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4102.0 - Australian Social Trends, 2006  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 20/07/2006   
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Contents >> Family and Community >> Family and Community Data Sources and Definitions

Family and Community Data Sources and Definitions

FAMILY AND COMMUNITY: NATIONAL SUMMARY

LIVING ARRANGEMENTS

Units
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

1Total households(a)
'000
6 668
6 762
6 910
7 015
7 127
7 250
7 367
n.y.a.
n.y.a.
n.y.a.
n.y.a.
2Lone-person households(a)
%
22.9
23.0
23.6
23.7
24.1
24.6
24.5
n.y.a.
n.y.a.
n.y.a.
n.y.a.
3Households with
three or more persons(a)
%
44.7
44.5
43.8
43.2
43.1
42.5
42.5
n.y.a.
n.y.a.
n.y.a.
n.y.a.
4Total families
'000
4 791
4 834
4 899
5 027
5 056
5 116
5 242
5 355
5 441
5 528
5 596
5Families with children
aged under 15 years
'000
2 100
2 092
2 130
2 160
2 166
2 172
2 179
2 211
2 191
2 224
2 229
6Couple families(b)
'000
4 051
4 080
4 090
4 158
4 197
4 265
4 349
4 423
4 526
4 550
4 660
7De facto couple families –
of all couple families
%
n.a.
10.1
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
12.4
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
8Couple-only families –
of all couple families(b)
%
r40.7
r41.4
r41.2
r41.9
r42.2
r42.9
r44.2
r44.8
r45.9
r46.2
46.0
9Couple-only families with female partner aged under 40 years – of all couple only families(b)
%
21.6
21.3
20.9
21.3
21.3
21.5
21.4
22.2
r22.6
r21.9
22.7
10Couple families with children aged under 15 – of all families
with children aged under 15(b)
%
81.5
81.6
80.0
78.4
78.8
79.1
78.4
77.0
78.3
76.9
78.6
11Lone-father families with children
aged under 15 – of all families
with children aged under 15
%
1.9
2.0
2.3
2.0
1.9
2.3
2.3
2.7
2.5
2.8
2.7
12Lone-mother families with children aged under 15 – of all families
with children aged under 15
%
16.6
16.3
17.7
19.5
19.3
18.6
19.3
20.3
19.3
20.3
18.7
13Families with at least one child
aged under 5 – of all families
with children aged under 15
%
47.4
47.7
47.8
46.2
45.0
r46.1
44.9
43.9
44.8
45.1
45.0
14Average family size – persons
no.
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
15Children aged under 15 living
in one-parent families –
of all children aged under 15
%
16.4
16.3
18.0
19.5
19.0
18.2
19.6
20.6
19.8
20.8
18.9
16Persons aged 20–24 living with parents – of all persons aged 20–24
%
r45.5
r45.0
r46.7
r48.4
r47.1
r45.2
45.6
45.6
45.0
46.8
47.1
17Persons aged 25–34 living with parents – of all persons aged 25–34
%
r10.8
10.7
r11.7
r12.5
r11.9
r12.2
12.4
12.5
11.6
12.5
11.9
18Persons aged 15–64 who live
alone – of all persons aged 15–64
%
r7.1
r7.3
r7.6
r7.7
r7.9
r8.1
r8.4
r8.4
r8.6
r8.7
8.5
19Persons aged 65 and over who
live alone – of all persons
aged 65 and over
%
r26.1
r26.2
r26.5
r25.5
r26.2
r27.3
r25.8
r26.8
r26.9
r25.3
26.2
20Children aged 0–17 with a natural parent living elsewhere – of all children aged 0–17(c)
%
n.a.
n.a.
21.2
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
r22.5
n.a.
n.a.

FAMILIES AND WORK

Units
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

Couple families with
children aged under 15 years(b)
21Both parents employed –
of all couple families with
children aged under 15
%
56.2
54.5
54.4
55.6
54.9
56.3
56.8
57.2
57.7
r57.4
60.4
22Neither parent employed –
of all couple families with
children aged under 15
%
8.4
7.9
8.6
8.5
7.9
7.5
7.5
7.2
6.3
r6.3
5.3
23One-parent families with children
aged under 15, parent employed –
of all one-parent families with
children aged under 15
%
43.2
42.8
42.9
42.1
44.0
47.3
46.6
46.3
46.4
48.0
49.3
24Children aged under 15 living in families where no resident
parent is employed –
of all children aged under 15 (d)
%
18.2
16.2
18.6
17.7
n.a.
17.9
17.4
n.a.
16.2
15.7
n.a.

