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3303.0.55.001 - Causes of Death, Australia: Doctor Certified Deaths, Summary Tables, 2008 Quality Declaration 
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 27/11/2009   
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APPENDIX COMPARABILITY OF DATA OVER TIME


INTRODUCTION

Comparability of mortality statistics over time is affected by a number of factors. These include issues relating to the collection, classification and processing of the data. In the late 1990s, there were two major changes within Australia; namely, the introduction of the tenth revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) for classifying deaths registered from 1 January 1999 and the introduction of the Automated Coding System (ACS) for processing deaths registered from 1 January 1997.

A1.1 Introduction of Automated Coding and ICD-10

Years
Coding Method
ICD revision
Comments    

1979-1996
Manual
ICD-9
Prior to 1979, manual coding under relevant ICD revisions.
1997-1998
Automated
ICD-9
Comparability factors between manual and automated ICD-9 coding were produced, based on a sample of dual coded 1997 data.
1997-1998
Automated
ICD-10
1997 and 1998 data coded to ICD-10 following its introduction.
1999-
Automated
ICD-10 only
Comparability factors between ICD-9 (manually coded) and ICD-10 (automatically coded) based on 1997 backcoded data.




TIMES SERIES

As a consequence of the coding of deaths registered in 1997 and 1998 to ICD-10 as well as ICD-9, there is now a single break in time series outlined in table A1.2.

A1.2 Time Series

Coding method
ICD revision

1979-1996
Manual
ICD-9
1997-onwards
Automated
ICD-10



To support this single break in series Table A1.3 provides concordances and comparability factors for all groupings in this publication. The concordance illustrates the conceptual differences between ICD-9 and ICD-10 classifications. The comparability factors are derived from the movements in the underlying causes of death coded in ICD-9 compared to ICD-10. Groupings with very small numbers have been annotated with an asterisk (*). Caution should be exercised when comparing the two versions of ICD for these groupings.

Additional concordance tables at the three and four digit level between records coded to ICD-9 and ICD-10 are available on request. Further information or clarification on the concordance between these revisions is available from the ABS on 1800 620 963.


COMPARISON OF NINTH AND TENTH REVISIONS OF ICD

The introduction of ICD-10 has resulted in changes to the interpretation and resultant coding of a number of causes, as outlined in the WHO publication International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems Tenth Revision, Volume 2. Causes most affected are Asthma, Mental and behavioural disorders and Diseases of the nervous system.

Under ICD-10, Asthma more clearly links with Chronic lower respiratory diseases, especially Bronchitis and Emphysema. Where these conditions are present, Chronic lower respiratory diseases takes precedence, resulting in a decrease in the reporting of asthma as the underlying cause.

The Chapters covering Mental and behavioural disorders and Diseases of the nervous system have undergone compensatory changes between ICD-9 and ICD-10 mainly due to Alzheimer's disease and certain dementias moving between these Chapters.

