mainly because it includes directors who are not paid a salary and self-employed persons such as contractors, owner/drivers, consultants and persons paid solely by commission without a retainer. These categories are excluded from the employment figures in tables 18.3 and 18.8.

In May 2003, the manufacturing industry employed 12% of all persons employed in Australia. Males outnumbered females by a ratio of almost 3:1 (73% males and 27% females). The vast majority of males employed in the manufacturing industry (94%) were employed full-time. The corresponding proportion for females was considerably lower (71%).

The proportion of people with full-time jobs in manufacturing has fallen slightly over the past 10 years, from 95% for males and 75% for females in May 1993. This is consistent with the decline in the proportion of full-time employment over the same time period for all industries, with male full-time employment falling from 90% to 85% and female full-time employment falling from 58% to 54%.

The largest employers of males were machinery and equipment manufacturing (25%) and metal product manufacturing (17%). The largest employers of females were food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing (21%) and printing, publishing and recorded media manufacturing (18%).

Further information on employed wage and salary earners and the characteristics of the manufacturing labour force is provided in Labour.

18.9 EMPLOYED PERSONS, Status in employment - May 2003

Males
Females
Persons



Full-time
Part-time
Total
Full-time
Part-time
Total
Full-time
Part-time
Total
Industry subdivision
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000

Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing
107.8
9.0
116.8
46.6
14.2
60.8
154.4
23.2
177.6
Textile, clothing, footwear and leather manufacturing
27.5
2.1
29.6
29.5
9.3
38.8
57.0
11.4
68.4
Wood and paper product manufacturing
58.9
3.5
62.4
9.5
4.1
13.6
68.4
7.6
76.0
Printing, publishing and recorded media
62.3
7.3
69.6
33.0
17.8
50.8
95.3
25.1
120.4
Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing
75.8
3.2
79.0
24.7
6.3
31.0
100.5
9.4
109.9
Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing
39.2
2.4
41.6
5.8
3.7
9.5
45.0
6.1
51.1
Metal product manufacturing
136.1
5.1
141.2
12.8
10.3
23.1
148.8
15.4
164.2
Machinery and equipment manufacturing
195.8
8.7
204.5
37.8
12.4
50.2
233.6
21.1
254.7
Other manufacturing
61.3
4.5
65.8
12.5
6.7
19.2
73.8
11.2
85.0
Total manufacturing
764.7
45.8
810.5
212.2
84.8
297.0
976.8
130.5
1,107.3

Source: Labour Force Australia, Detailed - Electronic Delivery (6291.0.55.001).

Table 18.10 presents information on average weekly total earnings (i.e. ordinary time earnings plus overtime earnings) of employees in the manufacturing industry and all industries. Between May 1984 and May 2003, the average earnings of full-time employees increased by 159% in the manufacturing industry, which was slightly higher than the increase of 149% for all industries. The earnings of both male and female full-time employees in manufacturing increased but the increase for female employees was 22 percentage points more than the increase for male employees, although female earnings came from a lower base and are still well below average male earnings.

In the manufacturing industry, the average weekly earnings for male full-time employees at May 2003 was higher by 28% than female full-time employees. In May 1984, male full-time employees were earning 39% more than female full-time employees. In May 2003, the difference in average earnings between male and female full-time employees was: 31% in food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing ($902 per week for male employees compared to $688 for female employees); 25% in metal product manufacturing ($903 compared to $702); and 23% in machinery and equipment manufacturing ($959 compared to $780). The most highly paid female full-time employees were in the petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing and non-metallic mineral product manufacturing with average weekly earnings of $855 and $824 respectively.

18.10 AVERAGE WEEKLY EARNINGS(a)

All employees
Full-time


May 1984
May 2003
Change from May 1984 to May 2003
May 1984
May 2003
Change from May 1984 to May 2003
$
$
%
$
$
%

Males
Manufacturing
376.60
947.70
151.6
395.30
999.90
153.0
All industries
383.80
872.10
127.2
415.70
1,033.80
148.7
Females
Manufacturing
261.60
613.40
134.4
284.70
783.10
175.1
All industries
257.10
567.20
120.6
324.20
834.00
157.3
Persons
Manufacturing
347.20
861.30
148.1
368.70
956.50
159.4
All industries
333.40
724.60
117.4
386.30
961.80
148.9

(a) Derived by dividing estimates of weekly total earnings (including overtime) by estimates of number of employees. Changes in average weekly earnings may be affected not only by changes in the level of earnings of employees but also be changes in the overall composition of the wage and salary earner segment of the labour force.
Source: Average Weekly Earnings, Australia (6302.0).