FAMILY FORMATION

Units
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

Registered marriages
25Number of marriages
'000
109.4
106.1
106.7
110.6
114.3
113.4
103.1
105.4
106.4
111.0
n.y.a.
26Crude marriage rate
(per 1,000 population)
rate
6.1
5.8
5.8
5.9
6.0
5.9
5.3
5.4
5.4
5.5
n.y.a.
27Marriages where both partners married for the first time – of all marriages
%
67.5
66.4
66.6
66.7
66.9
66.6
66.9
66.3
66.4
67.2
n.y.a.
28Median age of males at first marriage
years
27.3
27.6
27.8
27.9
28.2
28.5
28.7
29.0
29.2
29.4
n.y.a.
29Median age of females at first marriage
years
25.3
25.7
25.9
26.2
26.4
26.7
26.9
27.1
27.3
27.5
n.y.a.
30Median age at remarriage –
divorced males
years
41.1
41.6
41.8
42.0
42.2
42.7
43.1
43.6
43.6
44.3
n.y.a.
31Median age at remarriage –
divorced females
years
37.6
38.0
38.2
38.4
38.6
39.1
39.5
39.8
40.2
40.7
n.y.a.
Divorce
32Number of divorces
'000
49.7
52.5
51.3
51.4
52.6
49.9
55.3
54.0
53.1
52.7
n.y.a.
33Crude divorce rate
(per 1,000 population)
rate
2.8
2.9
2.8
2.7
2.8
2.6
2.9
2.7
2.7
2.6
n.y.a.
34Median duration of marriage
until final separation
years
7.6
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
8.2
8.3
8.6
8.7
8.7
n.y.a.
35Divorces involving children
aged under 18 years – of all divorces
%
n.a.
53.6
54.0
53.4
53.9
52.7
51.2
49.7
50.1
49.8
n.y.a.
36Children aged under 18
involved in divorce
'000
n.a.
52.5
51.7
51.6
53.4
49.6
53.4
50.5
49.9
49.3
n.y.a.
Fertility
37Births(e)
'000
256.2
253.8
251.8
249.6
248.9
249.6
246.4
251.0
251.2
254.2
n.y.a.
38Total fertility rate (per female)
rate
r1.82
1.80
1.78
1.76
r1.75
1.76
1.73
1.76
1.75
1.77
n.y.a.
39Births to mothers aged under 20 – of all births
%
4.9
4.9
4.9
4.7
4.7
4.6
4.8
4.6
4.3
4.3
n.y.a.
40Births to mothers aged 35 and over – of all births
%
13.7
14.6
15.3
16.1
16.8
17.4
17.8
18.4
19.1
19.9
n.y.a.
41Births outside marriage – of all births
%
26.6
27.4
28.1
28.7
29.2
29.2
30.7
31.3
31.6
32.2
n.y.a.
42Births outside marriage
acknowledged by father –
of all births outside marriage
%
83.3
84.2
85.5
87.1
88.2
88.2
87.9
88.0
88.2
89.2
n.y.a.
43Females aged 35 and over giving
birth for the first time – of all
females aged 35 and over giving birth
%
20.8
21.2
22.4
23.3
23.7
24.7
25.2
25.6
26.2
n.y.a.
n.y.a.
44Median age of mothers at first birth
years
26.9
27.1
27.3
27.5
27.6
27.9
28.0
28.0
28.0
n.y.a.
n.y.a.

CHILD CARE

Units
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

45Children aged under 3 using formal care – of all children aged under 3(f)(g)
%
n.a.
r21.1
n.a.
n.a.
r22.0
n.a.
n.a.
r25.0
n.a.
n.a.
28.2
46Children aged under 3 using informal care – of all children aged under 3(g)
%
n.a.
39.3
n.a.
n.a.
43.0
n.a.
n.a.
36.9
n.a.
n.a.
38.4
47Children aged 3–4 using formal care – of all children aged 3–4(f)(g)
%
n.a.
r27.4
n.a.
n.a.
r34.8
n.a.
n.a.
r41.4
n.a.
n.a.
45.5
48Children aged 3–4 using informal care – of all children aged 3–4(g)
%
n.a.
41.2
n.a.
n.a.
43.2
n.a.
n.a.
36.4
n.a.
n.a.
38.3
49Median weekly hours of care received by children aged under 3 – formal and informal combined(f)
hours
n.a.
12
n.a.
n.a.
11
n.a.
n.a.
r14
n.a.
n.a.
14
50
Median weekly hours of care
received by children aged 3–4 – formal and informal combined(f)
hours
n.a.
r13
n.a.
n.a.
14
n.a.
n.a.
16
n.a.
n.a.
16

