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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2005  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 21/01/2005   
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Contents >> Tourism >> The economic contribution of tourism

Tourism is important to the Australian economy, underpinning a wide range of industries. These industries range from accommodation to hiring cars to air transport.

Tourism is not an 'industry' in the traditional sense. Industries are classified in accordance with the goods and services they produce, whereas tourism depends on the status of the customer (visitor). For example, consumption of a restaurant meal by a visitor is defined as 'tourism'. When the meal is consumed by a local resident, the consumption is not 'tourism'.

The Tourism Satellite Account (TSA) creates a broad picture of tourism, which allows it to be compared with conventional industries like agriculture, manufacturing and retail trade. In 2002-03 the TSA reported more than $73b worth of tourism goods and services were consumed and tourism gross value added was $26b.

The value of tourism

Gross value added (GVA) is the preferred national accounts measure of industry production as it excludes taxes and subsidies on products. Estimates of tourism GVA relate to the direct impact of tourism activity. This means only the value added where there is a direct economic or physical relationship between the visitor and the producer of a good or service is included. Tourism gross domestic product (GDP) equates to tourism GVA plus taxes paid less subsidies received on tourism related products (net taxes on tourism products).

In 2002-03 tourism GVA was $25,875m and tourism GDP was $31,985m which contributed 4.2% to total GDP. Since 1997-98 tourism GVA has increased $3,981m and tourism GDP increased $7,043m. As a share of total GDP tourism reached a peak of 4.6% in 2000-01 and fell to 4.2% in 2002-03 (table 21.1).

The industries which accounted for the largest shares of tourism GVA were air and water transport (14%); accommodation (11%); cafes, restaurants and takeaway food outlets (10%); and the other retail trade industry (8%).


21.1 TOURISM SHARE OF GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT

Units
1997-98
1998-99
1999-2000
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03

Tourism characteristic industries GVA(a)
Travel agency and tour operator services
$m
835
869
895
992
966
975
Taxi transport
$m
174
195
197
218
207
210
Air and water transport
$m
3,211
3,309
3,430
3,727
3,592
3,590
Motor vehicle hiring
$m
231
259
280
284
287
298
Accommodation
$m
2,400
2,551
2,644
2,775
2,855
2,917
Cafes, restaurants and food outlets
$m
2,209
2,362
2,454
2,501
2,601
2,689
Total GVA of tourism characteristic industries(a)
$m
9,059
9,546
9,901
10,498
10,509
10,679
GVA of tourism connected industries(b)
$m
10,268
10,795
11,139
11,572
11,748
12,100
GVA of all other industries(c)
$m
2,567
2,714
2,955
2,974
2,972
3,096
Tourism GVA
$m
21,894
23,054
23,994
25,044
25,229
25,875
Net taxes on tourism products
$m
3,048
3,213
3,321
5,817
5,637
6,110
Tourism GDP
$m
24,942
26,267
27,316
30,861
30,865
31,985
Tourism share of total GDP
%
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.6
4.3
4.2

(a) Tourism characteristic industries have at least 25% of their output consumed by visitors.
(b) Tourism connected industries are those industries not classified as characteristic that have products which are consumed by visitors in volumes which are significant.
(c) GVA of all other industries includes the share of GVA of all industries that provide outputs to tourism not included in characteristic or connected industries.

Source: Australian National Accounts: Tourism Satellite Account (5249.0).


When compared with traditional industries (which are classified by the Australian Bureau of Statistics using Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC)) the gross value added of the tourism industry ranks 12th out of the 17 ANZSIC industry divisions. In 2002-03 tourism gross value added ($25,875m in current prices) exceeded that of agriculture, forestry and fishing ($20,059m); communication services ($19,994m); personal and other services ($17,553m); electricity, gas and water supply ($16,906m); accommodation, cafes and restaurants ($15,158m); and cultural and recreational services ($13,201m).

International trade in tourism

Tourism makes an important contribution to Australia's export earnings. In 2002-03 international visitors consumed $16.7b worth of goods and services produced by the Australian economy (tourism exports). This represented 11% of the total exports of goods and services (table 21.2).


21.2 EXPORTS OF TOURISM GOODS AND SERVICES

Units
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03

Tourism exports
$m
12,792
13,445
14,610
17,140
17,081
16,666
Total exports
$m
113,744
112,025
126,222
153,854
153,340
148,530
Tourism share of exports
%
11.2
12.0
11.6
11.1
11.1
11.2
Growth in tourism exports
%
n.a.
5.1
8.7
17.3
-0.3
-2.4
Growth in total exports
%
n.a.
-1.5
12.7
21.9
-0.3
-3.1

Source: Australian National Accounts: Tourism Satellite Account (5249.0).


Employment


Tourism employment estimates include employment generated where visitors have a direct relationship with the producer of the good or service.

In 2002-03 tourism directly generated 540,700 jobs, a marginal increase on 2001-02 (533,700 jobs) (table 21.3). The tourism industry's share of total employment fell slightly in 2002-03 to 5.7%, following a consistent 5.9% share from 1997-98 to 2000-01.

Retail trade generated the most direct tourism employment (140,400 persons) in 2002-03. Retail trade, accommodation, and cafes and restaurants accounted for more than half of the employment generated by tourism (54%).


21.3 PEOPLE EMPLOYED IN TOURISM

Units
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03

Tourism characteristic and connected industries(a)
'000
466.5
470.4
480.7
497.8
493.3
499.3
All other industries
'000
42.4
42.5
44.0
39.9
40.5
41.5
Total tourism industry
'000
508.8
512.9
524.7
537.7
533.7
540.7
Total employed persons
'000
8,574.6
8,638.4
8,886.6
9,074.3
9,207.4
9,441.4
Tourism share of total employment
%
5.9
5.9
5.9
5.9
5.8
5.7

(a) Tourism characteristic and connected industries are those industries that have products which are consumed by visitors in volumes which are significant.

Source: Australian National Accounts: Tourism Satellite Account (5249.0).


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