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4102.0 - Australian Social Trends, 1999  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 24/06/1999   
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Contents >> Health >> Definitions and references

Definitions and references

AIDS-related death - death where AIDS is mentioned anywhere on the death certificate as a contributing factor or an underlying cause.

    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (cat. no. 3303.0).

Alcohol: apparent consumption - millilitres of pure alcohol (not total alcoholic beverages) consumed, divided by the population 15 and over. Apparent consumption of beer and spirits is based on the quantities on which excise duty was paid, and imports cleared for consumption. Apparent consumption of wine comprises quantities sold by winemakers and imports cleared for consumption. Home-made beer and wine are included.
    Reference: Apparent Consumption of Foodstuffs and Nutrients, Australia (cat. no. 4306.0).

Apparent consumption - equals (commercial production + estimated home production + imports + opening stocks) minus (exports + usage for processed food + non-food usage + wastage + closing stocks) divided by the population.
    Reference: Apparent Consumption of Foodstuffs and Nutrients, Australia (cat. no. 4306.0).

Asthma - the number of people per 1,000 population reporting asthma as a recent condition (within two weeks) or a long-term condition (lasting or expecting to last six months or more), asthma being a narrowing of the airways within the lung.
    Reference: National Health Survey: Users' Guide, Australia 1995, (cat. no. 4363.0).

Average length of stay in hospital - the total number of occupied bed days in both public and private hospitals divided by the total number of separations.
    Reference: Private Hospitals, Australia (cat. no. 4390.0); Australian Hospital Statistics, 1996-97, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Average Medicare services processed - average number of services processed per Australian resident.
    Reference: Health Insurance Commission, Financial Statements and Statistical Tables, 1996-97

Breast cancer deaths - malignant neoplasm of the female breast. ICD-9 code 174.
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (cat. no. 3303.0).

Cancer deaths - malignant neoplasms. ICD-9 codes 140-208.
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (cat. no. 3303.0).

Cancer - the number of people per 1,000 population reporting cancer as a recent condition (within two weeks) or a long-term condition (lasting or expecting to last six months or more), including both benign and malignant cancers.
    Reference: National Health Survey: Users' Guide, Australia 1995, (cat. no. 4363.0).

Children not fully immunised - the proportion of children reported as not having received all the required vaccinations for diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, whooping cough, measles and mumps for their age. The required vaccinations are based on the 1986 NH&MRC Standard Childhood Vaccination Schedule.
    Reference: Children's Immunisation, Australia (cat. no. 4352.0).

Coronary heart disease - coronary heart disease includes heart attack (acute myocardial infarction, coronary occlusion) and angina (angina pectoris). ICD-9 codes 410-414.
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (cat. no. 3303.0).

Crude death rate - number of deaths registered per 1,000 of the estimated resident population at 30 June of that year.
    Reference: Deaths, Australia (cat. no. 3302.0).

Current smokers - persons aged 18 years and over who smoke one or more manufactured (packet) cigarettes, roll-your-own cigarettes, cigars or pipes per day. Smoking excludes chewing tobacco and smoking of non-tobacco products.
    Reference: National Health Survey: Health Risk Factors (cat. no. 4380.0).

Diabetes mellitus deaths - deaths where diabetes mellitus is mentioned on the death certificate as the underlying cause. ICD-9 code 250.
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (cat. no. 3303.0).

Diabetes - the number of people per 1,000 population reporting diabetes as a recent condition (within two weeks) or a long-term condition (lasting or expecting to last six months or more), including Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 and 2 and unspecified diabetes.
    Reference: National Health Survey: Users' Guide, Australia, 1995 (cat. no. 4363.0).

Disability-free life expectancy - the average number of years at birth a person might expect to live free of disability. Disability is the presence of a limitation, restriction or impairment due to a physical, emotional or nervous condition which had lasted or was likely to last 6 months or more.
    Reference: Australian Health Trends, 1995, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Disability with specific restrictions - people with a disability which causes difficulty or they need assistance with, or use an aid for, self-care, mobility, communication, employment and/or education activities. Includes all children aged under 5 with a disability .
    Reference: Disability, Ageing and Carers: Summary of Findings, Australia, 1998 (cat. no. 4430.0).

Doctors per 100,000 population - the number of practising general and specialist medical practitioners per 100,000 estimated mean resident population.
    Reference: Australia's Health, 1998, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Exercise (persons who do not exercise) - persons who reported that within the two-week reference period they did not undertake exercise activities for sport, recreation or fitness, so as to cause a moderate increase in heart rate or breathing.
    Reference: National Health Survey: Users' Guide, Australia, 1995 (cat. no. 4363.0).

Fetal death - the delivery of a child weighing at least 400 grams at delivery (or, when birthweight is unavailable, of at least 20 weeks gestation) which did not, at any time after delivery, breathe or show any other evidence of life such as a heart beat.
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (cat. no. 3303.0).

Heart disease - the number of people per 1,000 population reporting heart disease as a recent condition (within two weeks) or a long-term condition (lasting or expecting to last six months or more), including heart attack, coronary thrombosis, angina and leaking valve.
    Reference: National Health Survey: Users' Guide, Australia, 1995 (cat. no. 4363.0).

Hospital beds (per 1,000 population) - the total number of beds in all hospitals (public and private) providing acute care services per 1,000 estimated mean resident population. Hospitals providing acute care services are those in which the treatments typically require short durations of stay.
    Reference: Private Hospitals, Australia (cat. no. 4390.0); Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, National Public Hospital Establishments Database (unpublished data).