COMMUNITY

Units
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005

51Persons aged 18 and over –
volunteer rate in previous 12 months(h)
%
23.6
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
31.8
n.a.
34.4
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
52Carers for person with a disability – of all persons(i)
%
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
12.6
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
13.0
n.a.
n.a.
53Primary carers for person with severe/profound disability – of all persons(i)
%
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
2.4
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
2.4
n.a.
n.a.
58Persons aged 18 and over – attendance rate at any sporting event in previous 12 months
%
43.3
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
46.3
n.a.
n.a.
48.2
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
59Persons aged 18 and over – Participation rate in organised sport in previous 12 months(j)
%
n.a.
n.a.
26.5
28.3
30.3
28.9
n.a.
31.4
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
60Persons aged 18 and over –
attendance rate at live performances in previous 12 months
%
45.5
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
43.3
n.a.
n.a.
46.9
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.


(a) Data from 1995–2000 based on 1996 census. 2001 data based on 2001 census.
(b) From 2001 data includes both opposite-sex and same-sex couple families.
(c) Excludes children with no natural parent living in the household.
(d) Data for this indicator are derived from the Survey of Income and Housing; results are benchmarked by age for children aged 1–4 years and 5–14 years. These data are not necessarily consistent with data for indicator 15, which are derived from the Labour Force Survey and are not benchmarked for people aged less than 15 years.
(e) Based on registered births.
(f) Excludes preschool.
(g) Includes children who used a combination of formal and informal care.
(h) Differences in survey methods and question design influences such as question sequencing and question wording may account for some part of the differences observed in these time series data. For details of differences affecting the 1995 and 2000 estimates see Voluntary Work, Australia, 2000 (ABS cat. no. 4441.0).
(i) Excludes persons living in institutions.
(j) Data for the years from 1997–2000 were collected in four quarters of the financial year ending in year shown and for the year 2002 from March to July. Differences in survey methods and question design influences such as question sequencing and question wording may account for some part of the differences observed in these time series data. For details of differences between 2002 and previous years see Participation in Sport and Physical Activities, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4177.0).

Reference periods:
          Data for indicators 1–3 are at June 30.
          Data for indicators 4–6 and 8–19, 21–23 are at June.
          Data for indicator 7 are at census date.
          Data for indicator 20 are at April 1997 & June 2003.
          Data for indicator 24 are for financial year ending 30 June.
          Data for indicators 25–44 are for the calendar year.

          Data for indicators 45–50 are at March 1996, and June for 1999, 2002 and 2005.
          Data for indicator 51 are at June 1995, through 4 quarters of 2000, and March–July 2002.
          Data for indicators 52–53 are at April–June 1998 and August–November 2003.
          Data for indicators 58 and 60 are at March 1995, April 1999, and March–July 2002.
          Data for indicator 59 are collected through the financial year ending June 1997–2000 and at March–July 2002.
FAMILY AND COMMUNITY: STATE SUMMARY

LIVING ARRANGEMENTS

Units
Years
NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
NT
ACT
Aust.

