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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2004  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 27/02/2004   
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Contents >> Science and innovation >> Resources devoted to R&D

Business sector

Business expenditure on R&D (BERD) in Australia in 2001-02 (table 25.6) was estimated to be $5,546m at current prices, 13% higher than that recorded in 2000-01. This represented the highest level recorded to date and is the second successive year of significant increase following the declines from 1995-96 to 1998-99 and the levelling off between 1998-99 and 1999-2000. In volume terms, with the effect of changes in prices and wages and salaries removed, BERD increased by 8% in 2001-02 compared with 2000-01 and was 4% above the previous peak level of 1995-96.

Human resources (in person years) devoted to R&D in 2001-02 was 7% higher than in 2000-01.

In 2001-02, BERD was 0.78% of GDP compared to 0.73% in 2000-01. This is the second successive increase in BERD as a percentage of GDP following decreases between 1995-96 and 1999-2000. However, the percentage remains well below the high of 0.87% in 1995-96.

The increase in expenditure on R&D between 2000-01 and 2001-02 was attributable to a 16% increase by the Mining industry, a 10% increase by the Manufacturing industry and a 15% increase by Other industries in total. It should be noted that mineral exploration is excluded from the definition of R&D.

25.6 BUSINESS R&D RESOURCES, By industry

Businesses
Expenditure on R&D
Effort on R&D



2000-01
2001-02
2000-01
2001-02
2000-01
2001-02
no.
no.
$m
$m
’000 person years
’000 person years

Mining (incl. services to mining)
92
108
462
534
1.2
0.8
Manufacturing
Food, beverage and tobacco
139
136
202
214
1.1
1.3
Textile, clothing, footwear and leather
51
43
27
22
0.2
0.2
Wood and paper product
34
33
100
82
0.3
0.3
Printing, publishing and recorded media
33
40
17
16
0.1
0.1
Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product
351
349
387
417
2.5
2.4
Non-metallic mineral product
51
52
41
76
0.3
0.3
Metal product
171
174
200
235
1.0
1.0
Motor vehicle and part and other transport equipment
136
127
473
553
3.0
3.4
Photographic and scientific equipment
165
138
184
230
1.4
1.5
Electronic and electrical equipment and appliance
376
361
430
412
3.1
3.0
Industrial machinery and equipment
241
231
108
128
0.9
1.0
Other manufacturing
83
76
21
18
0.2
0.2
Total
1,831
1,760
2,190
2,403
14.3
14.7
Other industries
Wholesale and retail trade
289
334
370
422
2.5
2.8
Finance and insurance
40
51
278
224
1.0
0.8
Property and business services
943
1,041
867
1,049
6.7
7.5
Scientific research
166
214
243
308
1.4
1.7
Other n.e.c.
193
251
506
605
1.2
2.1
Total
1,631
1,891
2,265
2,609
12.8
14.9
Total all industries
3,554
3,759
4,917
5,546
28.3
30.4

Source: Research and Experimental Development, Businesses, Australia (8104.0).

Major research fields in which BERD took place were: Computer software (14%); Communications technologies (11%); Automotive engineering (8%); Manufacturing engineering (8%); Other information, computing and communication sciences (7%); Information systems (6%); and Medical and health sciences (6%) (table 25.7).

A slightly different pattern applied to human resources devoted to R&D, with 20% in Computer software; 10% in Automotive engineering; 8% in Communications technologies; 8% in Manufacturing engineering; 7% in Other information, computing and communication sciences; 6% in Other engineering and technology and 6% in Information systems (table 25.7).