A1.3 Concordance and comparability factors

Cause of Death
ICD-10 Code
ICD-9 Code
Comparability factor

All causes
A00-Y98
001-999
1.00
Chapter I Certain infectious and parasitic diseases
A00-B99
001-139
1.25
Septicaemia
A40, A41
38
1.28
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease
B20-B24
042-044
1.03
Chapter II Neoplasms
C00-D48
140-239
1.00
Malignant neoplasms
C00-C97
140-208
1.00
Digestive organs
C15-C26
150-157,159
0.99
Oesophagus
C15
150
1.00
Stomach
C16
151
0.99
Colon
C18
153
0.98
Rectosigmoid junction, rectum, anus and anal canal
C19-C21
154
0.98
Liver and intrahepatic bile ducts
C22
155
1.07
Pancreas
C25
157
0.99
Respiratory and intrathoracic organs
C30-C39
160-165
0.94
Trachea, bronchus and lung
C33, C34
162
0.97
Melanoma of skin
C43
172
0.98
Breast
C50
174 175
0.98
Female genital organs
C51-C58
179-184
0.99
Ovary
C56
1 830
0.98
Male genital organs
C60-C63
185-187
0.99
Prostate
C61
185
0.98
Urinary tract
C64-C68
188 189
0.96
Kidney, except renal pelvis
C64
1 890
0.96
Bladder
C67
188
0.95
Eye, brain and other parts of central nervous system
C69-C72
190-192
0.97
Brain
C71
191
0.97
Lymphoid, haematopoietic and related tissue
C81-C96
200-208
0.97
Leukaemia
C91-C95
204-208
0.94
In situ and benign neoplasms and neoplasms of uncertain or unknown behaviour
D00-D48
210-239
1.18
Chapter III Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism
D50-D89
279,280-289
1.07
Chapter IV Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases
E00-E90
240-278
1.01
Diabetes mellitus
E10-E14
250
0.99
Chapter V Mental and behavioural disorders
F00-F99
290-319
0.78
Psychoactive substance use
F10-F19
291 292
1.09
303 304 305
Organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders
F00-F09
290
0.69
Chapter VI Diseases of the nervous system
G00-G99
320-359
1.20
Extrapyramidal and movement disorders
G20-G26
332-333
0.95
Alzheimer's disease
G30
3 310
1.48
Chapter VII Diseases of the eye and adnexa
H00-H59
360-379
*
Chapter VIII Diseases of the ear and mastoid process
H60-H95
380-389
*
Chapter IX Disease of the circulatory system
I00-I99
390-459
1.00
All heart disease
I05-I09,I11,
393-398,402,
1.01
I13,I20-I25,
404,410-414,
I26,I27,
415 416
I30-I52
420-429
Acute rheumatic fever and chronic rheumatic heart diseases
I00-I09
390-398
0.69
Hypertensive diseases
I10-I15
401-405
1.00
Ischaemic heart diseases
I20-I25
410-414
1.01
Acute myocardial infarction
I21
410
0.96
Pulmonary heart disease and diseases of pulmonary circulation and other forms of heart disease
I26-I52
415-429
1.06
Cerebrovascular diseases
I60-I69
430-438
0.97
Diseases of arteries, arterioles and capillaries
I70-I79
440-448
0.97
Atherosclerosis
I70
440
0.98
Aortic aneurysm
I71
441
0.97
Chapter X Diseases of the respiratory system
J00-J99
460-519
0.91
Influenza and pneumonia
J10-J18
480-487
0.87
Chronic lower respiratory diseases
J40-J47
490-496
0.91
Emphysema
J43
492
0.86
Asthma and status asthmaticus
J45, J46
493
0.75
Chapter XI Diseases of the digestive system
K00-K93
520-579
1.05
Diseases of oesophagus, stomach and duodenum
K20-K31
530-537
1.04
Gastric and duodenal ulcer
K25-K27
531-533
0.99
Diseases of liver
K70-K77
570-573
1.02
Chapter XII Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue
L00-L99
680-709
1.06
Chapter XIII Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue
M00-M99
710-739
1.15
Arthropathies and systemic connective tissue disorders
M00-M36
710-719
1.19
Chapter XIV Diseases of the genitourinary system
N00-N99
580-629
1.14
Renal failure
N17-N19
584-586
1.05
Chapter XV Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium
O00-O99
630-676
*
Chapter XVI Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period
P00-P96
760-779
0.96
Disorders related to short gestation and low birthweight, not elsewhere classified
P07
765
*
Infections specific to the perinatal period
P35-P39
771
*
Haemorrhagic and haematological disorders of fetus and newborn
P50-P61
772-774,776
*
Chapter XVII Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities
Q00-Q99
740-759
1.03
Congenital malformations of the nervous system
Q00-Q07
740-742
1.00
Congenital malformations of the circulatory system
Q20-Q28
745-747
1.12
Congenital malformations of the respiratory system
Q30-Q34
748
0.90
Chapter XVIII Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified
R00-R99
780-799
0.76
Sudden infant death syndrome
R95
7 980
0.94
Chapter XX External causes of morbidity and mortality
V01-Y98
E800-E999
1.06
Accidents
V01-X59
E800-E949
1.05
Transport accidents
V01-V99
E800-E848
1.03
Falls
W00-W19
E880-E886,E888
1.10
Accidental drowning and submersion
W65-W74
E910
1.03
Intentional self-harm
X60-X84
E950-E959
0.97
Hanging, strangulation and suffocation
X70
E953
0.97
Assault
X85-Y09
E960-E969
1.02




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