1Total households(a)(b)
'000
2001
2 455
1 817
1 383
613
724
192
63
120
7 367
2Lone-person households(a)(b)
%
2001
23.9
24.4
23.8
28.0
24.7
27.7
21.3
23.8
24.5
3Households with three or more persons(a)(b)
%
2001
43.9
43.5
41.6
37.5
42.1
37.6
49.9
43.9
42.5
4Total families
'000
2005
1 844
1 387
1 122
428
553
136
39
87
5 596
5Families with children aged under
15 years
'000
2005
755
531
454
161
223
51
19
34
2 229
6Couple families(c)
'000
2005
1 528
1 153
942
357
463
113
31
73
4 660
7De facto couple families – of all couple families
%
2001
11.5
11.1
14.0
12.4
14.3
14.3
23.2
14.3
12.4
8Couple-only families – of all couple families(c)
%
2005
43.2
45.2
49.3
49.2
47.2
51.4
45.3
45.1
46.0
9Couple-only families with female partner aged under 40 years – of all couple only families(c)
%
2005
21.0
24.3
24.0
18.9
24.7
18.7
34.0
28.1
22.7
10Couple families with children aged under 15 – of all families with children aged under 15(c)
%
2005
78.6
80.5
78.1
76.2
78.4
74.5
73.1
79.4
78.6
11Lone-father families with children aged under 15 – of all families with children aged under 15
%
2005
3.0
2.6
2.4
2.9
2.1
3.4
4.8
1.4
2.7
12Lone-mother families with children aged under 15 – of all families with children aged under 15
%
2005
18.4
16.9
19.4
20.9
19.4
22.1
22.1
19.3
18.7
13Families with at least one child aged under 5 – of all families with children aged under 15
%
2005
44.4
45.2
46.5
43.4
46.2
39.9
41.4
41.8
45.0
14Average family size – persons
no.
2005
3.1
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
2.9
3.1
3.0
3.0
15Children aged under 15 living in one-parent families – of all children aged under 15
%
2005
18.1
18.1
19.6
21.4
19.3
21.2
25.1
17.9
18.9
16Persons aged 20–24 living with parents – of all persons aged 20–24
%
2005
52.3
52.6
34.7
48.8
41.9
43.5
26.8
44.3
47.1
17Persons aged 25–34 living with parents – of all persons aged 25–34
%
2005
13.9
14.3
6.8
10.9
9.8
10.6
9.9
11.3
11.9
18Persons aged 15–64 who live alone –
of all persons aged 15–64
%
2005
8.3
8.2
7.6
10.4
9.7
9.9
8.2
8.0
8.5
19Persons aged 65 and over who live alone – of all persons aged 65 and over
%
2005
25.5
25.6
24.0
32.6
28.2
27.9
24.6
25.6
26.2
20Children aged 0–17 with a natural parent living elsewhere – of all children 0–17(d)
%
2003
r21.8
r20.0
r24.6
r26.7
r21.2
r28.7
r21.3
r26.8
r22.5

FAMILIES AND WORK

Units
Years
NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
NT
ACT
Aust.

Couple families with
children aged under 15 years(c)
21Both parents employed – of all couple families with children aged under 15
%
2005
60.1
60.0
61.6
62.6
55.2
58.1
76.8
76.0
60.4
22Neither parent employed – of all couple families with children aged under 15
%
2005
5.3
5.1
5.1
5.2
6.2
8.8
*2.6
*1.5
5.3
23One-parent families with children
aged under 15, parent employed –
of all one-parent families with children aged under 15
%
2005
52.0
46.3
46.2
50.3
53.2
42.0
43.5
62.0
49.3
24Children aged under 15 living in families where no resident parent is employed – of all children aged under 15(e)
%
2003–04
15.7
13.1
17.3
17.1
16.5
24.4
*15.4
*8.0
15.7

FAMILY FORMATION

Units
Years
NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
NT
ACT
Aust.

Registered marriages
25Number of marriages
'000
2004
37.4
25.6
24.3
7.9
10.6
2.6
0.8
1.7
111.0
26Crude marriage rate (per 1,000 population)
rate
2004
5.6
5.2
6.3
5.1
5.4
5.5
3.9
5.3
5.5
27Marriages where both partners married for the first time – of all marriages
%
2004
69.2
69.9
63.6
65.1
66.1
58.6
61.3
67.8
67.2
28Median age of males at first marriage
years
2004
29.2
29.6
29.4
29.2
29.6
29.8
30.2
29.1
29.4
29Median age of females at first marriage
years
2004
27.4
28.0
27.3
27.0
27.6
27.9
28.1
27.3
27.5
30Median age at remarriage – divorced males
years
2004
43.8
43.8
44.1
45.6
45.5
44.2
45.8
44.4
44.3
31Median age at remarriage – divorced females
years
2004
40.4
39.7
40.3
43.0
41.8
41.8
41.7
41.0
40.7
Divorce
32Number of divorces
'000
2004
15.0
12.5
13.3
4.1
4.3
1.4
0.4
1.6
52.7
33Crude divorce rate (per 1,000 population)(f)
rate
2004
2.2
2.5
3.4
2.7
2.2
2.9
2.2
n.a.
2.6
34Median duration of marriage until final separation
years
2004
7.6
8.8
9.1
10.0
9.1
10.6
8.0
9.7
8.7
35Divorces involving children aged under 18 – of all divorces
%
2004
46.7
49.8
53.0
51.8
49.8
52.1
50.2
45.6
49.8
36Children aged under 18 involved in divorce
'000
2004
12.8
11.7
13.5
4.0
4.0
1.4
0.4
1.4
49.3
Fertility
37Births(g)
'000
2004
85.9
62.4
49.9
17.1
25.3
5.8
3.6
4.2
254.2
38Total fertility rate (per female)
rate
2004
1.79
1.70
1.81
1.71
1.81
1.93
2.24
1.64
1.77
39Births to mothers aged under 20 –
of all births
%
2004
3.9
2.7
5.8
4.0
5.4
6.8
11.3
2.3
4.3
40Births to mothers aged 35 and over –
of all births
%
2004
20.1
22.4
17.3
20.7
18.5
15.3
15.8
25.8
19.9
41Births outside marriage – of all births
%
2004
28.5
26.8
37.8
35.6
37.3
46.3
64.3
27.8
32.2
42Births outside marriage acknowledged by father – of all births outside marriage
%
2004
88.2
92.9
89.6
90.9
89.7
85.4
65.0
91.2
89.2

