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Electricity Supply Chain
Electricity is produced at power stations (generators) using renewable and non-renewable fuel sources, including coal, gas, water (hydro), biomass and wind. The electricity is transported from power stations through the high-voltage transmission network. Electricity leaves the power stations at a very high voltage (up to 330,000 volts) so it can travel long distances efficiently. As the electricity gets closer to where it will be used, its voltage is reduced to a lower voltage (110,000 to 132,000 volts) at high-voltage substations. In some cases, electricity goes directly to some very large customers, such as aluminium smelters. High-voltage transmission networks transfer electricity to a local electricity distribution network via a 'bulk supply' substation in the region where it will be used. The distribution network consists of transformers, overhead powerlines, underground cables, circuit breakers and other network equipment. Various substations and transformers within the distribution network reduce the level of the electricity voltage in a series of steps as it is transported to connection points at homes and businesses.
Employment (as at the end of the financial year)
This refers to the number of persons employed during the last pay period ending in June of the given year. It excludes persons paid by commission only, non-salaried directors, and self-employed person such as consultants and contractors.
In this publication the term 'gas supply' refers to the alternative view of gas supply activity, defined as ANZSIC 2006 codes 0700, 5021 and 2700.
Gas Supply Activity
Gas Supply Activity consists of gas extraction, gas transport and gas distribution.
Gas Supply Chain
The supply chain for gas begins with the extraction of gas from wells in gas fields. The extracted gas often requires processing to separate the methane from liquids and gases that may be present, and to remove any impurities. The gas extracted from a well can be used on site as a fuel for electricity generation or other purposes. More commonly, however, gas fields and processing facilities are located some distance from the cities, towns and regional centres where the gas is consumed. High pressure transmission pipelines are used to transport natural gas from source over long distances. A network of distribution pipelines are then used to deliver gas from points along the transmission pipelines to industrial customers and from gate stations (or city gates) for the reticulation of gas in cities, towns and regional communities.
Industry value added (IVA)
IVA represents the value added by industry to the intermediate inputs used by the industry. IVA is the measure of contribution by businesses to gross domestic product.
The derivation of IVA is as follows:
However, it should be noted that IVA is not a measure of operating profit before tax (OPBT). Wage and salary expenses and most of the labour costs are not taken into account in its calculation, and nor are most insurance premiums, interest expenses or depreciation and a number of lesser expenses.
Sales and service income
Sales of goods, whether or not produced by the business (including goods produced for the business on a commission basis). Includes export sales, sales or transfers to related businesses or to overseas branches of the business, progress payments relating to long term contracts if they are billed in the period, delivery charges not separately invoiced to customers, sales of goods produced by the business from crude materials purchased, and income from 'specific' rates (e.g. water, sewerage, irrigation and drainage rates). Excludes excise and duties received on behalf of the government (e.g. the petroleum production excise duty), sales of assets, natural resource royalties income, interest income, and delivery charges separately invoiced to customers. Exports are valued free on board (f.o.b.), i.e. export freight charges are excluded.
Income from services, includes income from consulting services, repair, maintenance and service income and fees, contract, subcontract and commission income, management fees/charges from related and unrelated businesses, installation charges, delivery charges separately invoiced to customers and royalties from intellectual property (e.g. patents and copyrights) and natural resource royalties income. For the electricity supply and gas supply industries, also includes transmission and distribution income. Excludes interest income, and delivery charges not separately invoiced to customers.
Rent, leasing and hiring income, derived from the ownership of land, dwellings, buildings and other structures, motor vehicles, plant, machinery and other equipment. Excludes royalties from mineral leases, income from finance leases and payments received under hire purchase arrangements.
These are valued net of discounts given and exclusive of goods and services tax (GST). Extraordinary items are also excluded.
Type of activity unit (TAU)
The TAU is the statistical unit used by the ABS to represent businesses, and for which statistics are reported, in cases where the ABN unit is not suitable for ABS statistical needs.
The TAU comprises one or more business entities, sub-entities or branches of a business entity within an enterprise group that can report production and employment data for similar economic activities. When a minimum set of data items are available, a TAU is created which covers all the operations within an industry subdivision (and the TAU is classified to the relevant subdivision of the ANZSIC). Where a business cannot supply adequate data for each industry, a TAU is formed which contains activity in more than one industry subdivision.
Wages and salaries
The gross wages and salaries (including capitalised wages and salaries) of all employees of the business. The item includes severance, termination and redundancy payments, salaries and fees of directors and executives, retainers and commissions of persons who received a retainer, bonuses, and annual and other types of leave. Provision expenses for employee entitlements (e.g. provisions for annual leave and leave bonus, long service leave, sick leave, and severance, termination and redundancy payments) are also included, as are salary sacrificed earnings and remuneration of employees in the form of share based payments and stock options. (Note that in issues of this publication prior to 2006-07, salary sacrificed earnings and remuneration of employees in the form of share based payments and stock options were reported under related expense items. For example, salary sacrificed for superannuation was included in employer contributions into superannuation.)
Payments related to self-employed persons such as consultants, contractors and persons paid solely by commission without a retainer are excluded. The drawings of working proprietors and partners are also excluded.
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