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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2002  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 25/01/2002   
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Contents >> Service Industries >> Selected health professions

Audiology and audiometry services

The first ABS survey of the audiology and audiometry industry was conducted in respect of 1997-98. This industry includes businesses mainly engaged in providing audiology and audiometry services such as hearing assessment and the sale and fitting of hearing instruments.

As shown in table 21.28, at 30 June 1998 there were 146 audiology and audiometry businesses in Australia, operating from 985 locations (362 of which were located in capital cities). These businesses employed a total of 1,367 persons at 30 June 1998, and generated total income of $158m in 1997-98. Fee for service income of $127m represented 81% of total income, $72m of which was in the form of payments from the Office of Hearing Services.

In 1997-98, the audiology and audiometry industry had an operating profit before tax of just under $1m, which represented an operating profit margin of 0.7%.


21.28 AUDIOLOGY AND AUDIOMETRY SERVICES INDUSTRY - 1997-98

Units
Value

Businesses at 30 June no.
146
Private practice locations at 30 June -
- Capital city no.
362
- Other no.
623
- Total no.
985
Employment at 30 June -
- Audiologists persons
503
- Audiometrists persons
162
- Other persons
702
- Total persons
1,367
Income -
- Fee for service $m
127.4
- Other income $m
30.6
- Total $m
157.9
Expenses -
- Labour costs $m
56.8
- Purchases of hearing instruments $m
55.1
- Other expenses $m
45.1
- Total $m
156.9
Operating profit before tax $m
0.9
Operating profit margin %
0.7

Source: Audiology and Audiometry Services, Australia, 1997-98 (8554.0).


Table 21.29 shows that audiology and audiometry businesses provided a range of services during 1997-98, including the fitting and post-fitting of hearing instruments (140 businesses), sale of hearing instruments (135 businesses) and consultation and diagnostic work (134 businesses). Only 49% of audiology and audiometry businesses were involved in the provision of workplace assessment services.


21.29 AUDIOLOGY AND AUDIOMETRY ACTIVITIES, By Number and Proportion of Businesses - 1997-98

Total

no.
Proportion of
businesses
undertaking
activity

%

Consultation and diagnostic work
134
91.8
Fitting and post-fitting of hearing instruments
140
95.9
Sale of hearing instruments
135
92.5
Sale of assistive listening devices
111
76.0
Repair and maintenance of hearing instruments
128
87.7
Hearing rehabilitation and counselling
126
86.3
Workplace assessments
72
49.3
All businesses(a)
146
100.0

(a) Businesses are counted once for each activity in which they are involved. Hence the counts of businesses by type of activity do not sum to the total.

Source: Audiology and Audiometry Services, Australia, 1997-98 (8554.0).


Chiropractic and osteopathic services

The ABS conducted its first survey of chiropractic and osteopathic businesses in private practice in respect of 1997-98. As shown in table 21.30, there were 2,150 chiropractic and osteopathic businesses in the industry at 30 June 1998, consisting of 1,776 chiropractic businesses and 374 osteopathic businesses. The majority (56%) of these businesses were unincorporated businesses (i.e. sole proprietorships or partnerships).

Practitioners accounted for 43% of employment within the industry, the remainder being support staff. The average wages and salaries paid to employed practitioners were similar for the two professions, employed chiropractors being paid $36,300 and osteopaths $34,300. In comparison, the average wage of support staff within the chiropractic and osteopathic services industry was $14,000 during 1997-98, partly reflecting the fact that the majority of support staff (67%) worked part-time.

During 1997-98 the industry received total income of $268m. Fee for service income was the major component, accounting for 95% ($254m) of total income. The industry incurred expenses of $212m, of which labour costs of $102m were the major component.

In 1997-98 the chiropractic and osteopathic services industry generated an operating profit before tax of just under $55m, representing an operating profit margin of 20.4%. The operating profit margin for osteopathic services was 29.5%, compared to 19.4% for chiropractic services.


21.30 CHIROPRACTIC AND OSTEOPATHIC SERVICES - 1997-98

Units
Chiropractic services
Osteopathic services
Total

Businesses at 30 June no.
1,776
374
2,150
Private practice locations at end June -
- Capital city no.
1,570
359
1,929
- Other no.
710
116
826
- Total no.
2,280
475
2,755
Employment at end June -
- Practitioners persons
2,111
398
2,509
- Other persons
3,033
328
3,361
- Total persons
5,144
726
5,870
Income -
- Fee for service $m
228.9
25.1
254.0
- Other income $m
10.4
3.7
14.1
- Total $m
239.2
28.8
268.0
Expenses -
- Labour costs $m
93.7
8.4
102.1
- Other expenses $m
98.3
11.7
110.0
- Total $m
192.0
20.2
212.2
Operating profit before tax $m
46.2
8.4
54.6
Operating profit margin %
19.4
29.5
20.4

Source: Chiropractic and Osteopathic Services, Australia 1997-98 (8550.0).