CHILD CARE

Units
Years
NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
NT(h)
ACT
Aust.

45Children aged under 3 using formal care – of all children aged under 3(i)(j)
%
2005
25.9
23.4
36.9
25.3
28.9
32.3
*40.8
40.1
28.2
46Children aged under 3 using informal care – of all children aged under 3(j)
%
2005
41.9
37.3
32.5
43.5
37.3
38.3
*28.6
46.0
38.4
47Children aged 3–4 using formal care – of all children aged 3–4(i)(j)
%
2005
46.0
42.6
53.7
38.8
36.0
49.1
*42.6
58.6
45.5
48Children aged 3–4 using informal care – of all children aged 3–4(j)
%
2005
38.2
43.4
30.7
50.6
35.0
35.1
*29.4
35.3
38.3
49Median weekly hours of care received by children aged under 3 – formal and informal combined (i)
hours
2005
16
12
16
12
10
14
25
17
14
50Median weekly hours of care received by children aged 3–4 – formal and informal combined (i)
hours
2005
18
12
18
11
15
12
30
20
16

COMMUNITY

Units
Years
NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
NT(h)
ACT
Aust.

51Persons aged 18 and over – volunteer rate in the previous 12 months
%
2002
33.4
33.3
35.7
34.7
35.6
37.0
39.5
41.4
34.4
52Carers for person with a disability – of all persons(k)
%
2003
11.4
14.1
14.3
14.8
12.7
14.8
n.a.
10.8
13.0
53Primary carers for person with severe/profound disability – of all persons(k)
%
2003
2.3
2.4
3.0
2.5
2.0
3.1
n.a.
1.2
2.4
54Contact with family or friends living outside the household in last week – of all persons aged 18 and over
%
2002
94.8
95.4
95.4
96.6
96.4
96.5
95.6
98.0
95.4
55Persons who feel unsafe or very unsafe at home alone after dark –
of all persons aged 18 and over
%
2002
7.4
8.6
8.7
9.5
10.5
7.4
10.1
6.5
8.4
56Could ask for small favours from persons living outside the household – of all persons aged 18 and over
%
2002
92.4
92.2
94.3
95.1
95.3
95.3
94.3
95.4
93.3
57Persons able to ask for support in time of crisis from persons living outside the household – of all persons aged 18 and over
%
2002
93.2
93.4
94.8
95.3
95.0
96.0
94.1
96.5
94.0
58Persons aged 18 and over – attendance rate at any sport in previous 12 months
%
2002
43.7
51.6
46.8
51.9
53.5
47.0
56.7
55.7
48.2
59Persons aged 18 and over –
participation rate in organised sport in previous 12 months
%
2002
31.1
32.2
32.3
30.7
38.2
32.2
36.6
40.8
31.4
60Persons aged 18 and over –
attendance rate at live performances in previous 12 months
%
2002
47.9
47.9
44.1
42.9
48.1
43.5
47.1
59.1
46.9

(a) Based on 2001 census data.
(b) Australian total does not include other territories.
(c) Includes both opposite-sex and same-sex couple families.
(d) Excludes children with no natural parent living in the household.
(e) Data for this indicator are derived from the Survey of Income and Housing; results are benchmarked by age for children aged 1–4 years and 5–14 years. These data are not necessarily consistent with data for indicator 15, which are derived from the Labour Force Survey and are not benchmarked for people aged less than 15 years.
(f) Based on the location of the Family Court where the divorce is granted and registered. Due to the large number of divorces granted in the Australian Capital Territory to usual residents of another state, the divorce rate for the Australian Capital Territory is not representative of the Australian Capital Territory population.
(g) Based on registered births.
(h) Estimates for the Northern Territory refer to mainly urban areas only.
(i) Excludes preschool.
(j) Includes children who used a combination of formal and informal care.
(k) Excludes persons living in institutions.

