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2901.0 - Census Dictionary, 2001  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 24/04/2001   
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Contents

Data Processing
Data Processing Centre
Data quality
Data release
Date of the Census
De facto
De facto population counts
De jure population counts
Dependent child type
Dependent child
Dependent Children, Count of (CDCAF)
Dependent foster child
Dependent offspring
Dependent student
Derivations and imputations
Desktop mapping packages
Destination zone
Digital base map data
Digital boundaries
Digital spatial data
Digital topography
Diplomatic representatives and dwellings
Directory of Census Statistics
Division
Divorced
Dwelling
Dwelling Location (DLOD)
Dwelling Structure (STRD)
Dwelling Type (DWTD)
Dwelling variables

Data processing

Completed census forms are delivered to the Data Processing Centre (DPC) as soon as possible after Census Night. They are then put through a number of processes.

The first processing stage in the 2001 Census is precapture. During this process forms are checked to ensure key fields have been completed and extraneous material removed. The forms are then prepared for data capture.

The data capture stage is the second stage of input processing. This stage encompasses a number of processes, including:

  • Scanning, which captures an image of each page of each form;
  • Intelligent Character Recognition (ICR), which converts any tick box or hand-written responses found on an image into machine processable information;
  • Repair, which is a mixture of automatic and clerical processes aimed at correcting any data not confidently captured by ICR;
  • Balancing, which ensures that the number of dwelling and associated person(s) provided to the data processing centre have been captured by Scanning and ICR. Once this stage is completed, the forms and record books are stored and are not included in further processing stages.

The second stage includes Automatic Coding and Computer Assisted Coding (CAC). All hand-written textual responses are examined automatically to see if a classification code can be allocated based on the response provided. Where a classification code cannot be allocated automatically, CAC is used to allocate the classification code.

Quality control checks are constantly made for coding accuracy. The editing process is largely automatic, with some fields being reset based on other responses on the individual census forms. All census data are extensively validated before data are released.

See also Derivations and imputations, First release data, Intelligent Character Recognition (ICR), Second release data.

Data Processing Centre

The Data Processing Centre (DPC) is the central site where the capture and data entry of census forms takes place. After census forms have been completed on Census Night, they are collected and returned to the State distribution offices or sent directly to the DPC.

Located in Sydney for the 2001 Census, the DPC employs approximately 1000 temporary staff during peak processing time.

See also Confidentiality, Data processing, Retention of name-identified information.

Data quality

Each stage of the Census is subject to stringent quality assurance procedures which result in data of high quality. However, in a census there are recognised sources of error and some of these may survive in the data produced. Potential sources of error in the Census are: undercounting, respondent error, processing error and introduced random error. Introduced random error is used to protect the confidentiality of individuals. The effect of such errors on overall census results is generally insignificant and does not impair the usefulness of census data.

A series of working papers will be produced to assess and report on various aspects of 2001 Census data quality. Census topics will be examined in detail and the impact of form design, collection procedures and data processing on data quality will be evaluated. Some topics to be evaluated include Labour Force Status, Census Undercount, and Housing.

In addition, the ABS publishes census Fact Sheets which assist users to understand and interpret census data. They will be published in response to issues that arise during and after the publication of census data. Some issues which may be covered include Income Imputation, Confidentiality, and Changes to variables between censuses.

See also Derivations and imputations, Data processing, Introduced random error, Undercounting and/or underenumeration.

Data release

There is a two-phase approach to processing and release of census data. Easy-to-process topics, which comprise the majority of the census topics, are included in the first release of the data. These include the critical counts for persons and dwellings for Collection Districts. The remaining topics, which require more complex processing, are included in the second release. See also CDATA2001, Community Profile Series, First release data, Publications, Second release data.

Date of the Census

The date of the 2001 Census is Tuesday 7th August 2001.

De facto

See Place of enumeration, Marital status.

De facto population counts

See Place of enumeration.

De jure population counts

See Place of usual residence.

Dependent child type

See Child Type (CTPP), Family.

Dependent child

See Child.