Optometry and optical dispensing services

The ABS conducted its first survey of the optometry and optical dispensing services industry in respect of 1997-98. At 30 June 1998 there were 1,557 optometry and optical dispensing businesses in the industry. The majority (60%) of these businesses provided both optometry and optical dispensing services, while 25% provided optometry services only, the remaining 15% providing only optical dispensing services.

As shown in table 21.31, there were 8,915 persons working in the industry at the end of June 1998. Optometrists (2,702 persons) and optical dispensers (2,448 persons) accounted for 58% of total employment. Females accounted for 61% of persons working in the industry. However, the proportion of females varied by occupation, only 36% of optometrists and 54% of optical dispensers being female. In contrast, females accounted for 82% of all other staff.

During 1997-98, the optometry and optical dispensing industry generated total income of $818m. Sales of optical goods accounted for 80% of total industry income. Included in sales of optical goods were sales of:

  • 1,949,000 frames (with lenses) at an average sale price of $211 per frame (with lenses);
  • 1,082,000 sets of lenses (without frames) at an average sale price of $99 per set of lenses (without frame); and
  • 337,000 frames (without lenses) at an average sale price of $123 per frame (without lenses).

Fees from optometry services during the period were $150m, 85% of which was from Medicare bulk billing payments.


21.31 OPTOMETRY AND OPTICAL DISPENSING SERVICES - 1997-98

Units
Value

Businesses at 30 June no.
1,557
Locations at end June -
- Capital city no.
2,196
- Other no.
840
- Total no.
3,036
Employment at end June -
- Optometrists persons
2,702
- Optical dispensers persons
2,448
- Other persons
3,765
- Total persons
8,915
Income -
- Sales of goods $m
653.4
- Fee for optometry service$m
150.3
- Other income $m
14.7
- Total $m
818.4
Expenses -
- Labour costs $m
223.3
- Purchases $m
252.9
- Other expenses $m
256.8
- Total $m
733.0
Operating profit before tax $m
89.1
Operating profit margin %
10.9

Source: Optometry and Optical Dispensing Services, Australia 1997-98 (8553.0).


Total expenses during 1997-98 for the optometry and optical dispensing industry were $733m. Purchases of optical goods ($253m) were the most significant expense item, followed by labour costs ($223m). On average, employed optometrists were paid wages and salaries of $40,900 during 1997-98. In contrast, the average wages and salaries paid to optical dispensers were $25,000, and those for other staff were $20,200 - partly attributable to the relatively large proportion (45%) of other staff who worked part-time.

After expenses, the industry recorded an operating profit before tax of $89m for 1997-98, representing an operating profit margin of 10.9%.


Physiotherapy services

At the end of June 1998 there were 3,266 businesses in the physiotherapy services industry, operating from 4,050 private practice locations. The majority (72%) of physiotherapy businesses were unincorporated businesses i.e. sole proprietorships or partnerships.

As shown in table 21.32, there were 9,055 persons working in the industry as at 30 June 1998. Females accounted for 74% (6,719) of persons working, with 66% of physiotherapists and 88% of support staff being female. In total, 61% of persons in the physiotherapy services industry worked part-time.

In 1997-98, fee for service income accounted for $344m (95%) of total income ($364m). The physiotherapy services industry incurred expenses of $270m during the period, the majority of which was attributable to labour costs (54% of total expenses).

The operating profit before tax for the industry was $93m in 1997-98, resulting in an operating profit margin of 25.7%.


21.32 PHYSIOTHERAPY SERVICES INDUSTRY - 1997-98

Units
Physiotherapy services

Businesses at 30 June no.
3,266
Private practice locations at 30 June -
- Capital city no.
3,097
- Other no.
953
- Total no.
4,050
Employment at 30 June -
- Practitioners persons
5,663
- Other persons
3,392
- Total persons
9,055
Income -
- Fee for service $m
344.0
- Other income $m
20.1
- Total $m
364.1
Expenses -
- Labour costs $m
145.8
- Other expenses $m
123.9
- Total $m
269.7
Operating profit before tax $m
93.1
Operating profit margin %
25.7

Source: Physiotherapy Services, Australia 1997-98 (8552.0).


Dental services

The ABS conducted its first survey of the dental services industry in respect of 1997-98. Of the 5,257 businesses in the industry at 30 June 1998, 3,339 (71%) were unincorporated businesses (i.e. sole proprietors or partnerships). As shown in table 21.33, the 5,257 businesses operated from 6,384 locations, 81% of them in capital cities.