Hospital separations (per 1,000 population) - the total number of separations in all hospitals (public and private) providing acute care services per 1,000 estimated resident population at 31 December of the reference year. A separation is an episode of care which can be a total hospital stay (from admission to discharge, transfer or death) or a portion of a hospital stay ending in a change of status (for example from acute care to rehabilitation). The inclusion of status changes has been progressively introduced since 1995-96. Hospitals providing acute care services are those in which the treatments typically require short durations of stay.
    Reference: Australian Hospital Statistics 1996-97 and earlier editions, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Hypertension - high blood pressure, either treated or untreated. People are considered hypertensive if they are on tablets for blood pressure and/or their systolic blood pressure is 160 mmHg or greater and/or their diastolic blood pressure is 95 mmHg or greater.
    Reference: National Nutrition Survey: Users' Guide, Australia, 1995 (cat. no. 4801.0).

ICD-9 - International Classification of Diseases 9th revision, clinical modification.
    Reference: International Classification of Diseases 9th Revision: (ICD-9), National Center for Health Statistics, United States.

Infant mortality rate - the number of deaths of children under one year of age per 1,000 live births.
    Reference: Deaths, Australia (cat. no. 3302.0).

Injury - the number of people per 1,000 population reporting injury as a recent condition (within two weeks) or a long-term condition (lasting or expecting to last six months or more), including fractures, dislocations, sprains, wounds, bruising, crushing, burns, poisoning and surgical complications.
    Reference: National Health Survey: Users' Guide, Australia, 1995 (cat. no. 4363.0).

Life expectancy - the average number of years a newborn infant of a given sex would be expected to live if the age-specific death rates of the reference period continued throughout his or her lifetime. For persons aged 65 of a given sex, it is the average additional years of life expected if the age specific death rates of the reference period continued throughout his or her remaining life.
    Reference: Deaths, Australia (cat. no. 3302.0).

Live birth - the delivery of a child weighing at least 400 grams at delivery (or, when birthweight is unavailable, of at least 20 weeks gestation) who after being born, breathed or showed any other evidence of life such as a heart beat.
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (cat. no. 3303.0).

Lung cancer deaths - malignant neoplasm of the trachea, bronchus and lung. ICD-9 code 162.
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (cat. no. 3303.0).

Medium/high-risk drinkers - men aged 18 and over who reported drinking 50-75ml of absolute alcohol (medium-risk) or more than 75ml (high-risk) per day, and women aged 18 and over who reported drinking 25-50ml of absolute alcohol (medium-risk) or more than 50ml (high-risk) per day.
    Reference: National Health Survey: Health Risk Factors (cat. no. 4380.0).

Motor vehicle traffic accident deaths - ICD-9 codes E810-E819.
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (cat. no. 3303.0).

Neonatal death - deaths of any child weighing at least 400 grams at delivery (or, when birthweight is unavailable, of at least 20 weeks gestation) who was born alive (as defined under live birth) and who died within 28 days of birth.
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (cat. no. 3303.0).

Nursing home and hostel beds - the number of beds which are provided for long-term nursing care to chronically ill, frail or disabled persons, and beds provided for people who are unable to live wholly independently but do not require nursing care, per 1,000 of the population aged 70 and over.
    Reference: Nursing Homes in Australia 1996-97: A statistical overview, AIHW; Hostels in Australia 1996-97: A statistical overview, AIHW and DHFS.

Overweight or obese adults - overweight is defined by a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 25 and less than 30, while obesity is defined by a BMI greater than or equal to 30, as recommended by WHO (1995). BMI is body weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in metres.
    Reference: National Nutrition Survey Selected Highlights, Australia, 1995 (cat. no. 4802.0).

Perinatal mortality rate - the annual number of fetal and neonatal deaths per 1,000 live births and fetal deaths combined (where birthweight was at least 400 grams).
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (cat. no. 3303.0).

Persons with private health insurance - proportion of the total population with private basic hospital insurance.
    Reference: Private Health Insurance Administration Council, Annual Reports.

Prostate cancer - malignant neoplasm of the prostate gland. ICD-9 code 185.
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (cat. no. 3303.0).

Skin cancer - malignant neoplasm of the skin, including both melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer. ICD-9 codes 172-173.
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (cat. no. 3303.0).

Standardised rates - these enable the comparison of rates between populations with differing age structures by relating them to a standard population. These rates are the overall rates that would have prevailed in a standard population if it had experienced at each age the rates of the population being studied. Mortality and Medicare usage rates use the 1991 Australian population as the standard population. All other standardised rates use the Australian population of the year that the survey was last collected.
    Reference: Deaths, Australia (cat. no. 3302.0).

Stroke - cerebrovascular disease, being a diseased condition of the brain due to an interruption of the blood supply. Caused by a blockage (embolism) or rupture (haemorrhage) of blood vessels within or leading to the brain. ICD-9 codes 430-438.
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (cat. no. 3303.0).

Suicide - ICD-9 codes E950-E959.
    Reference: Causes of Death, Australia (cat. no. 3303.0).

Tobacco: apparent consumption - grams of tobacco consumed divided by the population aged 15 and over. Apparent consumption of tobacco is based on the quantity on which import duty and excise (on cigarettes only) was paid and does not include duty or excise-free tobacco.
    Reference: Unpublished ABS International Trade data.

Total fats: apparent consumption - the total fat content of food apparently consumed, in grams, divided by the total population.
    Reference: Apparent Consumption of Foodstuffs and Nutrients, Australia (cat. no. 4306.0).

Total health expenditure as a proportion of GDP/per person - total health expenditure as a proportion of gross domestic product, in current prices. Total health expenditure per person is expressed in Australian dollars at constant 1989-90 prices.
    Reference: Health Expenditure Bulletin, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.


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