Dependent Children, Count of (CDCAF)

See Child, Household, Temporarily absent.

Dependent foster child

See Child, Dependent Child, Foster Child.

Dependent offspring

See Child, Relationship.

Dependent student

See Child.

Derivations and imputations

Some census data need to be derived in cases where a question has not been answered. Some variables for which data may be derived include Birthplace of Individual (BPLP), Birthplace of Male Parent (BPMP), Birthplace of Female Parent (BPFP), Language Spoken at Home (LANP) and Indigenous Status (INGP). If there is insufficient information provided to derive an entry for these items, they are categorised as ‘Not stated’.

Derivation is also used to create some variables from responses to several questions. These include: Housing Loan Repayments (HLRD), Rent (RNTD), Tenure Type (TEND) and Labour Force Status/Status in Employment (LFSP).

Where questions have not been answered on the census form, the following variables are always imputed: Age (AGEP), Sex (SEXP), Registered Marital Status (MSTP), State of Usual Residence Census Night (STEUCP) and SLA of Usual Residence Census Night (SLAUCP). There is no ‘Not stated’ category for these variables. Where the information cannot be derived from other data provided on the census form, data is imputed on the basis of distributions obtained from previous censuses.

See also Age (AGEP), Data processing, Labour Force Status/Status in Employment (LFSP), Registered Marital Status (MSTP), Sex (SEXP), Usual address.

Desktop mapping packages

Software packages which run on personal computers, and have the ability to process spatial geographic data.

Destination zone

See Journey to Work (JTW).

Digital base map data

Spatial features of a map are represented as objects and stored in computer files as points, lines and regions. Aspatial data such as the names of features can be associated with these objects.

The 2001 Census digital base map data are being provided under an agreement between the ABS and the Public Sector Mapping Agencies (PSMA).

The 2001 Census digital base maps include:

  • 2001 PSMA All-point Base Map; and
  • 2001 PSMA Reduced Base Map.

The ABS wants to ensure that its clients have access to the digital base maps as it recognises the importance they have for many clients: firstly, in underpinning the 2001 Census digital boundaries; and secondly, in the further dimensions that they add to the analysis that many ABS clients wish to undertake.

The PSMA has ownership of the PSMA digital base maps. The 2001 PSMA Reduced Base Map is available from the ABS as an option in CDATA2001. The ABS only sells the base map data in conjunction with the CDATA2001 and IRDB products. It does not sell the digital base map separately.

The 2001 PSMA Reduced Base Map is compatible with the Geocentric Datum Australia (GDA94). Detailed product information, such as quality indicators and content details, can be obtained from the PSMA, or in the case of CDATA2001 the ABS.

The PSMA dissemination strategy for the 2001 PSMA digital base maps ties in closely with the ABS strategy for dissemination of the 2001 Census digital boundaries (see above). The digital base maps are available from selected organisations in the ABS network of secondary providers as well as other resellers appointed by the PSMA.

See also CDATA2001, Digital boundaries, Public Sector Mapping Agencies (PSMA).

Digital boundaries

The 2001 Census digital boundaries facilitate the analysis and display of 2001 Census statistical data through their use in various software packages. Statistical data from other ABS collections, or from other sources, can be used in conjunction with these boundaries.

The 2001 Census boundaries align with the 2001 PSMA All-Point Base Map and the 2001 PSMA Reduced Base Map. The data quality and spatial accuracy of these boundaries are closely linked to the digital base map upon which they were based. They do not necessarily align with any other digital base maps.

When using these boundaries, users should be aware that, as a result of limitations of scale and accuracy of the original base map, they are not exact in area and extent. They therefore should not be used for highly detailed spatial analysis involving attributes that are highly dependant on area and extent factors.

The 2001 PSMA Reduced Base Map and 2001 Census boundaries are compatible with Geocentric Datum Australia (GDA94).

Dissemination of boundaries: The dissemination of the 2001 Census digital boundaries is through the ABS and a network of ABS-appointed secondary providers. The ABS provides boundaries in Mapinfo (.tab) or Mapinfo interchange format (.mid .mif). Each secondary provider has a non-exclusive license to distribute, and provide after sales support for, a set of nominated file formats. It has been the intention of the ABS that all common industry formats be covered by at least one supplier with experience in that format.