25.7 BUSINESS R&D RESOURCES, By field of research(a) - 2001-02

Type of expenditure

Capital
expenditure
Labour
costs
Other current
expenditure
Total
Human resources
$m
$m
$m
$m
’000 person years

Mathematical sciences
0.5
9.4
9.4
19.4
0.1
Physical sciences
3.9
24.1
20.6
48.7
0.3
Chemical sciences
12.1
83.0
65.7
160.8
1.2
Earth sciences
7.2
20.3
112.0
139.5
0.3
Biological sciences
22.2
70.0
94.4
186.6
0.9
Information systems
25.0
166.3
164.9
356.1
1.8
Computer software
35.3
495.4
233.7
764.4
5.9
Other information, computing and communication sciences
18.2
160.9
186.0
365.2
2.0
Industrial biotechnology and food sciences
13.8
74.6
55.2
143.5
1.0
Chemical engineering
22.2
22.2
27.9
72.3
0.3
Manufacturing engineering
50.9
161.6
203.9
416.4
2.4
Automotive engineering
35.2
225.8
205.8
466.7
3.0
Mechanical and industrial engineering
20.9
69.7
77.4
168.0
1.0
Resources engineering
15.8
47.1
199.2
262.2
0.6
Electrical and electronic engineering
14.7
93.8
74.1
182.6
1.4
Metallurgy
20.1
42.6
145.5
208.2
0.5
Materials engineering
9.1
48.4
56.7
114.2
0.6
Communications technologies
27.5
232.5
354.3
614.3
2.6
Other engineering and technology
18.4
128.0
160.3
306.8
1.8
Agricultural, veterinary and environmental sciences
12.4
67.3
94.0
173.7
0.9
Medical and health sciences
18.8
130.0
181.5
330.3
1.6
Other research fields
6.0
24.6
14.9
45.6
0.3
Total
410.4
2,397.8
2,737.3
5,545.5
30.4

(a) Data were subjectively allocated by data providers at the time of reporting, using OECD/ABS definitions. The ABS makes every effort to ensure correct and consistent interpretation and reporting of these data and applies consistent processing methodologies. Readers using these data should bear in mind the original subjectivity of the information.
Source: Research and Experimental Development, Businesses, Australia, 2001-02 (8104.0).

In terms of socioeconomic objectives, most BERD ($4,979m or 90%) was directed towards Economic development (table 25.8). About 7% was directed towards Society, 2% towards Defence and 1% towards Environment. Of the amount directed towards Economic development, $2,215m (44%) was directed towards Manufacturing.

The same pattern applied to human resources devoted to R&D, with 90% directed towards Economic development, 7% directed towards Society, 2% towards Defence and 1% towards Environment (table 25.8).

25.8 BUSINESS R&D RESOURCES, By socioeconomic objective(a) - 2001-02

Type of expenditure

Capital
expenditure
Labour
costs
Other current expenditure
Total
Human resources
$m
$m
$m
$m
’000 person years

Defence
2.7
52.1
64.6
119.5
0.7
Economic development
Plant - production and primary products
6.2
27.7
30.9
64.7
0.4
Animal - production and primary products
4.1
23.0
30.5
57.6
0.3
Mineral resources (excl. energy)
35.0
58.6
225.4
319.0
0.8
Energy resources
9.1
40.3
143.6
193.0
0.4
Energy supply
24.6
41.5
52.8
118.9
0.5
Manufacturing
193.4
969.6
1,052.6
2,215.5
13.4
Construction
6.1
29.9
48.7
84.8
0.4
Transport
6.0
45.8
68.5
120.4
0.7
Information and communication services
67.9
822.0
706.7
1,596.6
9.2
Commercial services and tourism
18.2
96.0
82.8
197.1
1.0
Economic framework
1.0
6.9
3.8
11.6
0.1
Total
371.7
2,161.2
2,446.1
4,979.0
27.3
Society
Health
25.4
138.5
169.8
333.7
1.7
Education and training
0.5
7.6
2.6
10.7
0.1
Social development and community services
1.9
13.3
7.3
22.6
0.2
Total
27.8
159.4
179.7
367.0
2.0
Environment
Environmental policy frameworks and other aspects
1.3
3.0
3.4
7.6
0.1
Environmental management
6.0
18.7
41.5
66.2
0.3
Total
7.3
21.7
44.8
73.8
0.3
Non-oriented research
0.8
3.4
2.0
6.2
-
Total
410.4
2,397.8
2,737.3
5,545.5
30.4