Sales and service income

Sales and service income of employing businesses comprises sales of goods whether or not produced by the business (including goods produced for the business on a commission basis) and income from service activities. Service income includes income from work done or sales made on a commission basis, income from repair, maintenance or servicing, advertising income, installation and delivery charges separately invoiced to customers, and management fees/charges received from related and unrelated businesses.

Table 18.11 shows that sales and service income for the manufacturing industry was $252b in 2000-01. Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing recorded the largest sales income in each of the last six years, accounting for 23% of all sales income earned in the manufacturing industry in 2000-01.

Over the period 1995-96 to 2000-01, income from sales of goods and services increased by 21% for manufacturing as a whole. Manufacturing subdivisions with the largest increases over the period were: petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing (33%); food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing (28%); machinery and equipment manufacturing (24%); and wood and paper products manufacturing (24%).

Sales of goods and services in the textile, clothing, footwear and leather manufacturing subdivision decreased by 10% over the 1995-96 to 2000-01 period.

18.11 SALES AND SERVICE INCOME

1995–96
1996–97
1997–98
1998–99
1999–2000
2000–01
Industry subdivision
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing
44,350
45,712
49,200
51,732
54,562
56,626
Textiles, clothing, footwear and leather manufacturing
9,921
10,288
10,601
10,097
9,299
9,111
Wood and paper products manufacturing
11,845
11,890
12,796
14,436
15,490
15,077
Printing, publishing and recorded media
13,685
14,893
15,342
16,053
17,508
15,929
Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing
35,448
37,492
37,913
36,808
39,816
47,115
Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing
9,524
9,832
10,364
10,911
11,075
9,777
Metal product manufacturing
35,325
34,561
34,749
36,304
38,718
40,517
Machinery and equipment manufacturing
41,564
42,398
43,645
46,473
46,825
50,645
Other manufacturing
5,700
6,264
6,528
6,791
6,853
6,963
Total manufacturing
207,363
213,330
221,138
229,603
240,145
251,759

Source: Manufacturing Industry, Australia, 2000-01 (8221.0); Summary of Industry Performance, Australia, Final 2000-01 Data Report, Electronic Delivery (8140.0.55.002).

During 2000-01, sales and service income in the manufacturing industry increased overall by 4.8%. The petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing subdivision, recorded the largest increase over the year (18%).

In 2000-01, Victoria (with 32% of national manufacturing sales and service income) and New South Wales (with 31%) continued to be the largest manufacturing states (table 18.13). Victoria contributed 49% of the total sales and service income of the textile, clothing, footwear and leather manufacturing industry; 37% of the total sales and service income of the machinery and equipment manufacturing industry; and between 23% and 36% of the total sales and service income of the remaining manufacturing industries. New South Wales contributed 43% of the total sales and service income of the printing, publishing and recorded media industry, and between 26% and 35% of the total sales and service income of the remaining manufacturing industries.

The contributions of the remaining states and territories to manufacturing industries were not as great. Queensland contributed the third largest proportion of total manufacturing sales and service income with 16%. It accounted for 22% of total sales and service income for food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing. Its contributions to other industries were smaller, varying from 7.6% to 19%. South Australia contributed the next largest proportion of manufacturing sales with 9.4%, closely followed by Western Australia (8.6%). The contribution of South Australia to total sales and service income for machinery and equipment manufacturing of 20% was the most prominent compared to its contribution to other industries which varied from 3.9% to 9%. Western Australia accounted for 13% of recorded sales and service income for three industries namely: non-metallic mineral product manufacturing; petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing; and metal product manufacturing.

18.12 SALES AND SERVICE INCOME, By state/territory - 2000-01

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
NT
ACT
Aust.
Industry subdivision
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing
17,178
16,898
12,314
4,631
4,190
1,200
119
99
56,626
Textile, clothing, footwear and leather manufacturing
2,526
4,467
687
848
411
159
n.p.
n.p.
9,111
Wood and paper product manufacturing
4,762
4,464
2,491
1,237
846
1,202
17
59
15,077
Printing, publishing and recorded media
6,863
5,045
1,676
870
1,037
156
55
226
15,929
Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing
14,879
16,755
7,288
1,816
5,915
406
45
12
47,115
Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing
3,021
2,391
1,892
823
1,233
243
94
80
9,777
Metal product manufacturing
14,105
9,471
7,282
2,593
5,051
1,332
n.p.
n.p.
40,517
Machinery and equipment manufacturing
13,163
18,681
5,535
10,334
2,325
297
191
118
50,645
Other manufacturing
2,163
2,408
1,129
473
695
49
n.p.
n.p.
6,963
Total manufacturing
78,659
80,580
40,292
23,623
21,702
5,044
1,138
721
251,759

Source: Manufacturing Industry, Australia, 2000-01 (8221.0).