Reference periods:
    Data for indicators 1–3 are at June 30.
    Data for indicators 4–6, 8–19 and 21–23 are at June.
    Data for indicator 7 are at census date.
    Data for indicator 20 are at June 2003.
    Data for indicator 24 are for financial year ending 30 June.

    Data for indicators 25–42 are for the calendar year.
    Data for indicators 45–50 are at June 2005.
    Data for indicators 51 and 54–60 are at March–July 2002.
    Data for indicators 52–53 are at August–November 2003.




FAMILY AND COMMUNITY: DATA SOURCES

Indicators Data source

1–3Australian Demographic Statistics (ABS cat. no. 3101.0).
4–6, 8–19, 21–23ABS Labour Force Survey.
7ABS 2001 Census of Population and Housing.
20ABS Family Characteristics Survey; Family Characteristic, Australia, June 2003 (ABS cat. no. 4442.0).
24ABS Surveys of Income and Housing.
25–26Australian Demographic Statistics (ABS cat. no. 3101.0); Marriages, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3301.0).
27–31Marriages, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3301.0).
32–33Australian Demographic Statistics (ABS cat. no. 3101.0); Divorces, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3307.0.55.001).
34–36Divorces, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3307.0.55.001).
37–38Australian Demographic Statistics (ABS cat. no. 3101.0); ABS Births Collection.
39–42ABS Births Collection.
43–44National Perinatal Data Collection, AIHW National Perinatal Statistics Unit.
45–50ABS Child Care Survey.
51General Social Survey: Summary Results, Australia 2002 (ABS cat. no. 4159.0); Voluntary Work 2000 (ABS cat. no. 4441.0); Voluntary Work Survey 1995 (reprocessed).
52–53ABS Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers; Disability, Ageing and Carers Australia: Summary of Findings (ABS cat.no. 4430.0).
54–58, 60General Social Survey: Summary Results, Australia 2002 (ABS cat. no. 4159.0).
59Participation in Sport and Physical Activities, Australia 1999–2000 and 2002 (ABS cat. no. 4177.0).
59 (state)ABS General Social Survey, 2002.
60ABS Survey of Attendance at Selected Culture and Leisure Venues 1995 and 1999.



FAMILY AND COMMUNITY: DEFINITIONS

Average family size
for any group of families, the total number of family members divided by the number of families in the group.
Reference: Labour Force Status and Other Characteristics of Families (ABS cat. no. 6224.0).

Births
live births registered in that year. A live birth is the delivery of a child irrespective of the duration of pregnancy who, after being born, breathes or shows any evidence of life such as a heartbeat.
Reference: Births, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3301.0).

Births outside marriage
is the birth of a child whose parents are not legally married to each other at the time of the child's birth. Also known as exnuptial births.
Reference: Births, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3301.0).

Births outside marriage acknowledged by the father
births outside registered marriage where the father's name is recorded on the birth certificate. Also known as paternity-acknowledged birth.
Reference: Births, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3301.0).

Carer
a carer is a person of any age who provides any informal assistance, in terms of help or supervision, to persons with disabilities or long-term conditions, or older persons (i.e. aged 60 years and over). This assistance has to be ongoing, or likely to be ongoing, for at least six months.
Reference: Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia: Summary of Findings (ABS cat. no. 4430.0).

Child aged under 15 years
a related or unrelated person aged under 15 years who forms a parent-child relationship with one person aged 15 years or over resident in the household.
Reference: Family Characteristics, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4442.0).

Couple family
a family based on two persons who are in a registered or de facto marriage and who are usually resident in the same household. The family may include any number of dependants, non-dependants and other related individuals. It is not necessary for a parent-child relationship to be formed, thus a couple family can consist of a couple without children present in the household.
Reference: Family Characteristics, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4442.0).

Couple-only family
a couple family with no children (of any age) present.

Crude divorce rate
the number of decrees absolute granted during the calendar year per 1,000 estimated resident population at 30 June. It should be noted that for divorce rates relating to state and territory data, the numerator and denominator are based upon different types of data, reducing the accuracy. While state or territory of usual residence is used as the denominator, the numerator is based upon state or territory of registration. Therefore, divorce applicants may contribute to the divorce rates of states and territories where they are not usual residents.
Reference: Divorces, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3307.0.55.001).

