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Labour Statistics: Concepts, Sources and Methods was originally released in 2001 in both electronic and paper versions (cat. no. 6102.0). The paper publication will not be rereleased. However, the web version (cat. no. 6102.0.55.001) is being updated on an ongoing basis. This chapter was updated on 20 April 2005.
28.4 Data can also be cross-classified by: state/territory; sector (public, private); level of government (Commonwealth, State, Local); industry (4 digit ANZSIC); employer size; sex; age (under 18 years, 18 to under 21 years, 21 years and over); full-time/part-time; adult/junior; managerial/non-managerial; type of employee (permanent or fixed-term, casual); status of employee (working proprietor, managerial/executive, other employee); and occupation (4 digit ASCO).
28.5 Data on how employees' pay was set in the reference period have been collected in the survey since May 2000. Data are available on: number of, and average weekly total earnings of, employees whose pay is set by each pay setting method.
28.6 Data are compiled according to the concepts and definitions outlined in Chapter 4 (employees), Chapter 11 (earnings) and Chapter 12 (pay setting methods).
28.7 For the first-stage sample of employing businesses, the standard scope exclusions for ABS labour-related business surveys (outlined in Chapter 23) apply to this survey.
28.8 The scope of the second-stage sample is restricted to civilian employees based in Australia who received payments during the survey reference period. Self-employed persons (such as proprietors/partners of unincorporated businesses), employees who did not receive pay during the reference period (such as persons on unpaid leave), employees based outside Australia, and members of the Australian permanent defence forces are not in scope of the survey.
28.9 Detailed information is obtained about a sample of employees from each selected organisation using a mail-out/mail-back collection methodology.
28.10 The survey reference period is the last pay period ending on or before the third Friday in May of the survey year.
28.11 Businesses that do not mail back their completed questionnaire within a reasonable period of time after the survey reference date are followed up by mail and then phone if necessary.
28.12 The survey uses a two-stage sample selection approach. The first stage involves selecting a probability sample of employer units from the ABS Business Register. The sampling unit for the first stage comprises all activities of an employer in a particular state or territory based on the Australian Business Number (ABN) unit or Type of Activity Unit (TAU). The collection and reporting units used in the survey usually correspond to the sampling unit. However, where the ABN/TAU unit is unable to provide information required for the survey, it may be split into a number of 'reporting units'. For further information on statistical units used in ABS business surveys refer to Chapter 23.
28.13 In the second stage, businesses selected in the first stage are asked to select a sample of employees from their payrolls using instructions provided by the ABS.
FIRST STAGE SAMPLE SELECTION
28.14 A probability sample of employing businesses (ABN/TAU units) is drawn from the ABS Business Register using the process outlined in Chapter 23. Variables used to stratify the survey frame at stage one of the sample selection are:
28.15 Strata on the survey frame that are completely enumerated include those containing selection units with benchmark employment greater than a set cut-off (this cut-off will vary for different states/territories) and strata with a very small number of selection units in the population.
28.16 In addition to constraints outlined in Chapter 23, sample selection is constrained by the need to minimise overlap with the quarterly Survey of Average Weekly Earnings, for businesses with more than 20 employees.
SECOND STAGE SAMPLE SELECTION
28.17 Second-stage sampling units (employees) are selected using systematic sampling within selected first-stage units. A random start and a skip are provided to each selected business for use in selecting the second-stage sample from its payroll(s). Businesses with an unknown employment size are given a skip of one. Businesses are not required to order their payroll in any particular way when selecting the sample.
SAMPLE SIZE AND ALLOCATION
28.18 For the first-stage sample, approximately 9,000 employer units are selected to yield a live sample of approximately 6,800 units.
28.19 For the second-stage sample, approximately 55,000 employees contribute to the estimates. The maximum number of employees for any reporting unit is 40.
28.20 The ABS reselects the sample for the Survey of Employee Earnings and Hours each time it is conducted. At the same time the overall design of the sample is examined to ensure that it remains efficient.
28.21 The estimation process occurs in two stages. In the first stage, number raised estimation is used to estimate the number of employees in each business. In the second stage, number raised estimation is again used to estimate the total number of businesses, and therefore employees, in the target population.
28.22 In the sampled strata, the Live Respondent Mean method is used to impute for non-responding businesses. In the completely enumerated strata a ratio imputation model is used.
28.23 Survey outliers are handled using the 'surprise outlier' technique.
28.24 Business Provisions were introduced in the 2000 survey whereby adjustments are made to survey estimates to allow for births and deaths of businesses that have occurred up to the end of the survey reference period but which are not reflected on the survey frame.
28.25 For further information on estimation methods used in ABS Business Surveys, refer to Chapter 23.
TIME SERIES ESTIMATES
28.26 Seasonally adjusted and trend estimates are not produced for this survey.
RELIABILITY OF THE ESTIMATES
28.27 Estimates from the survey are subject to both sampling and non-sampling error. The standard errors of survey estimates are published in both Employee Earnings and Hours, Australia, Preliminary (cat. no. 6305.0.55.001) and Employee Earnings and Hours, Australia (cat. no. 6306.0).
28.28 Both the Ultimate Cluster Variance (UCV) technique and the grouped jack-knife method are used to calculate estimates of variance for this survey. For further information on variance estimation techniques, or on sampling and non-sampling error, refer to Chapter 16.
DATA COMPARABILITY OVER TIME
28.29 Although many estimates from previous years or collection cycles are produced on a consistent basis, care should be taken in using data from this survey on a time series basis. The survey is designed to give an accurate 'snapshot' of data rather than an ongoing series of observations over time. Hence the survey methodology and sample design are not specifically set up to provide time series data, i.e. the sample is not set up to have the same employee jobs in it for more than one cycle. Nevertheless, average weekly earnings and hours paid for data at aggregate levels are compiled in a consistent manner over time, although successive estimates would not be strongly correlated because of low sample overlap.
28.30 The following changes have been made to survey methods, survey concepts, data item definitions, and frequency of collection.
28.31 For further details contact the Assistant Director, Labour Employer Surveys, on Perth (08) 9360 5374.