(a) Data were subjectively allocated by data providers at the time of reporting, using OECD/ABS definitions. The ABS makes every effort to ensure correct and consistent interpretation and reporting of these data and applies consistent processing methodologies. Readers using these data should bear in mind the original subjectivity of the information.
Source: Research and Experimental Development, Businesses, Australia, 2001-02 (8104.0).

General government sector

Expenditure on R&D carried out by national and state/territory government organisations in Australia in 2000-01 was estimated to be $2,368m, a 14% increase on expenditure in 1998-99 (table 25.1).

As shown in table 25.9, the research fields in which most government R&D expenditure took place were: Agricultural, veterinary and environmental sciences ($773m, or 33%); Engineering and technology ($385m, or 16%); Biological sciences ($260m, or 11%); Information, computing and communication sciences ($217m, or 9%); Earth sciences ($215m, or 9%); and Medical and health sciences ($183m, or 8%).

A slightly different pattern applied to human resources devoted to R&D, with Agricultural, veterinary and environmental sciences accounting for 33%; Engineering and technology 15%; Medical and health sciences 12%; Biological sciences 11%; Earth sciences 7%; and Information, computing and communication sciences 7%.

25.9 GOVERNMENT R&D RESOURCES, By field of research(a) - 2000-01

Type of expenditure

Land and
buildings
Other capital
expenditure
Labour
costs
Other current expenditure
Total
Human resources
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
’000 person years

Mathematical sciences
1.3
1.9
15.3
6.7
25.1
0.2
Physical sciences
4.3
6.9
52.5
29.6
93.3
0.7
Chemical sciences
5.2
4.0
52.1
34.0
95.3
0.7
Earth sciences
10.1
10.8
95.1
99.2
215.1
1.3
Biological sciences
32.5
10.0
126.2
91.1
259.8
2.0
Information, computing and communication sciences
4.2
6.8
99.6
106.1
216.8
1.2
Engineering and technology
17.9
15.5
206.7
144.7
384.8
2.8
Agricultural, veterinary and environmental sciences
27.3
20.3
379.6
346.1
773.3
6.1
Medical and health sciences
23.4
5.8
104.7
48.8
182.7
2.3
Economics
0.2
0.4
31.7
18.6
50.8
0.4
Law, justice and law enforcement
1.0
0.3
13.8
7.6
22.7
0.2
Other research fields
1.0
1.0
30.6
16.1
48.8
0.5
Total
128.3
83.7
1,207.7
948.6
2,368.4
18.4
Commonwealth
75.1
58.2
734.6
557.0
1,424.8
9.7
State/territory
53.3
25.6
473.2
391.6
943.6
8.7

(a) Data were subjectively allocated by data providers at the time of reporting, using OECD/ABS definitions. The ABS makes every effort to ensure correct and consistent interpretation and reporting of these data and applies consistent processing methodologies. Readers using these data should bear in mind the original subjectivity of the information.
Source: Research and Experimental Development, Government and Private Non-Profit Organisations, Australia, 2000-01 (8109.0).

In terms of socioeconomic objectives, most government sector R&D expenditure ($1,375m or 58%) was directed towards Economic development (table 25.10). About 18% was directed towards Environment, 12% towards Society, 10% towards Defence, and 1% to Non-oriented research. Of the amount directed towards Economic development, $392m (29%) was directed towards Plant production and primary products, $298m (22%) towards Animal production and primary products, and $233m (17%) towards Manufacturing.

A slightly different pattern applied to human resources devoted to R&D, with 53% directed towards Economic development, 18% towards Society, 17% towards Environment, 11% towards Defence, and 1% to Non-oriented research (table 25.10).

