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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2003  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 24/01/2003   
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Contents >> Education and Training >> Higher education

Institutions

There were 42 higher education institutions which received operating grants from the Commonwealth Department of Education, Science and Training in 2001, as well as the Australian Film, Television and Radio School, the National Institute of Dramatic Art and the Australian Defence Force Academy. The private Melbourne College of Divinity reported data for the first time relating to postgraduate courses only. The private Bond University in Queensland also reported data for the first time for higher degree research courses only.

Apart from the Australian National University and the Australian Maritime College, which are established under Commonwealth legislation, Australian universities operate under state or territory legislation. However, they are autonomous bodies responsible for their own governance and make their own decisions on allocation of funding, staffing and academic courses.

Staff

Table 10.25 shows that in 2001 there were almost equal proportions of male and female staff in higher education. This has changed somewhat over the last decade - in 1991, 54% of all higher education staff were male.

Higher education staff may be classified as academic or non-academic. In 2001, as in previous years, there were more non-academic than academic staff. The largest numbers of academics were at the lecturer and senior lecturer levels.

While there were more male than female academics in 2001, the proportions were closer than they had been a decade earlier. In 2001, 63% of academics were male, compared to 69% in 1991. Men outnumbered women at all academic levels except 'below lecturer'. Between 1991 and 2001, the proportion who were women increased substantially for all academic levels.


10.25 HIGHER EDUCATION STAFF

1991
2001


Males
Females
Persons
Males
Females
Persons
Classification
%
%
no.
%
%
no.

Academic staff
Above senior lecturer
90.2
9.8
5,210
82.8
17.2
7,049
Senior lecturer
82.2
17.8
7,128
69.5
30.5
8,372
Lecturer
61.4
38.6
12,014
54.4
45.6
11,600
Below lecturer
48.9
51.1
5,414
45.9
54.1
6,427
Total
69.2
30.8
29,766
62.5
37.5
33,448
Non-academic staff
42.9
57.1
41,361
38.5
61.5
44,780
Total
53.9
46.1
71,127
48.8
51.2
78,228

Source: Department of Education, Science and Training, ‘Staff 2001: Selected Higher Education Statistics’.


Students and courses

Most higher education institutions provide both full-time and part-time courses and external or distance education courses. In addition, some institutions offer courses which associate full-time study with periods of employment.


Between 1991 and 2001 the total number of higher education students rose by 36%. Most higher education students undertake study on a full-time basis and the prevalence of this has increased slightly over the last decade. In 1991, 62% of all higher education students were enrolled in full-time study, but by 2001 the equivalent proportion was 68%. At the same time external enrolments have increased by 97% to 127,600 (table 10.26).



10.26 HIGHER EDUCATION STUDENTS, By type of enrolment

1991
2001


Males
Females
Persons
Males
Females
Persons
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000

Internal
Full-time
151.5
172.6
324.0
208.4
249.3
457.8
Part-time
70.4
75.3
145.7
64.7
76.4
141.1
External
27.8
37.0
64.8
53.5
74.1
127.6
Total
249.7
284.8
534.5
326.6
399.8
726.4

Source: Department of Education, Science and Training, ‘Staff 2001: Selected Higher Education Statistics’.


The basic undergraduate course at most institutions is a bachelor degree of three or four years duration. At some institutions, courses may also be offered at the diploma or advanced diploma level. Most institutions also offer postgraduate level study. One to two years of full-time postgraduate study are required for a master's degree and three to five years for a doctoral degree. Postgraduate diplomas and certificates are offered in some disciplines. In 2001, 75% of higher education students were enrolled in bachelor courses, with a further 21% enrolled in higher degree and other postgraduate courses (table 10.27).

Higher education institutions offer a great variety of courses embracing such areas as Agriculture, Architecture, Commerce, Culture, Education, Engineering, Environment, Health, Hospitality, Information technology, Management, and the Natural and physical sciences. Fields of study with the largest numbers of award course students in 2001 were Management and commerce (25%); Society and culture (23%); Health (12%); and Education (11%).


