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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2005  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 21/01/2005   
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Contents >> Service industries >> Selected service industries

The remainder of the chapter presents statistics for a selection of service industries. The information provided is based primarily on the rotating program of service industries collections conducted by the ABS. The exceptions are the retail trade and wholesale trade industries where information has been drawn from the monthly and quarterly surveys of businesses.

The rotating program of service industries collections includes specific industry surveys each year. The main focus of these surveys is the size and structure of individual service industries in terms of detailed financial information and employment.

This chapter includes statistics from the 2001-02 survey of private medical practices and 2002-03 surveys of real estate services, waste management services, hire services, television, film and video production, and performing arts.

Retail trade

The retail trade industry comprises businesses primarily engaged in the sale of new or used goods to final consumers for personal or household consumption, or in selected repair activities such as repair of household equipment or motor vehicles.

Retail turnover includes the value of turnover for retailing (such as supermarkets, clothing and department stores, etc.) and hospitality and selected service industries (such as cafes and restaurants, hotels and licensed clubs, etc.), but excludes motor vehicle retailing and services. In order to measure the actual value paid by consumers from 1 July 2000, retail turnover is recorded inclusive of the goods and services tax.

Table 20.3 presents annual chain volume measures of turnover of retail industries for the period 1992-93 to 2003-04. Total retail turnover (in chain volume terms) increased by 54% between 1992-93 and 2003-04, representing an average annual growth rate of 4%. The industry group representing the largest component of retail turnover in 2003-04 was food retailing with 39% of total turnover. The next largest industry was hospitality and services with a 17% share of total turnover in 2003-04, followed by household good retailing with a 15% share of total turnover.

A comparison of the share of retail turnover held by the industry groups in 1992-93 and 2003-04 shows two industry groups increased their shares - household good retailing (up by 6.5 percentage points) and other retailing (by 2.3 percentage points). In contrast, five industry groups decreased their shares - food retailing (down by 6.2 percentage points), hospitality and services (by 1.6 percentage points), department stores (by 1.3 percentage points), recreational goods (by 1.1 percentage points) and clothing and soft good retailing (by 0.4 percentage points).


20.3 RETAIL TURNOVER, Chain volume measures(a)

Industry group

Food retailing
Department stores
Clothing and soft good retailing
Household good retailing
Recreational good retailing
Other retailing
Hospitality and services
Retail turnover(b)
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

1992-93
55,126
11,760
8,336
9,994
6,438
9,898
22,081
121,499
1993-94
55,664
11,847
8,352
10,827
6,669
10,745
22,905
125,213
1994-95
58,575
12,219
8,581
11,750
7,030
11,275
24,684
132,305
1995-96
61,259
12,551
8,741
12,646
7,401
11,769
25,034
137,724
1996-97
61,755
12,475
8,602
13,983
7,027
12,183
23,576
138,582
1997-98
63,991
12,833
8,767
14,542
7,159
13,214
23,867
143,403
1998-99
65,415
13,242
9,802
14,997
7,247
13,813
25,908
149,435
1999-2000
66,562
14,031
10,506
17,735
7,326
14,822
27,123
157,628
2000-01
66,696
13,390
9,942
18,744
7,005
15,700
27,243
158,377
2001-02
68,522
13,976
10,689
21,723
7,028
16,942
27,936
166,727
2002-03
70,414
14,750
11,297
24,050
7,210
17,733
28,973
174,428
2003-04
73,178
15,712
12,024
27,548
7,925
19,599
30,984
186,971

(a) Based on original quarterly data. Reference year is 2002-03.
(b) Chain volume measures are not additive for years other than 2002-03 and 2003-04.
Source: ABS data available on request, Retail Business Survey.


Graph 20.4 presents annual growth rates for total retail turnover (in chain volume terms) from 1993-94 to 2003-04. During this period the four years with the strongest annual growth were 2003-04 (7.2%), 1994-95 (5.7%), 1999-2000 (5.5%) and 2001-02 (5.3%). The two years of weakest growth occurred in 1996-97 (0.6%) and 2000-01 (0.5%). Growth in 2000-01 was affected by the unusual increase in the volume of goods sold prior to the introduction of The New Tax System on 1 July 2000 and the subsequent decline in the volume of goods sold.