25.10 GOVERNMENT R&D RESOURCES, By socioeconomic objective(a) - 2000-01

Type of expenditure

Land and
buildings
Other capital
expenditure
Labour
costs
Other current expenditure
Total
Human resources
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
’000 person years

Defence
0.4
5.5
165.3
67.4
238.7
2.0
Economic development
Plant - production and primary products
13.4
10.4
196.8
171.8
392.5
3.2
Animal - production and primary products
10.0
8.2
141.8
137.8
297.8
2.2
Mineral resources (excl. energy)
4.3
3.6
42.3
31.7
81.9
0.5
Energy resources
3.0
2.5
28.9
30.8
65.3
0.4
Energy supply
2.3
0.9
16.1
9.0
28.3
0.2
Manufacturing
21.7
9.6
101.5
100.0
232.8
1.6
Construction
2.3
1.7
17.3
11.9
33.2
0.2
Transport
0.4
1.0
6.8
12.2
20.3
0.1
Information and communication services
3.4
3.6
30.3
15.4
52.8
0.4
Commercial services and tourism
0.6
1.1
5.6
4.1
11.4
0.1
Economic framework
4.9
1.4
66.7
85.6
158.7
0.9
Total
66.4
44.0
654.2
610.4
1,375.0
9.8
Society
Health
32.6
7.9
114.8
57.7
213.0
2.6
Education and training
0.2
0.7
8.6
5.2
14.8
0.1
Social development and community services
2.3
1.8
36.0
21.7
61.8
0.6
Total
35.1
10.3
159.5
84.7
289.6
3.2
Environment
Environmental policy frameworks and other aspects
1.3
1.1
28.9
19.1
50.4
0.4
Environmental management
21.1
18.3
184.7
156.8
380.9
2.7
Total
22.4
19.4
213.6
175.9
431.3
3.1
Non-oriented research
4.0
4.6
15.1
10.2
33.8
0.3
Total
128.3
83.7
1,207.7
948.6
2,368.4
18.4

(a) Data were subjectively allocated by data providers at the time of reporting, using OECD/ABS definitions. The ABS makes every effort to ensure correct and consistent interpretation and reporting of these data and applies consistent processing methodologies. Readers using these data should bear in mind the original subjectivity of the information.
Source: Research and Experimental Development, Government and Private Non-Profit Organisations, Australia, 2000-01 (8109.0).

Higher education sector

Estimated expenditure on R&D carried out in Australia by the higher education sector in 2000 was $2,775m, an increase of 9% over expenditure in 1998, and 20% over expenditure in 1996 (table 25.1).

Table 25.11 shows that major fields of research in which higher education R&D expenditure took place in 2000 were: Medical and health sciences ($668m, or 24% of total expenditure); Biological sciences ($325m, or 12%); Engineering and technology ($309m, or 11%); and Agricultural, veterinary and environmental sciences ($205m, or 7%). Direct labour costs accounted for 44% of total R&D expenditure.

A slightly different pattern applied to human resources devoted to R&D, with 19% on Medical and health sciences, 11% on Engineering and technology, 10% on Biological sciences and 7% on Agricultural, veterinary and environmental sciences.

25.11 HIGHER EDUCATION R&D RESOURCES, By field of research(a) - 2000

Type of expenditure

Land and
buildings
Other capital
expenditure
Direct labour
costs
Scholarships
Other current expenditure
Total
Human resources
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
’000 person years