10.27 HIGHER EDUCATION STUDENTS, By level of course(a) - 2001

Postgraduate degree
Postgraduate diploma or equivalent
Bachelor
degree
Diploma and
advanced diploma
Other
education
Total
courses
Field of study
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000

Natural and physical sciences
8.1
1.0
51.5
0.3
0.6
61.5
Information technology
8.2
6.9
43.1
0.2
0.1
58.5
Engineering and related technologies
6.7
1.4
51.5
0.6
0.2
60.4
Architecture and building
1.4
0.8
13.6
0.1
-
15.7
Agriculture, environment and related studies
2.7
0.7
11.3
2.1
0.2
17.0
Health
11.3
6.7
66.8
0.7
0.1
85.6
Education
11.0
9.5
57.4
0.6
0.3
79.0
Management and commerce
34.4
11.7
135.2
2.4
1.0
184.6
Society and culture
20.3
7.3
136.2
4.1
1.7
169.5
Creative arts
3.9
1.6
38.6
0.5
0.6
45.1
Food, hospitality and personal services
-
-
0.1
-
-
0.1
Mixed field programmes
-
-
0.2
-
1.3
1.5
Non-award
-
-
-
-
-
10.2
Total
107.8
47.5
543.1
11.6
6.2
726.4

(a) The data take into account the coding of combined courses to two fields of study. As a consequence, counting both fields of study for combined courses means that the data in the total row may be less than the sum of the data aggregated down each column.

Source: Department of Education, Science and Training, ‘Students 2001: Selected Higher Education Statistics’.


Table 10.28 shows the number of higher education students by age group and sex. Over the last decade (1991-2001) the growth in higher education student numbers (36%) has been strongest among 25-29 year olds (57%) and 20-24 year olds (53%). The overall proportion of female students in higher education increased from 53% in 1991 to 55% in 2001.


10.28 HIGHER EDUCATION STUDENTS(a)

1991
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
Age group (years)
’000
’000
’000
’000
’000
’000

19 and under
Males
74.8
76.0
76.6
77.8
78.9
81.2
Females
96.6
102.4
104.8
107.7
110.4
113.4
Persons
171.4
178.4
181.4
185.5
189.3
194.5
20–24
Males
80.3
101.0
103.0
105.2
107.1
113.0
Females
80.0
112.8
117.3
121.9
126.2
132.7
Persons
160.3
213.8
220.4
227.2
233.3
245.7
25-29
Males
32.3
42.5
44.0
44.8
45.2
47.6
Females
30.7
44.4
46.7
48.1
49.0
51.2
Persons
63.0
86.9
90.7
92.9
94.1
98.7
30 and over
Males
62.2
80.7
80.8
81.1
80.2
84.8
Females
77.6
99.1
98.6
99.6
98.6
102.7
Persons
139.8
179.8
179.4
180.7
178.8
187.4
Total
Males
249.7
300.2
304.4
309.0
311.4
326.6
Females
284.8
358.7
367.5
377.3
384.1
399.8
Persons
534.5
658.8
671.9
686.3
695.5
726.4

(a) Includes students in enabling and non-award courses.

Source: Department of Education, Science and Training, ‘Students 2001: Selected Higher Education Student Statistics’.


The average annual starting salary of male bachelor degree graduates has risen by 36% between 1991 and 2001 to $41,526. For females the rise was 33% to $36,268 (table 10.29).

These starting salaries, as a percentage of average annual full-time adult ordinary time earnings, have declined in the years 1991-2001. For males they dropped from 99.4% to 91.4%. For females the respective percentages dropped from 104.6% to 94.6%.

The male postgraduate average annual starting salary rose by 58% between 1991 and 2001 to $65,406. For females the rise was 48% to $50,538. Postgraduate starting salaries, as a percentage of average annual full-time adult ordinary time earnings, show rises between 1991 and 2001. For males they increased from 134.6% to 144.0%. For females they increased from 131.0% to 131.9%.


10.29 STARTING SALARIES FOR EMPLOYED HIGHER EDUCATION GRADUATES

Bachelor graduates(a)
Postgraduates(a)
Average annual full-time adult
ordinary time earnings(b)



Males
Females
Males
Females
Males
Females
$
$
$
$
$
$

1991
30,604
27,223
41,435
34,083
30,784
26,025
1996
34,915
31,141
52,958
41,445
37,223
30,892
2001
41,526
36,268
65,406
50,538
45,412
38,327

(a) Self-employed graduates are included in 1991 and 1996 but excluded in 2001.
(b) Of employees.

Source: Average Weekly Earnings, Australia (6302.0); Graduate Careers Council of Australia, Graduate Destinations Survey.


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