Graph 20.4: CHANGE IN RETAIL TURNOVER, Chain volume measures(a)



In 2002-03 retail trade industry gross value added (in chain volume terms) was $37,689m, or 5.1% of gross domestic product (GDP) for the year.

Wholesale trade

The wholesale trade industry covers those businesses involved in the sale of new or used goods to businesses or to institutional (including government) users.

Table 20.5 presents annual chain volume measures of total wholesale sales for the period 1992-93 to 2003-04. Total wholesale sales more than doubled (in chain volume terms) between 1992-93 and 2003-04, representing an average annual growth rate of almost 7%.

In 2002-03 wholesale trade industry gross value added (in chain volume terms) was $37,919m, or 5.2% of GDP for the year.


20.5 WHOLESALE SALES, Chain volume measures(a)
$m

1992-93
127,080
1993-94
136,326
1994-95
155,607
1995-96
158,516
1996-97
165,834
1997-98
184,006
1998-99
200,603
1999-2000(b)
226,130
2000-01
228,741
2001-02
244,728
2002-03
258,014
2003-04
280,876

(a) Based on original quarterly data. Reference year is 2002-03.
(b) A break in series occurred between June and September 1999 quarters.

Source: Business Indicators, Australia (5676.0).


Private medical practices

The ABS conducted a survey of private medical practices in respect of 2001-02.

At the end of June 2002 there were 19,464 general and specialist medical practices in operation. There were also 50 pathology laboratory businesses. In total, these practices and businesses had employment of 116,491 people.

The private general and specialist practices generated income of $10,335m in 2001-02. While fee-for-service income was the main income source for these practices, bulk billing was 59% of fee-for-service income for general practices and 27% of fee-for-service income for specialist practices.

The industry value added for private general and specialist practices in 2002-03 was $7,393m, which represented 1.1% of GDP for the year. This was a similar level to the legal profession (1%) and the accounting profession (0.8%).

General practices

For the purposes of this survey, a general practitioner (GP) practice was defined as a business that primarily provided general practice medical services, and any associated administrative service businesses.

Table 20.6 shows at the end of June 2002 there were 9,600 private GP practices in operation with total employment of 56,911 persons.

GP medical practices generated income of $4,424m in 2001-02. The majority of this income (87%) was fee-for-service medical income ($3,845m). Total expenditure by GP practices in the same period was $3,146m with labour costs of $1,793m (57%) being the major expense. Rent, leasing and hiring were the next highest recorded expenses accounting for 9% ($290m) of total expenditure.

Operating profit before tax for GP practices was $1,107m, representing an operating profit margin of 26.4%. This was similar to the operating profit margin in 1994-95 of 27.6%. The total return accruing to practitioners as profits or wages and salaries in 2001-02 averaged $101,100 for each full-time equivalent (FTE) practitioner working in GP practices.


20.6 GENERAL PRACTICES

Units
1994-95
2001-02

Medical practices at end June
no.
10,349
9,600
Medical practice locations at end June
no.
n.a.
12,091
Employment at end June
no.
54,657
56,911
Income
Fee-for-service medical income
$m
2,601.5
3,845.3
Other
$m
234.8
578.3
Total
$m
2,836.3
4,423.6
Expenses
Labour costs
$m
1,243.5
1,792.6
Rent, leasing and hiring expenses
$m
226.1
289.8
Other
$m
588.5
1,063.8
Total
$m
2,058.1
3,146.2
Operating profit before tax
$m
778.2
1,107.1
Operating profit margin
%
27.6
26.4
Return per FTE(a) practitioner
$'000
n.a.
101.1
Industry value added
$m
n.a.
3,142.1

(a) Full-time equivalent.

Source: Private Medical Practices, Australia, 2001-02 (8685.0).