Statistical data for use in conjunction with the 2001 Census digital boundaries can be obtained from ABS Information Consultancy.

Use with alternative digital base maps: The 2001 Census boundaries may be used in conjunction with base map data other than the recommended PSMA base map, however, alignment of boundaries to these alternative base maps cannot be assumed.

If the alternative base map is not derived from the same digitising source then the points defining each of the corresponding features is different and the boundaries will not align perfectly.

The original PSMA base map is spatially accurate to different tolerances in urban and rural areas. If an alternative base map has different spatial accuracy characteristics then the boundaries cannot be expected to align.

The GDA94 datum used for both Census boundaries and the PSMA Reduced Base Map is compatible with the Global Positioning System (GPS). However GPS satellite positions may be spatially less accurate than the boundaries in urban areas and more accurate than the boundaries in remote areas. Care should therefore be taken when combining features mapped by GPS with Census boundaries.

Copyright on boundaries: The copyright and intellectual property rights for the 2001 Census digital boundaries are retained solely by the Commonwealth of Australia and are administered by the ABS. Any use of the boundaries is subject to a standard licence agreement to be signed by parties purchasing the boundaries. See also Digital base map data.

Digital spatial data

See Centroid, Digital boundaries, Digital base map data, Census Geographic Areas.

Digital topography

See Digital base map data.

Diplomatic representatives and dwellings

Foreign diplomatic personnel, their families and their dwellings are outside the scope of the Census. This derives from the Vienna Convention. In practice, a diplomat is defined as someone entitled to travel on a diplomatic passport.

Directory of Census Statistics

The Directory of Census Statistics contains a summary of the broad range of publications, electronic products, maps and consultancy services available from the 2001 Census. The products and services are progressively released between 2002 and 2004 as the detailed data becomes available. A brief description (abstract) of the contents of each item is provided, accompanied by details of the geographic coverage, price, availability by medium and ordering services.

Division

See Statistical Division.

Divorced

See Registered Marital Status (MSTP).

Dwelling

In general terms, a dwelling is a structure which is intended to have people live in it, and which is habitable on Census Night. Some examples of dwellings are houses, motels, flats, caravans, prisons, tents, humpies and houseboats.

Private dwellings are enumerated using Household Forms, which obtain family and relationship data. Non-private dwellings (hotels, hospitals etc.) are enumerated on Personal Forms.

All occupied dwellings are counted in the Census. Unoccupied private dwellings are also counted with the exception of unoccupied dwellings in caravan parks, marinas and manufactured home estates, and units in accommodation for the retired or aged (self-care). Unoccupied residences of owners, managers or caretakers of such establishments are counted.

For the 2001 Census unoccupied private dwellings in discrete Indigenous communities will be counted. In prior censuses only occupied private dwellings were counted in these communities.

See also Dwelling Type (DWTD), Dwelling Structure (STRD), Caravans, houseboats, etc., Dwelling Location (DLOD), Household, Type of Non-Private Dwelling (NPDD).

Dwelling Location (DLOD)

Dwelling Location (DLOD) applies to private dwellings, and describes the location of dwellings other than 'typical' private dwellings. The majority of private dwelling will appear in the 'Other' category.

See also Dwelling Structure (STRD), Dwelling Type (DWTD).

Dwelling Structure (STRD)

This variable classifies the structure of private dwellings enumerated in the Census. The information is determined by the census collector.

Data on dwelling structure are used to monitor changes in housing characteristics, to help formulate housing policies and to review existing housing stock.

The broad categories are:

  • Separate house: This is a house which stands alone in its own grounds separated from other dwellings by at least half a metre. A separate house may have a flat attached to it, such as a granny flat or converted garage (the flat is categorised under Flat, unit or apartment — see below). The number of storeys of separate houses is not recorded.

Also included in this category are occupied accommodation units in manufactured home estates which are identified as separate houses.