Crude marriage rate
is the number of marriages registered during the calendar year per 1,000 estimated resident population at 30 June. In the interpretation of this rate, it must be kept in mind that a large and varying proportion of the population used in the denominator is below the minimum age of marriage or is already married.
Reference: Marriages, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3306.055.001).

De facto couple
two people (of the same or opposite sex) who live together in the same household who are not registered as married to each other but reported being either: de facto, partner, common law husband/wife/spouse, lover, boyfriend or girlfriend.
Reference: 2001 Census of Population and Housing.

Divorce
decree absolute of dissolution of a registered marriage.
Reference: Divorces, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3307.0.55.001).

Divorces involving children
divorces of couples with unmarried children of the registered marriage who were aged under 18 years at the time of application for divorce. Under the Family Act 1975, adopted and ex-nuptial children and children from a former registered marriage may be included (in certain cases). Children who are registered as married or aged 18 years and over are not subject to custody and guardianship orders and are excluded.
Reference: Divorces, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3307.0.55.001).

Duration of marriage until separation
the interval measured in complete years between the date of marriage and the date of separation.
Reference: Divorces, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3307.0.55.001).

Employed person
persons aged 15 years and over who either worked for one hour or more during the reference week for pay, profit, commission, payment in kind or without pay for one hour or more in a family business, or who had a job but were not at work. Also includes employers, own account workers or contributing family workers who had a job, business or farm, but were not at work.
Reference: Australian Labour Market Statistics (ABS cat. no. 6105.0).

Estimated resident population
the official measure of the population of Australia based on the concept of residence. It refers to all people, regardless of nationality or citizenship, who usually live in Australia, with the exception of foreign diplomatic personnel and their families. It includes usual residents who are overseas for less than 12 months. It excludes overseas residents who are in Australia for less than
12 months.

Reference: Australian Demographic Statistics (ABS cat. no. 3101.0).

Family
two or more persons, one of whom is aged 15 years or over, who are related by blood, marriage (registered or de facto), adoption, step or fostering; and who are usually resident in the same household. The basis of a family is formed by identifying the presence of a couple relationship, lone parent-child relationship or other blood relationship. Some households will, therefore, contain more than one family.
Reference: Australian Labour Market Statistics (ABS cat. no. 6105.0).

Feels unsafe at home
feels very unsafe or unsafe at home alone after dark.
Reference: General Social Survey (ABS cat. no. 4159.0).

Formal child care
regulated care, away from the child's home. The main types of formal care are: before and after school care; long-day care; family day care and occasional care.
Reference: Child Care, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4402.0).

Has contact with family or friends
has contact with family and friends at least once a week, either face to face or by other means of communication.
Reference: General Social Survey (ABS cat. no. 4159.0).

Has source of support in time of crisis
the expectation that support would be available in time of crisis from friends, family or organisations. Types of support may include advice on what to do, emotional support, help during an illness or with maintaining family or work responsibilities, or support with money, accommodation or food.
Reference: General Social Survey (ABS cat. no. 4159.0).

Household
a group of two or more related or unrelated people who usually reside in the same private dwelling, or a person living alone in a private dwelling. Households include group households of unrelated persons, same-sex couple households, single-parent households as well as one-person households. A household usually resides in a private dwelling (including caravans etc. in caravan parks). Persons usually resident in non-private dwellings, such as hotels, motels, boarding houses, jails and hospitals, are not included in household estimates. This definition of a household is consistent with the definition used in the census.
Reference: Australian Demographic Statistics (ABS cat. no. 3101.0).

Informal assistance
informal assistance is unpaid help or supervision that is provided to persons with one or more disabilities or persons aged 60 years and over living in households. It includes only assistance that is provided for one or more of the tasks associated with the activities of communication, mobility, self care, health care, paperwork, transport, housework, meal preparation, light property maintenance and cognition or emotion because of a person's disability or age. Informal assistance may be provided by family, friends or neighbours. For the Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers, any assistance received from family or friends living in the same household was considered to be informal assistance regardless of whether or not the provider was paid.
Reference: Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia: Summary of Findings (ABS cat. no. 4430.0).

Informal child care
non-regulated care, arranged by the child's parent/guardian, either in the child's home or elsewhere. It comprises care by (step) brothers or sisters, care by grandparents, care by other relatives including a parent living elsewhere and care by other (unrelated) people such as friends, neighbours, nannies or babysitters. It may be paid or unpaid.
Reference: Child Care, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4402.0).