Specialist practices

A specialist medical practice was defined as a business that primarily provided specialist medical services and any associated administrative service business. These specialist practices included anaesthesia, dermatology, diagnostic imaging, internal medicine, obstetrics and gynaecology, ophthalmology, paediatrics, psychiatry and surgery.

Table 20.7 shows there were 9,864 private specialist practices in operation at the end of June 2002. Total employment for specialist practices at the end of June 2002 was 45,046, down 13% from 51,477 in 1994-95.

Specialist practices generated income of $5,911m in 2001-02 with the majority of this income (88%) being fee-for-service medical income ($5,208m). Total expenditure of specialist practices was $3,973m. Operating profit before tax for specialist practices was $1,653m which represented an operating profit margin of 28.1% up from 24.6% in 1994-95. The average return accruing to practitioners as profits or wages and salaries in 2001-02 was $183,300 for each FTE practitioner.

20.7 SPECIALIST PRACTICES

Units
1994-95
2001-02

Medical practices at end June
no.
9,583
9,864
Medical practice locations at end June
no.
n.a.
16,585
Employment at end June
no.
51,477
45,046
Income
Fee-for-service medical income
$m
3,960.2
5,208.4
Other
$m
444.4
702.7
Total
$m
4,404.6
5,911.1
Expenses
Labour costs
$m
1,768.4
2,090.9
Rent, leasing and hiring expenses
$m
326.9
321.5
Other
$m
1,237.2
1,560.3
Total
$m
3,332.5
3,972.7
Operating profit before tax
$m
1,072.1
1,653.0
Operating profit margin
%
24.6
28.1
Return per FTE(a) practitioner
$'000
n.a.
183.3
Industry value added
$m
n.a.
4,250.4

(a) Full-time equivalent.

Source: Private Medical Practices, Australia, 2001-02 (8685.0).


Real estate services

At the end of June 2003 there were 10,001 real estate services businesses in operation. Table 20.8 shows these businesses had employment of 76,599 people, an increase of 47% from 52,079 people in June 1999.

During 2002-03 these businesses generated income of $7,525m. Property sales and leasing commissions accounted for 71% ($5,353m) of the total income of real estate agents during 2002-03 with property management commissions being a further 17% ($1,271m). Expenses of $6,635m contributed to an operating profit before tax of $879m. This represented an operating profit margin of 11.7% which was relatively unchanged from 1998-99. The industry value added for these real estate businesses in 2002-03 was $4,784m, or 0.6% of GDP for the year.


20.8 REAL ESTATE SERVICES

Units
1998-99
2002-03

Businesses at end June
no.
7,589
10,001
Offices/locations at end June
Capital city and suburbs
no.
6,102
8,257
Other
no.
2,559
3,465
Total
no.
8,661
11,722
Employment at end June
no.
52,079
76,599
Income
Property sales and leasing commissions
$m
2,502.8
5,353.4
Property management commissions
$m
925.0
1 271.4
Other
$m
475.0
900.0
Total
$m
3,902.7
7,524.7
Expenses
Labour costs
$m
1,847.5
3,625.2
Other
$m
1,590.2
3,009.3
Total
$m
3,437.7
6,634.6
Operating profit before tax
$m
465.0
878.7
Operating profit margin
%
12.0
11.7
Industry value added
$m
2,442.4
4,784.1

Source: Real Estate Services, Australia, 2002-03 (8663.0).


Waste management services

At the end of June 2003 there were 1,092 private and public trading businesses mainly providing waste management services. These businesses had employment of 14,386 people, an increase of 58% since 1996-97.

During 2002-03 income generated by these businesses was $2,684m, of which 59% ($1,595m) was for the collection and transport of waste. Business expenses incurred during this period were $2,458m. The operating profit before tax for these businesses was $227m, which represented an operating margin of 8.5%. The industry value added in 2002-03 was $1,248m, or 0.2% of the GDP for the year.