Operating profit before tax

Table 18.13 shows the operating profit before tax (OPBT) earned by all manufacturing businesses. Industry subdivisions contributing most to manufacturing industry profits for 2000-01 were: metal product manufacturing ($3,842m or 25% total manufacturing OPBT); food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing (24%); petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing (14%); and machinery and equipment manufacturing (12%).

Profits for five industry subdivisions were higher in 2000-01 than they were for 1995-96, although there were some significant movements in profits in the intervening years. Metal product manufacturing profits were much higher in 2000-01 than in 1995-96, but actually fell in 1996-97 and 1998-99 before recovering strongly in 1999-2000 (up 24%) and then even more strongly in 2000-01 (up 33%). Printing, publishing and recorded media profits, at $1,387m in 2000-01, were very similar to the $1,266m profit in 1995-96, but were 32% lower than the $2,044m profit for the manufacturing subdivision in 1999-2000.

18.13 OPERATING PROFIT BEFORE TAX

1995–96
1996–97
1997–98
1998–99
1999–2000
2000–01
Industry subdivision
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing
2,321
2,479
2,946
2,966
3,379
3,780
Textiles, clothing, footwear and leather manufacturing
435
404
381
354
409
107
Wood and paper products manufacturing
872
790
845
1,078
1,275
1,031
Printing, publishing and recorded media
1,266
1,174
1,459
1,519
2,044
1,387
Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing
2,179
2,351
2,068
1,865
2,603
2,231
Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing
917
811
829
924
1,123
914
Metal product manufacturing
2,685
2,292
2,515
2,342
2,898
3,842
Machinery and equipment manufacturing
2,621
2,471
2,213
1,832
1,942
1,853
Other manufacturing
397
300
343
266
371
365
Total manufacturing
13,693
13,072
13,601
13,146
16,042
15,509

Source: Summary of Industry Performance, Australia, Final 2000–01 Data Report, Electronic Delivery (8140.0.55.002).

Contribution by size of business

In this section, the performance of manufacturing businesses is examined in relation to the size of those businesses. Employing businesses have been classified as small, medium or large according to the number of people employed by the business at 30 June 2001. Businesses employing fewer than 20 persons have been classified as small, those employing at least 20 but less than 100 persons have been classified as medium and those employing 100 or more persons have been classified as large businesses.

Graph 18.14 shows that large businesses employed more than 50% of the people working in the manufacturing industry, and their share of economic activity, as measured by income, profits and capital outlays, was around 75%. Small businesses employed 24% of the manufacturing work force, but their share of manufacturing activity was much less significant, at around 11%.

Graph - 18.14 Share of manufacturing activity, By size of business - 2001


Capital expenditure

The manufacturing industry was responsible for $11.0b of capital expenditure in 2000-01, which accounted for 14% of capital expenditure by businesses in all industries. Within manufacturing, the subdivisions with largest capital expenditure were: food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing (23% of total manufacturing capital expenditure); petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing (20%); metal product manufacturing (18%); and machinery and equipment manufacturing (15%).

As table 18.15 shows, capital expenditure by the manufacturing industry decreased by 5.4% over the period 1995-96 to 2000-01.

A majority of manufacturing subdivisions recorded increases in capital expenditure over the 1995-96 to 2000-01 period; the largest increase was in printing, publishing and recorded media (up 72% or $384m). However, the increases were offset by decreases in expenditure mainly in metal product manufacturing (down 33% or $1.0b), and wood and paper product manufacturing (down 36% or $324m).