At the end of June 1998, there were 24,108 persons working in the dental services industry, 74% of whom were female. While only 21% of dental practitioners were female, 97% of support staff were female. The average wage of support staff employees was $19,100, reflecting (in part) the fact that only 53% of support staff were working full-time. By comparison, 74% of dental practitioners were working full-time at 30 June 1998.

During 1997-98, the industry generated total income of $1,685m. Fee for service income was the major component, accounting for 97% ($1,641m) of total income. Total expenses during 1997-98 were $1,234m. Labour costs accounted for 46% ($568m) of total expenses.

The dental services industry generated an operating profit before tax of $451m in 1997-98, which represented an operating profit margin of 26.9%. The operating profit margins of businesses in the oral surgery services sector (34.1%), and the other specialist dental services sector (33.8%) were significantly higher than that recorded by the general dental services sector (25.2%).


21.33 DENTAL SERVICES INDUSTRY - 1997-98

Units
General dental
services
Oral surgery
services
Other specialist
services
Total

Businesses at 30 June no.
4,621
126
510
5,257
Number of locations -
- Capital city no.
4,190
214
696
5,099
- Other no.
961
71
252
1,285
- Total no.
5,151
285
948
6,384
Employment at 30 June -
- Practitioners persons
6,539
144
685
7,368
- Other persons
13,800
558
2,382
16,740
- Total persons
20,339
702
3,067
24,108
Income -
- Fee for service $m
1,317.6
56.8
266.9
1,641.3
- Other income $m
35.7
2.7
5.4
43.9
- Total $m
1,353.4
59.5
272.3
1,685.2
Expenses -
- Labour costs $m
470.9
18.1
79.4
568.4
- Other expenses $m
543.0
21.5
101.1
665.6
- Total $m
1,013.8
39.6
180.5
1,234.0
Operating profit before tax $m
339.5
20.0
91.7
451.2
Operating profit margin %
25.2
34.1
33.8
26.9

Source: Dental Services, Australia, 1997-98 (8551.0).


Veterinary services

The ABS conducted its first survey of the veterinary services industry in respect of 1999-2000, approaching a sample of employing private veterinary practices.

At the end of June 2000, there were 1,792 employing veterinary practices operating in the veterinary services industry (table 21.34). These practices operated from 2,325 locations, fairly evenly distributed between the capital cities (1,153 practices) and country areas (1,172).

These practices employed 13,218 persons at the end of June 2000, veterinarian general practitioners (4,513 persons) accounting for 34% of total employment, and veterinarian specialists (265 persons) for a further 2%. Nurses (5,667) accounted for 43% of employment; some 97% of veterinary nurses were female.

The total income of employing veterinary practices during 1999-2000 was $994m, with income from the provision of professional services ($865m) being the main source of income, representing 87% of total income.

Income from the treatment of companion animals ($714m) accounted for 83% of professional services income. Most of the remaining income was generated from the treatment of farm production animals ($83m), racehorse breeding ($30m), and treatment of animals in the horse and dog racing industry ($29m). Income from other veterinary services totalled $25m and included such services as grooming ($8m), boarding ($7m), and burial and carcass disposal ($5m).

Veterinary practices incurred total expenses of $836m during 1999-2000. The two major expense items were labour costs of $354m (42% of total expenses) and purchases of $266m (32% of total expenses). Wages and salaries of $312m were the most significant component of labour costs, with employed veterinarians being paid wages and salaries of $169m, resulting in average wages and salaries per employed veterinarian of $52,200. The most significant purchases made by veterinary practices were on goods and medications for resale totalling $244m (29% of total expenses).

The veterinary services industry recorded an operating profit before tax of $159m during 1999-2000, which represented an operating profit margin of 16.0%.


21.34 VETERINARY SERVICES INDUSTRY - 1999-00

Units
Value

Practices at 30 June no.
1,792
Private practice locations at 30 June -
- Capital city no.
1,153
- Other no.
1,172
- Total no.
2,325
Employment at 30 June -
- Veterinarian general practitioners persons
4,513
- Veterinarian specialistspersons
*265
- Nursespersons
5,667
- Other persons
2,772
- Total persons
13,218
Income -
- Professional services $m
864.6
- Sales of merchandise$m
95.5
- Other income $m
33.8
- Total $m
993.9
Expenses -
- Labour costs $m
354.1
- Purchases$m
265.6
- Other expenses $m
216.1
- Total $m
835.7
Operating profit before tax $m
158.5
Operating profit margin %
16.0

Source: Veterinary Services, Australia 1999-2000 (8564.0).


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