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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2003  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 24/01/2003   
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Contents >> National Accounts >> Input-output tables

Basic structure

Input-output (I-O) tables show the structure of a country's entire production system for a particular period, usually one year. They show which goods and services are produced by each industry and how they are used (e.g. some goods, such as cars, are sold to final consumers while others, such as steel, are used as inputs by other industries in producing more goods and services). The tables are based on the principle that the value of the output of each industry can be expressed as the sum of the values of all the inputs to that industry. These inputs include the use of the outputs of other industries; any profits made from production; compensation of employees; and any taxes on production paid less any subsidies received. All the goods and services produced in a period are identified as being used as inputs by industries in their production process, being sold to final users of the goods and services (either in Australia, or overseas as exports), or contributing to the changes in inventories (an increase in inventories if more goods are produced than purchased, or a run-down in inventories if purchases exceed production). The net increase in inventories includes any timing difference between supply and use.

Relationship to the national income and expenditure accounts

I-O tables are directly related to the GDP account. The income side of the GDP account shows the amount of income generated in the economy accruing to labour (in the form of compensation of employees) and to capital (as profits or, in national accounting terms, gross operating surplus and gross mixed income - the latter including some return to owners of businesses for their labour). The expenditure side of the account shows the value of goods and services entering into the various categories of final uses.

The I-O tables provide a much more detailed disaggregation of the GDP account than is available in the national income, expenditure and product accounts. The latter only shows details of the end results of economic activity, whereas the I-O tables show the flows of goods and services through the production process. The extra detail provided by the I-O tables is essential for many analyses.

I-O table for seven industry sectors

Table 29.21 and diagram 29.22 show the flows of goods and services in respect of 1996-97.

The links between the table and the diagram are explained by working through the following formulae.

Total intermediate use - ($482,483m) in the diagram is derived by summing from column 8 of the table: intermediate use ($412,134m); taxes on products, net ($13,378m); competing imports ($56,890m); and complementary imports ($81m).

Domestic final use - ($530,600m) in the diagram is derived from the table by subtracting total exports ($105,160m), column 12, from total final uses ($635,760m), column 13.

Imports - ($103,590m) is derived by summing from column 14 of the table: competing imports ($103,257m); and complementary imports ($333m). In the diagram it is dissected into imports for intermediate uses ($56,971m); and imports for final uses ($46,619m).

Exports - ($105,160m) in the diagram is total exports, column 12 in the table.

Total use - ($1,118,243m), which equals total supply, is the sum of domestic final use ($530,600m); total intermediate use ($482,483m); and exports ($105,160m).

Gross value added - ($493,377m) in the diagram is derived by summing from column 14 of the table: compensation of employees ($257,193m); gross operating surplus and mixed income ($213,534m); and other taxes on production (net) ($22,650m).

GDP (income measure) - ($532,170m) in the diagram is derived by summing from column 14 of the table: compensation of employees ($257,193m); gross operating surplus and mixed income ($213,534m); taxes on products (net) ($38,793m); and other taxes on production (net) ($22,650m).

GDP (expenditure measure) - ($532,170m) in the diagram is derived by summing domestic final use ($530,600m); and exports ($105,160m); and subtracting imports ($103,590m).


29.21 INDUSTRY BY INDUSTRY FLOW TABLE, Basic values - 1996-97

1
2
3
4
5
6
7







Agriculture
Mining
Manufacturing
Construction
Trade and transport
Service industries
Government admin. and defence
Supply
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

Agriculture
4,071
16
13,710
123
283
1,304
52
Mining
42
3,851
9,719
651
238
2,897
96
Manufacturing
4,369
4,043
49,326
16,658
16,182
20,627
3,497
Construction
177
224
48
70
439
1,948
675
Trade and transportation
2,819
3,020
21,356
4,084
18,559
15,873
1,818
Service industries
3,192
4,991
22,429
7,994
45,697
91,487
7,637
Government admin. and defence
53
226
578
120
1,260
1,100
2,505
Intermediate use
14,722
16,371
117,166
29,699
82,658
135,237
16,280
Compensation of employees
3,967
5,887
36,147
13,812
51,263
127,132
18,985
Gross operating surplus & gross mixed income
12,699
16,788
27,262
15,351
19,715
118,860
2,859
Taxes on products (net)
464
207
1,752
715
4,347
5,643
250
Other taxes on production (net)
588
499
2,505
700
4,053
11,054
29
Competing imports
1,641
2,015
28,646
3,406
5,793
13,548
1,842
Complementary imports
-
-
81
-
-
-
-
Australian production
34,081
41,767
213,558
63,683
167,829
411,474
40,245

8
9
10
11
12
13
14







Intermediate usage = Sum (1 to 7)
Final consumption expenditure
Gross fixed capital formation
Changes in inventories
Exports
Final uses = Sum (9 to 12)
Total supply = Sum (8+13)
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

Agriculture
19,560
4,719
1,024
369
8,409
14,522
34,081
Mining
17,493
598
2,268
-2,428
23,835
24,274
41,767
Manufacturing
114,702
47,087
14,046
-495
38,219
98,856
213,558
Construction
3,581
2,964
57,048
-5
96
60,102
63,683
Trade and transportation
67,530
70,463
11,901
40
17,896
100,299
167,829
Service industries
183,427
207,096
9,399
67
11,484
228,047
411,474
Government admin. and defence
5,842
33,847
405
-
151
34,403
40,245
Intermediate use
412,134
366,774
96,091
-2,452
100,090
560,503
972,637
Compensation of employees
257,193
-
-
-
-
-
257,193
Gross operating surplus & gross mixed income
213,534
-
-
-
-
-
213,534
Taxes on products (net)
13,378
20,262
3,352
158
1,643
25,415
38,793
Other taxes on production (net)
19,428
-
3,222
-
-
3,222
22,650
Competing imports
56,890
24,314
17,303
1,323
3,427
46,367
103,257
Complementary imports
81
111
151
-9
-
252
333
Australian production
972,637
411,461
120,119
-980
105,160
635,760
1,608,397
Gross value added
490,155
-
3,222
-
-
3,222
493,377
Gross domestic product
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
532,170

Source: Derived from Australian National Accounts: Input-Output Tables, 1996-97 (5209.0).


29.22 THE AUSTRALIAN ECONOMY, Flow of goods and services - 1996-97
Diagram - 29.22 THE AUSTRALIAN ECONOMY, Flow of goods and services - 1996-97
Source: Derived from 'Australian National Accounts: Input-Output Tables, 1996-97' (5209.0).

Notes:
(1) Flows are based on 1996-97 input-output tables.
(2) This diagram shows the flows between producers and the rest of the economy. In this context a producer can also be a consumer (e.g. own account capital expenditure) or an investor.
(3) The shaded areas identify the components that make up the main aggregates. Flows passing through the shaded areas are included in the calculation.


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