Mathematical sciences
0.3
2.6
29.5
3.3
23.8
59.4
0.8
Physical sciences
2.0
12.8
46.7
4.8
45.6
112.0
1.3
Chemical sciences
2.1
15.4
50.0
9.0
50.8
127.2
1.7
Earth sciences
1.2
7.6
38.8
6.9
40.2
94.6
1.6
Biological sciences
9.5
24.8
132.3
19.1
138.8
324.5
4.7
Information, computing and communication sciences
2.1
6.8
51.5
8.5
44.2
113.1
1.8
Engineering and technology
5.2
25.9
123.7
25.1
129.1
309.1
5.0
Agricultural, veterinary and environmental sciences
2.8
8.7
85.6
15.0
92.5
204.5
3.1
Medical and health sciences
7.2
34.7
299.6
33.2
292.9
667.7
8.8
Education
2.0
2.8
41.5
6.0
34.3
86.6
2.4
Economics
0.7
2.5
31.5
3.4
28.8
66.8
1.1
Commerce, management, tourism and services
1.8
3.6
55.8
5.6
44.1
111.0
2.1
Studies in human society
1.5
2.8
41.7
6.8
40.8
93.7
2.0
Behavioural and cognitive sciences
2.3
4.2
39.2
6.8
35.2
87.8
2.0
Other research fields
7.8
10.0
146.6
29.7
122.4
316.5
7.9
Total
48.6
165.3
1,214.0
183.2
1,163.5
2,774.6
46.3

(a) Data were subjectively allocated by data providers at the time of reporting, using OECD/ABS definitions. The ABS makes every effort to ensure correct and consistent interpretation and reporting of these data and applies consistent processing methodologies. Readers using these data should bear in mind the original subjectivity of the information.
Source: Research and Experimental Development, Higher Education Organisations, Australia, 2000 (8111.0).

In terms of socioeconomic objectives (table 25.12), most higher education R&D expenditure ($1,123m or 40%) was directed towards Society. About 29% was directed towards Economic development, 25% towards Non-oriented research and 6% towards Environment. The major subdivision within Society was Health with 27% of total R&D expenditure.

A similar pattern applied to human resources devoted to R&D, with 41% directed towards Society, 27% towards Economic development, 26% towards Non-oriented research and 6% to Environment.

25.12 HIGHER EDUCATION R&D RESOURCES, By socioeconomic objective(a) - 2000

Type of expenditure

Land and buildings
Other capital expenditure
Direct labour costs
Scholarships
Other current expenditure
Total
Human resources
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
’000 person years

Defence
0.1
0.2
1.8
0.2
2.0
4.4
0.1
Economic development
Plant - production and primary products
1.5
4.6
45.9
8.3
48.3
108.6
1.6
Animal - production and primary products
1.0
2.8
26.8
4.4
29.5
64.5
0.9
Mineral resources (excl. energy)
0.9
2.7
14.9
3.1
20.6
42.1
0.5
Energy resources
0.7
2.9
14.0
2.0
12.9
32.4
0.4
Energy supply
1.0
2.6
12.3
3.1
12.0
31.1
0.5
Manufacturing
2.0
15.9
58.1
10.9
53.8
140.7
2.1
Construction
0.9
3.0
23.3
4.7
22.2
54.1
1.1
Transport
0.6
1.3
10.1
1.7
9.0
22.8
0.4
Information and communication services
2.1
8.3
56.7
9.5
51.2
127.7
2.0
Commercial services and tourism
0.7
1.7
20.6
1.8
15.6
40.4
0.6
Economic framework
1.6
4.0
64.8
6.8
53.7
130.9
2.4
Total
13.1
49.8
347.5
56.2
328.8
795.3
12.7
Society
Health
10.6
35.6
333.0
38.4
326.8
744.3
10.2
Education and training
2.4
4.0
51.8
7.0
44.8
110.0
2.7
Social development and community services
6.8
8.9
124.5
22.6
106.0
268.7
6.1
Total
19.8
48.4
509.3
67.9
477.6
1,123.0
19.0
Environment
Environmental policy frameworks and other aspects
0.7
1.1
11.1
1.7
10.5
25.2
0.4
Environmental management
2.7
7.6
54.6
10.4
59.7
134.9
2.4
Total
3.4
8.7
65.7
12.1
70.2
160.1
2.8
Non-oriented research
12.2
58.2
289.6
46.9
284.8
691.7
11.8
Total
48.6
165.3
1,214.0
183.2
1,163.5
2,774.6
46.3

(a) Data were subjectively allocated by data providers at the time of reporting, using OECD/ABS definitions. The ABS makes every effort to ensure correct and consistent interpretation and reporting of these data and applies consistent processing methodologies. Readers using these data should bear in mind the original subjectivity of the information.
Source: Research and Experimental Development, Higher Education Organisations, Australia, 2000 (8111.0).