20.9 WASTE MANAGEMENT SERVICES

Units
1996-97
2002-03

Businesses at end June
no.
894
1,092
Employment at end June
no.
9,107
14,386
Income
Collection and transport of waste
$m
871.1
1,595.4
Treatment/processing and/or disposal of waste
$m
379.8
534.1
Other
$m
177.8
554.7
Total
$m
1,428.7
2,684.2
Expenses
Wages and salaries
$m
309.9
611.5
Contract and subcontract expenses for waste management services
$m
135.7
269.8
Fees for the treatment/disposal of waste
$m
164.6
304.6
Other
$m
680.7
1,272.4
Total
$m
1,291.0
2,458.2
Operating profit before tax
$m
137.7
226.6
Operating profit margin
%
9.7
8.5
Industry value added
$m
686.7
1,248.1
Owner/drivers at end June
no.
565
948

Source: Waste Management Services, Australia, 2002-03 (8698.0).


Hire services

Surveys of businesses which hired/leased plant and equipment, personal and household goods, and motor vehicles were conducted in respect of 2002-03.

Plant and equipment hire

Table 20.10 shows at the end of June 2003 there were 1,152 plant and equipment hire businesses with employment of 13,738 people. By comparison, there were 923 businesses with 13,235 people at the end of June 2000 in the industry.

Plant and equipment hire businesses generated income of $2,620m in 2002-03. Total expenses were $2,273m of which labour costs was $722m and depreciation was $325m. The operating profit before tax of these businesses was $351m, which represented an operating profit margin of 13.5%. The total industry value added in 2002-03 was $1,506m, or 0.2% to GDP for the year.


20.10 HIRE SERVICES, Plant and equipment

Units
1999-2000
2002-03

Businesses at end June
no.
923
1,152
Premises at end June
Capital city
no.
1,120
1,228
Other
no.
420
534
Total
no.
1,540
1,762
Employment at end June
no.
13,235
13,738
Income
Hire/lease services
$m
1,890.0
2,216.6
Other
$m
355.7
403.0
Total
$m
2,245.7
2,619.5
Expenses
Labour costs
$m
629.9
721.6
Depreciation and amortisation
$m
270.2
324.6
Other
$m
1,086.3
1,227.0
Total
$m
1,986.4
2,273.2
Operating profit before tax
$m
224.5
350.9
Operating profit margin
%
10.4
13.5
Industry value added
$m
1,336.6
1,505.8

Source: Hire Services, Australia, 2002-03 (8567.0).


Personal and household goods hire

Table 20.11 shows there were 495 personal and household goods hire businesses with employment of 4,222 people at end of June 2003.

These businesses generated income of $359m and incurred $340m in expenses during 2002-03. The operating profit before tax of these businesses was $20m, which represented an operating profit margin of 5.5%, down from 7.2% in 1999-2000. The total industry value added in 2002-03 was $203m, or 0.03% of GDP for the year.


20.11 HIRE SERVICES, Personal and household goods

Units
1999-2000
2002-03

Businesses at end June
no.
409
495
Premises at end June
Capital city
no.
422
508
Other
no.
162
215
Total
no.
584
723
Employment at end June
no.
3,493
4,222
Income
Hire services
$m
333.2
323.7
Other
$m
27.1
35.2
Total
$m
360.3
359.0
Expenses
Labour costs
$m
102.1
126.9
Depreciation and amortisation
$m
64.6
41.6
Other
$m
160.6
171.9
Total
$m
327.3
340.4
Operating profit before tax
$m
24.9
19.6
Operating profit margin
%
7.2
5.5
Industry value added
$m
232.8
203.2

Source: Hire Services, Australia, 2002-03 (8567.0).


Motor vehicles hire

Table 20.12 shows at the end of June 2003 there were 375 motor vehicle hire businesses with employment of 6,796 people and 61,097 rental fleet vehicles.

These businesses generated income of $2,004m and incurred $1,837m in expenses during 2002-03. Their operating profit before tax was $169m which represented an operating profit margin of 8.8%. The total industry value added in 2002-03 was $1,223m, or 0.2% of GDP for the year.


