1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2002  
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Contents >> Science and Innovation >> R&D expenditure - Higher education sector

Estimated expenditure on R&D carried out in Australia by the higher education sector in 1998 was $2,603m, an increase of 13% over expenditure in 1996, and 28% over expenditure in 1995 (see table 25.1).

Table 25.11 shows that the fields of research in which most higher education R&D expenditure took place in 1998 were Medical and health sciences ($592m, or 23% of total expenditure), Social sciences ($507m, or 19%), Biological sciences ($312m, or 12%) and the Humanities ($198m, or 8%). Direct labour costs accounted for 47% of total R&D expenditure.

A slightly different pattern applied to human resources devoted to R&D, with 24% on the Social sciences, 19% on Medical and health sciences, 12% on the Humanities and 11% on Biological sciences.



25.11 HIGHER EDUCATION ORGANISATIONS, R&D Resources by Field of Research - 1998

Type of expenditure

Field of research
Land and
buildings



$m
Other
capital
expenditure



$m
Direct
labour
costs



$m
Scholarships



$m
Other
current
expenditure



$m
Total



$m
Human
resources

’000

person
years

Natural sciences, technologies and engineering -
- Mathematical sciences
0.2
2.3
31.9
3.0
25.6
63.1
1.0
- Physical sciences
1.8
10.3
46.3
3.9
44.2
106.5
1.4
- Chemical sciences
1.7
12.2
50.2
8.6
48.3
121.0
1.9
- Earth sciences
1.2
8.6
50.1
6.2
46.9
113.0
1.9
- Information, computers and communication technologies
1.3
10.8
65.7
8.5
52.9
139.2
2.3
- Applied sciences and technologies
1.3
10.5
42.2
7.5
37.3
98.8
1.7
- General engineering
2.8
14.7
80.8
12.9
71.0
182.3
2.8
- Biological sciences
5.5
22.6
135.6
16.6
131.6
311.8
4.9
- Agricultural sciences
1.5
8.4
70.5
10.8
79.5
170.7
2.7
- Medical and health sciences
6.1
27.6
277.7
23.4
257.6
592.4
8.5
- Total natural sciences, technologies and engineering
23.4
128.1
851.0
101.2
795.0
1,898.7
29.0
Social sciences and humanities -
- Social sciences
8.2
13.1
265.7
22.0
197.5
506.5
10.9
- Humanities
3.2
4.3
102.5
15.9
71.6
197.5
5.6
- Total social sciences and humanities
11.4
17.4
368.2
37.9
269.1
704.0
16.5
Total
34.8
145.5
1,219.3
139.1
1,064.1
2,602.7
45.5

Source: Research and Experimental Development, Higher Education Organisations, Australia (8111.0).


In terms of socioeconomic objectives (table 25.12), most higher education R&D expenditure ($1,094m or 42%) was directed towards Advancement of knowledge. About 27% was directed towards Society, 23% towards Economic development, and 7% towards Environment. The major subdivision within Society was Health with 19% of total R&D expenditure.

A similar pattern applied to human resources devoted to R&D, with 45% directed towards Advancement of knowledge, 26% towards Society, 22% towards Economic development, and 7% to Environment.


25.12 HIGHER EDUCATION ORGANISATIONS, R&D Resources by Socioeconomic Objective - 1998

Type of expenditure

Socioeconomic objective
Land and buildings



$m
Other
capital
expenditure



$m
Direct
labour
costs



$m
Scholarships



$m
Other
current
expenditure



$m
Total



$m
Human
resources

’000

person
years

Defence
-
0.3
2.7
0.2
2.5
5.8
0.1
Economic development -
- Plant - production and primary products
0.9
4.6
38.2
5.2
45.3
94.2
1.4
- Animal - production and primary products
0.5
2.6
27.1
4.1
30.4
64.7
1.0
- Mineral resources (excl. energy)
0.3
2.2
13.2
2.0
16.1
33.7
0.4
- Energy resources
0.1
1.5
6.8
1.0
6.9
16.3
0.3
- Energy supply
-
1.3
10.4
1.5
8.8
22.0
0.3
- Manufacturing
1.8
11.6
49.4
8.4
45.8
117.0
1.8
- Construction
1.3
2.3
19.9
2.6
13.6
39.7
0.7
- Transport
0.2
1.3
7.0
1.0
5.6
15.1
0.3
- Information and communication services
0.7
3.3
32.2
3.4
25.0
64.6
1.1
- Commercial services
0.7
0.6
14.8
1.2
10.3
27.6
0.4
- Economic framework
1.4
2.9
57.3
4.9
42.7
109.2
2.2
- Total economic development
7.9
34.2
276.2
35.2
250.5
604.0
10.0
Society -
- Health
4.9
18.6
243.7
20.3
219.3
506.7
7.3
- Education and training
1.5
2.9
58.2
4.2
41.4
108.3
2.6
- Social development and community services
1.8
2.5
48.0
3.1
40.0
95.3
1.8
- Total society
8.2
24.0
349.9
27.6
300.6
710.2
11.8
Environment -
- Environmental knowledge
2.1
6.9
53.9
6.0
51.1
119.9
2.1
- Environmental aspects of economic development
0.5
1.5
16.1
2.3
13.9
34.2
0.6
- Environmental management and other aspects
0.5
1.4
15.5
1.9
15.1
34.4
0.6
- Total environment
3.1
9.8
85.5
10.1
80.1
188.5
3.3
Advancement of knowledge -
- Natural sciences, technologies and engineering
10.7
69.0
338.1
43.1
312.2
773.1
11.9
- Social sciences and humanities
5.0
8.1
166.9
22.9
118.2
321.0
8.5
- Total advancement of knowledge
15.6
77.1
505.0
66.0
430.4
1,094.1
20.4
Total
34.8
145.5
1,219.3
139.1
1,064.1
2,602.7
45.5

Source: Research and Experimental Development, Higher Education Organisations, Australia (8111.0).


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