Private non-profit sector

Expenditure on R&D carried out by private non-profit organisations in 2000-01 ($283m) increased by 29% (see table 25.1) over 1998-99 expenditure.

Medical and health sciences comprised the major field of research for R&D expenditure in the private non-profit sector, accounting for $181m (64%) of the sector's total R&D expenditure in 2000-01. Labour costs continued to be the main component of R&D expenditure (47%) (table 25.13).

Medical and health sciences also comprised the leading field of research in terms of human resource use.

25.13 PRIVATE NON-PROFIT R&D RESOURCES, By field of research(a) - 2000-01

Type of expenditure

Land and
buildings
Other capital
expenditure
Labour
costs
Other current
expenditure
Total
Human resources
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
person years

Mathematical sciences
-
0.1
0.4
0.6
1.1
8
Physical sciences
-
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.6
4
Chemical sciences
-
0.2
1.1
1.3
2.6
21
Earth sciences
-
-
-
-
-
-
Biological sciences
0.7
5.2
40.5
30.7
77.1
883
Information, computing and communication sciences
-
0.2
1.5
1.2
2.9
27
Engineering and technology
-
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
4
Agricultural, veterinary and environmental sciences
-
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
9
Medical and health sciences
24.9
10.7
80.1
65.1
180.8
1,665
Other research fields
0.1
0.4
8.2
7.8
16.5
101
Total
25.8
17.0
132.7
107.6
283.2
2,721

(a) Data were subjectively allocated by data providers at the time of reporting, using OECD/ABS definitions. The ABS makes every effort to ensure correct and consistent interpretation and reporting of these data and applies consistent processing methodologies. Readers using these data should bear in mind the original subjectivity of the information.
Source: Research and Experimental Development, Government and Private Non-Profit Organisations, Australia, 2000-01 (8109.0).

In the private non-profit sector, Health was the main socioeconomic objective (table 25.14), accounting for 91% or $257m of total R&D expenditure. Education and training accounted for $17m (6%), while $5m (2%) was directed towards Economic development.

A similar pattern applied to human resources devoted to R&D, with 92% directed towards Health, 4% towards Education and training, and 2% towards Economic development.

25.14 PRIVATE NON-PROFIT R&D RESOURCES, By socioeconomic objective(a) - 2000-01

Type of expenditure

Land and
buildings
Other capital
expenditure
Labour
costs
Other current expenditure
Total
Human resources
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
person years

Defence
-
-
-
-
-
-
Economic development
-
0.3
2.9
2.1
5.4
45
Society
Health
25.6
16.0
119.0
96.2
256.9
2,515
Education and training
n.p.
n.p.
8.0
8.0
16.9
109
Social development and community services
n.p.
n.p.
1.0
0.4
1.4
15
Total
25.8
16.7
128.0
104.6
275.2
2,639
Environment
-
-
1.5
0.7
2.2
28
Non-oriented research
-
-
0.3
0.2
0.5
9
Total
25.8
17.0
132.7
107.6
283.2
2,721

(a) Data were subjectively allocated by data providers at the time of reporting, using OECD/ABS definitions. The ABS makes every effort to ensure correct and consistent interpretation and reporting of these data and applies consistent processing methodologies. Readers using these data should bear in mind the original subjectivity of the information.
Source: Research and Experimental Development, Government and Private Non-Profit Organisations, Australia, 2000-01 (8109.0).


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