  • Semi-detached, row or terrace house, townhouse, etc.: These dwellings have their own private grounds and no other dwelling above or below them.
  • Flat, unit or apartment: This category includes all dwellings in blocks of flats, units or apartments. These dwellings do not have their own private grounds and usually share a common entrance foyer or stairwell. This category also includes flats attached to houses such as granny flats, and houses converted into two or more flats.

    For the 2001 Census there have been some changes to classification procedures for private apartments within non-private dwellings. This may result in changes to the counts of private dwellings in some areas.

  • Caravan, cabin, houseboat: This category includes all occupied caravans, cabins and houseboats regardless of location. It also includes occupied campervans, mobile houses and small boats.

    Separate houses in caravan parks or marinas occupied by managers are not included in this category.

  • Improvised home, tent, sleepers out: This category includes sheds, tents, humpies and other improvised dwellings, occupied on Census Night. It includes caravans occupied on Census Night and located in roadside parking areas. It also includes people sleeping on park benches or in other 'rough' accommodation (the traditional definition of homeless people).
  • House or flat attached to a shop, office, etc.: A house or flat attached to a shop, office, factory or any other non-residential structure is included in this category.

    See also Caravans, houseboats, etc. Dwelling, Dwelling Location (DLOD), Dwelling Type (DWTD), Tenure Type (TEND), Type of Non-Private Dwelling (NPDD).

    Dwelling Type (DWTD)

    This variable classifies all dwellings into the basic dwelling types. The categories are:

  • Occupied Private Dwelling: An occupied private dwelling is a private dwelling occupied by one or more people.

    A private dwelling is normally a house, flat, or even a room. It can also be a caravan, houseboat, tent, or a house attached to an office, or rooms above a shop.

    Occupied dwellings in caravan parks are treated as occupied private dwellings. Dwellings in caravan parks, in censuses prior to 1986 are classified as non-private dwellings. This may affect time series comparisons with censuses prior to 1986 for family and household data.

    Dwellings located in caravan parks can be identified by using the variable Dwelling Location (DLOD).

    Occupied dwellings in manufactured home estates and units in accommodation for the retired or aged (self-care) have been classified as occupied private dwellings since the 1996 Census. Previously, they were classified as non-private dwellings.

  • Unoccupied Private Dwellings: These are structures built specifically for living purposes which are habitable, but unoccupied on Census Night. Vacant houses, holiday homes, huts and cabins (other than seasonal workers' quarters) are counted as unoccupied dwellings. Also included are newly completed dwellings not yet occupied, dwellings which are vacant because they are due for demolition or repair, and dwellings to let.

    Unoccupied private dwellings in caravan parks, marinas and manufactured home estates, and units in accommodation for the retired or aged (self-care) are not counted in the Census. The exception to the above are residences of owners, managers or caretakers of the establishment.

  • Non-Private Dwellings (NPDs): NPDs are those dwellings, not included above, that provide a communal or transitory type of accommodation. They are classified according to their function for the variable Type of Non-Private Dwelling (NPDD). NPDs include hotels, motels, guest houses, prisons, religious and charitable institutions, defence establishments, hospitals and other communal dwellings.

    People in NPDs are enumerated on Personal Forms and so information on their family structure is not available. In the case of accommodation for the retired or aged, where the one establishment contains both cared and self-care units, then both Household Forms (self-care) and Personal Forms (cared) are used as appropriate.

  • Migratory: People enumerated on an overnight journey by plane, train or bus cannot be allocated a dwelling type. This category exists for processing purposes only.
  • Off-Shore: This includes dwellings such as off-shore oil rigs, drilling platforms and the like.

For the 2001 Census there have been some changes to classification procedures for private apartments within non-private dwellings. This may result in changes to the counts of private dwellings in some areas.

See also Dwelling Location (DLOD), Dwelling Structure (STRD), Migratory Collection District, Type of Non-Private Dwelling (NPDD).

Dwelling variables

For a list of dwelling variables, see the Mnemonic Index in the front of this dictionary.

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