18.15 CAPITAL EXPENDITURE

1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-2000
2000-01
Change from 1995-96 to 2000-01
Industry subdivision
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
%

Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing
2,402
2,400
2,915
2,822
2,189
2,537
5.6
Textile, clothing, footwear and leather manufacturing
253
421
465
290
257
278
9.9
Wood and paper product manufacturing
907
1,048
734
988
900
583
-35.7
Printing, publishing and recorded media
538
595
859
807
933
925
71.9
Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing
2,010
2,109
1,918
1,943
1,942
2,181
8.5
Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing
677
710
792
573
616
593
-12.4
Metal product manufacturing
3,031
1,575
3,034
3,099
1,949
2,020
-33.4
Machinery and equipment manufacturing
1,656
1,455
2,072
1,589
1,347
1,682
1.6
Other manufacturing
188
200
220
293
245
232
23.4
Total
11,664
10,513
13,007
12,404
10,379
11,031
-5.4

Source: Summary of Industry Performance, Australia, Final 2000–01 Data Report, Electronic Delivery (8140.0.55.002).

International trade by industry of origin

Exports by industry of origin

Table 18.16 shows that the manufacturing sector dominates Australia's value of exports by industry of origin, accounting for 57% of total exports in 2002-03. Over the period 1992-93 to 2002-03, the value of manufacturing exports has increased by 75%. However, the share of total value of exports of the manufacturing industry fluctuated, with the trend being slightly down each year since the high of 65% in 1994-95.

18.16 VALUE OF EXPORTS, By industry of origin(a)

Manufacturing
All industries
Manufacturing share of total exports
Year
$m
$m
%

1992-93
37,551
60,702
61.9
1993-94
41,478
64,548
64.3
1994-95
43,795
67,052
65.3
1995-96
48,787
76,005
64.2
1996-97
48,494
78,932
61.4
1997-98
53,301
87,768
60.7
1998-99
52,073
85,991
60.6
1999-2000
57,982
97,286
59.6
2000-01
69,128
112,539
57.8
2001-02
69,111
121,108
57.1
2002-03
65,668
115,445
56.9

(a) On a free-on-board (f.o.b.) basis.
Source: ABS data available on request, International Trade.

Graph 18.17 shows the top five destinations for manufacturing commodities exported from Australia, during the period 1998-99 to 2002-03. The United States of America was the largest destination of Australian manufacturing exports in terms of value, with $7.7b worth exported in 2002-03, down from $9.1b in 2001-02. This was the first decrease in five years for manufacturing exports to the United States of America. Similarly, the value of Australian manufacturing exports to the Republic of (South) Korea decreased by 4.5% to $3.6b in 2002–03 from $3.7b in 2001-02. In 2000-01, manufacturing exports to Japan reached a peak for the period of $8.0b, but the value has since fallen 12% to $7.0b in 2002-03.

The value of manufacturing exports to New Zealand rose 36%, from $5.2b in 1998-99 to $7.0b, in 2002-03. After dropping from $3.5b in 1998-99 to $2.7b in 1999-2000, the value of manufacturing exports to the United Kingdom has increased 69% to $4.6b in 2002-03.

Graph - 18.17 Manufacturing exports, Main destinations


Imports by industry of origin

Table 18.18 shows that the manufacturing sector accounted for over 90% of Australia's value of imports by industry of origin during the period 1993-94 to 2002-03. Over this period, the value of manufacturing imports has increased by 82% compared to the increase of 86% for all industries. The value of mining imports increased by 182%, which accounts for the slightly higher rate of increase for all industries.

18.18 VALUE OF IMPORTS, By industry of origin(a)

Manufacturing
All industries
Manufacturing share of total imports
$m
$m
%

1993–94
61,103
64,470
94.8
1994–95
70,733
74,619
94.8
1995–96
73,545
77,792
94.5
1996–97
73,747
78,998
93.4
1997–98
85,746
90,684
94.6
1998–99
92,437
97,611
94.7
1999–2000
92,437
97,611
94.7
2000–01
102,382
110,078
93.0
2001–02
108,331
118,317
91.6
2002–03
111,162
119,649
92.9

(a) Customs value.
Source: ABS data available on request, International Trade.

Graph 18.19 shows the top five countries for manufacturing commodities imported to Australia, in the period 1993-94 to 2002-03. In each year of this period, Australia imported more manufactured goods from the United States of America than from any other country. In 2002-03, the value of manufactured imports from the United States of America was $21.9b, slightly less than the high of $22.4b imported in 1999-2000. The value of manufacturing imports from the United Kingdom has been relatively stable at around $5.5b to $6.2b since 1997-98, after an increase between 1993-94 to 1997-98 of 52%.

The largest growth has been in manufacturing imports from China. In the period 1993-94 to 2002-03, the increase in value of manufacturing imports from China was 343%, compared to a 62% increase in value of imports from the United States of America, a 56% increase from the United Kingdom, and a 29% increase from Japan.

Graph - 18.19 Manufacturing imports, Selected countries


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