20.12 HIRE SERVICES, Motor vehicles

Units
2002-03

Businesses at end June
no.
375
Locations at end June
Capital city
no.
535
Other
no.
514
Total
no.
1,049
Employment at end June
no.
6,796
Income
Hire/rental services
$m
938.6
Other
$m
1,065.2
Total
$m
2,003.8
Expenses
Labour costs
$m
251.3
Depreciation and amortisation
$m
539.2
Other
$m
1,046.7
Total
$m
1,837.2
Operating profit before tax
$m
168.8
Operating profit margin
%
8.8
Industry value added
$m
1,223.3
Vehicles in rental fleet at end June
no.
61,097

Source: Hire Services, Australia, 2002-03 (8567.0).


Television, film and video production

The 2002-03 Television, Film and Video Production Survey was conducted to provide a detailed measure of the performance and structure of television broadcasting, and film and video production services businesses operating in Australia. The main focus was on understanding the composition of the income generated by these businesses, details of expenses incurred, and the characteristics of television, film and video productions.

Film and video production services

Table 20.13 shows at the end of June 2003 there were 2,174 film and video production services businesses with employment of 16,427 persons.

These businesses generated income of $1,597m. The main components of this income were production of TV programs ($394m), post-production/film laboratory services to other businesses ($361m), production services to other businesses ($351m) and production of commercials ($228m). While income from post-production/film laboratory services to other businesses and income from production services to other businesses have increased by 51% and 37% respectively since 1999-2000, income from the production of television programs has decreased by 17% in the same period.

Total expenses of $1,505m resulted in an operating profit before tax of $92m, which represented an operating profit margin of 5.9%. The total industry value added in 2002-03 by film and video production businesses was $668m, or 0.1% of GDP for the year.


20.13 FILM AND VIDEO PRODUCTION SERVICES

Units
1999-2000
2002-03

Businesses at end June
no.
1,975
2,174
Employment at end June
no.
15,195
16,427
Income
Production of television programs
$m
472.2
393.6
Production of commercials
$m
186.2
228.4
Production of other completed works
$m
191.5
156.7
Provision of production services to other businesses
$m
233.1
350.9
Provision of post-production/film lab services to other businesses
$m
262.6
360.5
Other
$m
128.2
106.5
Total
$m
1,473.8
1,596.6
Expenses
Labour costs
$m
426.6
466.3
Payments to other businesses for production services
$m
250.8
215.8
Payments to other businesses for post-production/film lab services
$m
88.3
89.5
Other
$m
632.2
733.1
Total
$m
1,397.9
1,504.8
Operating profit before tax
$m
76.5
91.7
Operating profit margin
%
5.4
5.9
Industry value added
$m
606.8
668.2

Source: Television, Film and Video Production, Australia, 2002-03 (8679.0).


Television services

Table 20.14 shows there were 9,094 employees working for 27 commercial free-to-air and 6 subscription television businesses at the end of June 2003. These businesses generated $5,159m in income and incurred $4,991m in expenses during 2002-03. Operating profit before tax was $207m, which represented an operating profit margin of 4.1%. The total industry value added by commercial free-to-air and subscription television broadcasting businesses in 2002-03 was $1,460m, or 0.2% of GDP for the year.


20.14 TELEVISION SERVICES

Units
2002-03

Businesses at end June
no.
33
Employees at end June
no.
9,094
Income
Gross income from the sale of airtime(a)
$m
2,817.8
Subscription and membership fees
$m
1,158.7
Other
$m
1,182.2
Total
$m
5,158.8
Expenses
Labour costs
$m
755.4
Program rights used/payments to channel providers
$m
1,279.4
Depreciation and amortisation
$m
665.8
Other
$m
2,290.7
Total
$m
4,991.3
Operating profit before tax
$m
207.4
Operating profit margin
%
4.1
Industry value added
$m
1,460.2

(a) Excludes sale of airtime for subscription TV broadcasters.

Source: Television, Film and Video Production, Australia, 2002-03 (8679.0).


