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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2005  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 21/01/2005   
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Contents >> National accounts >> Input-output tables

Basic structure

Input-Output (I-O) tables show the structure of a country's entire production system for a particular period, usually one year. They show which goods and services are produced by each industry and how they are used (e.g. some goods, such as cars, are sold to final consumers while others, such as steel, are used as inputs by other industries in producing more goods and services). The tables are based on the principle that the value of the output of each industry can be expressed as the sum of the values of all the inputs to that industry. These inputs include the use of the outputs of other industries; any profits made from production; compensation of employees; and any taxes on production paid less any subsidies received. All the goods and services produced in a period are identified as being used as inputs by industries in their production process, being sold to final users of the goods and services (either in Australia, or overseas as exports), or contributing to the changes in inventories (an increase in inventories if more goods are produced than purchased, or a run-down in inventories if purchases exceed production). The net increase in inventories includes any timing difference between supply and use.

Relationship to the national income and expenditure accounts

I-O tables are directly related to the GDP account. The income side of the GDP account shows the amount of income generated in the economy accruing to labour (in the form of compensation of employees) and to capital (as profits or, in national accounting terms, gross operating surplus and gross mixed income - the latter including some return to owners of businesses for their labour). The expenditure side of the account shows the value of goods and services entering into the various categories of final uses.

The I-O tables provide a much more detailed disaggregation of the GDP account than is available in the national income, expenditure and product accounts. The latter only shows details of the end results of economic activity, whereas the I-O tables show the flows of goods and services through the production process. The extra detail provided by the I-O tables is essential for many analyses.

I-O table for seven industry sectors

Table 29.23 and diagram 29.24 show the flows of goods and services in respect of 1998-99.

The links between the table and the diagram are explained by working through the following formulae.

Total intermediate use - ($557,889m) in the diagram is derived by summing from column 8 of the table: intermediate use ($469,282m); taxes on products, net ($18,325m); competing imports ($70,203m); and complementary imports ($79m).

Domestic final use - ($606,345m) in the diagram is derived from the table by subtracting total exports ($112,025m), column 12, from total final uses ($718,370m), column 13.

Imports - ($126,453m) is derived by summing from column 14 of the table: competing imports ($126,007m); and complementary imports ($446m). In the diagram it is dissected into imports for intermediate uses ($70,282m); and imports for final uses ($56,170m).

Exports - ($112,025m) in the diagram is total exports, column 12 in the table.

Total use - ($1,276,259m), which equals total supply, is the sum of domestic final use ($606,345m); total intermediate use ($557,889m); and exports ($112,025m).

Gross value added - ($542,831m) in the diagram is derived by summing from column 14 of the table: compensation of employees ($286,610m); gross operating surplus and mixed income ($235,465m); and other taxes on production (net) ($20,756m).

GDP (income measure) - ($591,917m) in the diagram is derived by summing from column 14 of the table: compensation of employees ($286,610m); gross operating surplus and mixed income ($235,465m); taxes on products (net) ($49,086m); and other taxes on production (net) ($20,756m).

GDP (expenditure measure) - ($591,917m) in the diagram is derived by summing domestic final use ($606,345m); and exports ($112,025m); and subtracting imports ($126,453m).


29.23 INDUSTRY BY INDUSTRY FLOW TABLE, Basic prices - 1998-99

1
2
3
4
5
6
7







Agriculture
Mining
Manufacturing
Construction
Trade and transport
Service industries
Government admin. and defence
Supply
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

Agriculture
4,062
25
14,755
136
429
1,872
62
Mining
29
4,201
8,283
499
224
4,238
63
Manufacturing
4,029
3,654
49,108
17,104
14,771
26,693
3,893
Construction
223
1,133
64
82
959
2,523
972
Trade and transportation
2,449
3,627
19,054
4,199
21,861
18,458
2,388
Service industries
4,563
5,388
28,053
11,158
52,298
114,357
9,205
Government admin. and defence
60
220
714
163
1,534
2,528
2,919
Intermediate use
15,415
18,248
120,031
33,341
92,076
170,669
19,502
Compensation of employees
4,699
5,889
38,456
14,817
53,307
149,389
20,053
Gross operating surplus and gross mixed income
12,907
17,879
28,966
18,727
16,414
137,186
3,386
Taxes on products (net)
851
673
2,205
1,169
4,862
8,088
477
Other taxes on production (net)
540
490
2,602
698
4,672
11,651
103
Competing imports
2,159
2,443
33,012
4,358
6,223
19,333
2,675
Complementary imports
-
-
47
-
5
27
-
Australian production
36,572
45,621
225,317
73,111
177,561
496,342
46,196

8
9
10
11
12
13
14







Intermediate usage = Sum (1 to 7)
Final consumption expenditure
Gross fixed capital
formation
Changes in inventories
Exports
Final uses = Sum (9 to 12)
Total supply = Sum (8+13)
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

Agriculture
21,341
4,936
1,312
459
8,522
15,230
36,572
Mining
17,537
439
1,779
-100
25,968
28,085
45,621
Manufacturing
119,252
50,649
14,177
2,234
39,007
106,066
225,317
Construction
5,956
2,803
64,288
4
60
67,155
73,111
Trade and transportation
72,036
71,923
12,334
245
21,024
105,525
177,561
Service industries
225,022
241,036
17,442
-
12,837
271,319
496,342
Government admin. and defence
8,138
37,672
237
-
150
38,058
46,196
Intermediate use
469,282
409,458
111,569
2,843
107,568
631,438
1,100,720
Compensation of employees
286,610
-
-
-
-
-
286,610
Gross operating surplus and gross mixed income
235,465
-
-
-
-
-
235,465
Taxes on products (net)
18,325
22,071
7,716
717
256
30,761
49,086
Other taxes on production (net)
20,756
-
-
-
-
-
20,756
Competing imports
70,203
30,889
19,622
1,093
4,200
55,803
126,007
Complementary imports
79
266
92
10
-
367
446
Australian production
1,100,720
462,684
138,999
4,662
112,025
718,370
1,819,090
Gross value added
542,831
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
542,831
Gross domestic product
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
591,917

Source: Australian National Accounts: Input-Output Tables, 1998-99 (5209.0.55.001).


29.24 THE AUSTRALIAN ECONOMY, Flow of goods and services - 1998-99
Diagram 29.24: THE AUSTRALIAN ECONOMY, Flow of goods and services - 1998-99

Source: Australian National Accounts: Input-Output Tables, 1998-99 (5209.0.55.001).

Notes:
(1) Flows are based on 1998-99 input-output tables.
(2) This diagram shows the flows between producers and the rest of the economy. In this context a producer can also be a consumer (e.g. own account capital expenditure) or an investor.
(3) The shaded areas identify the components that make up the main aggregates. Flows passing through the shaded areas are included in the calculation.



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