Is able to ask for small favours
examples of small favours are looking after pets, watering your garden, collecting mail or checking your house while you are away from home, minding a child for a brief period, help with moving or lifting objects, help out when you are sick or injured, or lending equipment.
Reference: General Social Survey (ABS cat. no. 4159.0).

Live performance
these performances comprise the following events: popular music concerts; classical music concerts; dance performances, theatre performances; operas and musicals.
Reference: Attendance at Selected Cultural Venues and Events (ABS cat. no. 4114.0).

Lone parent
a person who has no spouse or partner present in the household but who forms a parent-child relationship with at least one dependent or non-dependent child usually resident in the household.
Reference: Australian Labour Market Statistics (ABS cat. no. 6105.0).

Lone person
a person who makes provision for their food and other essentials for living without combining with any other person to form part of a multi-person household. They may live in a dwelling on their own or share a dwelling with another individual or family.
Reference: Australian Labour Market Statistics , Australia (ABS cat. no. 6105.0).

Marriage
refers to registered marriages only.
Reference: Marriages, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3306.0.55.001).

Median
the value at which half the population falls above and half falls below.

Median age
the age at which half the population is older and half is younger.
Reference: Population by Age and Sex, Australian States and Territories (ABS cat. no. 3201.0).

Median age of mothers at first birth
the median age of mothers at the end of first confinement. A confinement is a pregnancy which results in at least one live birth: multiple births (e.g. twins) may be involved.
Reference: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Australia's Mothers and Babies (1996).

Median hours of care
is defined as the number of hours a child attended child care in the survey reference week. Median hours of care is the number of hours of care per week at which half the children who received formal and/or informal child care fall below the value and half above.
Reference: Child Care, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4402.0).

Median value
for any distribution, the median value (for example, age, duration) is that value which divides the relevant population into two equal parts, half falling below the value and half exceeding it. Where the value for a particular record has not been stated, that record is excluded from the calculation.

Natural parent
a parent who is related to his or her child(ren) by either birth or adoption.
Reference: Family Characteristics, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4442.0).

Natural parent living elsewhere
one of a child's natural parents who is not usually resident in the same household as the child.
Reference: Family Characteristics, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4442.0).

Non-resident parent
persons aged 15 years and over who have one or more natural children aged 0–17 years living elsewhere.
Reference: Family Characteristics, Australia (ABS cat. no. 4442.0).

One-parent family
a family consisting of a lone parent with at least one dependent or non-dependent child (regardless of age) who is also usually resident in the household.
Reference: Australian Labour Market Statistics (ABS cat. no. 6105.0).

Other Territories
includes Jervis Bay Territory, as well as Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.
Reference: Australian Demographic Statistics (ABS cat. no. 3101.0).

Primary carer
a primary carer is a person who provides the most informal assistance, in terms of help or supervision, to a person with one or more disabilities. The assistance has to be ongoing, or likely to be ongoing, for at least six months and be provided for one or more of the core activities (communication, mobility and self care). In the Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers, primary carers only include persons aged 15 years and over for whom a personal interview was conducted. Persons aged 15 to 17 years were only interviewed personally if parental permission were granted.
Reference: Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia: Summary of Findings (ABS cat. no. 4430.0).

Provides support for other relatives living outside the household
any of the following types of support provided to relatives such as elderly parents, children aged 25 years and over, grandchildren who live outside the household:
  • give money to pay rent and/or other housing costs
  • give money to pay bills or meet debt
  • provide or pay for food
  • provide or pay for clothing
  • let them borrow the car
  • drive them places
  • pay for educational costs or textbooks
  • provide pocket money or an allowance
  • buy or give them money to buy big cost items such as a car, computer, sound system, etc.
Reference: General Social Survey, Summary Results, 2002 (ABS cat. no. 4159.0).

Registered marriage
formally registered marriage for which the partners hold a marriage certificate.
Reference: Marriages, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3306.0.55.001).

Total fertility rate
the sum of age-specific fertility rates (live births at each age of mother per female population of that age). It represents the number of children a female would bear during her lifetime if she experienced current age-specific fertility rates throughout her reproductive life.
Reference: Births, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3301.0).

Volunteer
a volunteer is someone who willingly gave unpaid help in the form of time, service or skills, through an organisation or group, in the previous 12 months.
Reference: Voluntary Work (ABS cat. no. 4441.0).

Volunteer rate
for any group, the volunteer rate is the number of volunteers in that group expressed as a proportion of the total population in that same group.
Reference: Voluntary Work (ABS cat. no. 4441.0).


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