Television, film and video production costs

Table 20.15 shows during 2002-03 production activity undertaken by commercial free-to-air, public and subscription television businesses, and film and video production businesses incurred $1,503m in production costs. Productions made specifically for television comprised most of these costs (76% or $1,141m). Production of commercials, stations promotions and interstitials accounted for 15% ($219m) and productions made other than for television accounted for 10% ($142m). Production costs included all costs relating to development, pre-production shoots and post-production of films and programs during 2002-03.


20.15 TELEVISION, FILM AND VIDEO PRODUCTION COSTS

1999-2000
2002-03
$m
$m

Productions made specifically for television
By television broadcasters
799.3
812.4
By other businesses
516.0
328.4
Total
1,315.4
1,140.7
Production of commercials, station promotions and interstitials
By television broadcasters
48.0
38.3
By other businesses
194.9
181.0
Total
243.0
219.3
Productions other than for television
Feature films
148.6
73.5
Other
84.8
68.9
Total
233.4
142.4
Total
1,791.7
1,502.5

Source: Television, Film and Video Production, Australia, 2002-03 (8679.0).


Performing arts

The 2002-03 survey of the performing arts industry had two components - music and theatre production and performing arts festivals.

Music and theatre production

At the end of June 2003 there were 865 businesses mainly involved in music and theatre production. Table 20.16 shows this represented an increase of 23% since June 2000. Income generated from music and theatre production activities was $622m with box office takings being 53% ($332m) of the total income. Government funding accounted for 22% ($134m) of income.

Operating profit/surplus before tax was $47m, which represented an operating profit margin of 10.7%.

During 2002-03 these music and theatre production businesses gave 53,241 paid performances with 14.2 million paid attendances.

20.16 MUSIC AND THEATRE PRODUCTION

Units
1999-2000
2002-03

Businesses/organisations at end June
no.
705
865
Employment at end June
Working proprietors and partners
no.
144
282
Permanent full-time
no.
2,904
3,101
Permanent part-time
no.
825
728
Casual/temporary
no.
3,188
3,732
Total
no.
7,060
7,842
Volunteers
no.
3,034
2,548
Income
Box office takings
$m
233.1
331.6
Government funding
$m
116.7
134.4
Other
$m
155.5
156.0
Total
$m
505.4
622.1
Expenses
Labour costs
$m
192.9
213.9
Contract payments to performers/artists and artistic support
$m
46.8
47.3
Rent, leasing and hiring
$m
47.2
62.8
Other
$m
190.7
251.6
Total
$m
477.6
575.6
Operating profit/surplus before tax
$m
27.8
46.5
Operating profit/surplus margin
%
8.0
10.7
Industry value added
$m
206.9
261.6
Productions with paid performances
Paid performances
no.
47,083
53,241
Paid attendances
'000
13,268.6
14,230

Source: Performing Arts, Australia, 2002-03 (8697.0).


Performing arts festivals

Table 20.17 shows there were 176 performing arts festivals (of greater than two days duration) conducted during the year ended June 2003. There were 29,707 performances at these festivals, attended by 7,539,000 people, of which 80% (6,031,000) were free of charge. The majority (90%) of performances carried out were by Australian artists while 21% (6,569) of all performances were provided free of charge.

The bulk of labour provided at these festivals was by volunteers; 15,728 (93%) out of a total of 17,000.


20.17 PERFORMING ARTS FESTIVALS

Units
2002-03

Performing arts festivals conducted during year ended June 2003
no.
176
Employees/volunteers
Employees working at festivals
no.
1,272
Volunteers at festivals
no.
15,728
Total
no.
17,000
Income
Fund-raising income
$m
27.5
Income from ticket sales
$m
27.2
Other income
$m
33.8
Total
$m
88.5
Total expenses
$m
82.8
Attendances
Paid
'000
1,508
Free
'000
6,031
Total
'000
7,539
Performances during festivals
By Australian artists
no.
26,738
By overseas artists
no.
2,969
Total
no.
29,707
Free performances during festivals
no.
6,569

Source: Performing Arts, Australia, 2002-03 (8697.0).


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Commonwealth of Australia 2014

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