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The Energy Survey 2001-02 collected data on energy use across the non-household sectors of the Australian economy. It covered a range of energy and fuel types including electricity, natural gas, petroleum products, coal and renewable energy. The survey also collected data on the supply of petroleum products, electricity and natural gas, and the associated conversion, transmission and distribution losses. Energy use data are available at a national and state level; supply data are available at a national level. The survey only collected data on Australian domestic production and use of energy.
In Australia, electricity generation was primarily undertaken by the electricity supply industry, but electricity can also be generated by individual businesses. These businesses either directly use the electricity (own-use) or sell excess electricity to other users (secondary generation). Total electricity generated in Australia in 2001-02 was 216,316 GWh. Of this 205,407 GWh was generated by the electricity supply industry and by secondary generators for sale, and 10,909 GWh was generated by other businesses for their own-use (table 1).
Non-renewable fuels used to generate electricity include black coal (53,576 kt), brown coal (65,075 kt), and natural gas (291,372 TJ). Hydro-electricity was the main renewable source of electricity, and in 2001-02, 15,567 GWh of hydro-electricity were produced (table 1).
TABLE 1. FUELS USED TO GENERATE ELECTRICITY, Australia, 2001-02
Electricity was lost during its supply from power stations to homes and businesses; these losses are called supply losses. Initial losses occur when electricity generators use electricity in their generation processes. Further losses occur along transmission and distribution networks. In 2001-02, 26,907 GWh was used or lost during supply of electricity to users. Initial losses by generators accounted for 12,082 GWh, transmission losses accounted for 6,301 GWh, and distribution losses accounted for 8,524 GWh. These losses represent around 13.1% of total electricity generated for sale.
Electricity was generally supplied to households and industry by distributors. However, high-voltage transmission companies and the generating businesses themselves can supply electricity directly to businesses. In 2001-02, according to electricity supply businesses, 127,095 GWh of electricity were supplied to industrial and commercial customers and 53,309 GWh were supplied to residential customers. Of the 127,095 GWh supplied to industry, 97,835 GWh (77%) were supplied from distributors, 24,993 GWh (20%) were supplied from transmitters, and 4,267 GWh (3%) were supplied direct from generators (table 2).
TABLE 2. ELECTRICITY SUPPLY BY SOURCE, Australia, 2001-02
In 2001-02, 862,635 TJ of natural gas and ethane, 415,404 TJ of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and 4,439 ML of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), were produced by the gas supply industries in Australia. Losses during the processing of raw gas (such as flaring) amounted to 37,974 TJ.
Transmission and distribution pipelines transport natural gas to end-users; this transportation can also lead to losses. Total supply losses in 2001-02 were 12,093 TJ, comprising 905 TJ of pipeline losses and 11,188 TJ of distribution losses. This represents around 1.5 % of all pipelined natural gas.
In 2001-02, 620,972 TJ of natural gas were supplied to large customer connections (industrial and commercial customers), comprising 232,416 TJ from distribution networks and 388,556 TJ from transmission pipelines (table 3). Total supply to small customer connections (households and small businesses, as defined by distributors) was 168,614 TJ (table 3).
TABLE 3. NATURAL GAS SUPPLY BY SOURCE, Australia, 2001-02
Australian petroleum refineries converted 44,907 ML of crude oil and other feedstocks into petroleum fuels and non-fuel products, including 18,727 ML of petrol, 13,503 ML of diesel, 5,212 ML of aviation turbine fuel (Avtur), and 2,271 ML of LPG (table 4).
TABLE 4. PETROLEUM REFINING, Australia, 2001-02
Energy end-use by industry
End-use of energy by industry (that is, energy which was not converted into another form of energy) included 136,499 GWh of electricity, 378,576 TJ of natural gas, and 4,205 kt of black coal (table 5). Additionally, industry end-users consumed 9,711 ML of diesel, 4,469 ML of petrol and 1,115 ML of LPG. Of the renewable energy sources, 7,408 kt of bagasse and 1,153 kt of wood and woodwaste were consumed by industry for end-use activities.
TABLE 5. END-USE FUEL CONSUMPTION, by industry, Australia, 2001-02(a)
Energy end-use by state and territories
Each state and territory used different proportions of fuel types for end-use purposes (table 6). In 2001-02, New South Wales used more electricity, petrol, and diesel than any other state. Queensland (1,996 kt) and Western Australia (1,148 kt) together accounted for three-quarters of end-use consumption of black coal. Western Australia used 36% of Australia's natural gas (136,408 TJ).
TABLE 6. END-USE FUEL CONSUMPTION, by state, Australia, 2001-02(a)
2. USE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY
In 2001-02, renewable energy accounted for 4% (or 185 PJ) of total energy used by Australian industry to generate electricity and for end-use purposes.
What is renewable energy?
Renewable energy is any source of energy that can be used without depleting its reserves. These sources include solar power, wind power, wave power, geothermal energy and hydro-electricity. If biomass is produced sustainably, then it is considered to be a renewable resource (AGO 2004).
In Australia, renewable energy sources are used for many purposes. Biomass, wind power, solar power and hydro-electricity are used to generate electricity. Additionally, wind power is used for pumping water in rural Australia, solar power is used for heating water and to extract salt from sea water, and wood is used for heating houses.
TABLE 7. FUEL USE, by fuel type, Australia, 2001-02(a)
What were the renewable energy sources used by Australian industry in 2001-02?
A number of renewable energy sources were used by Australian industry during 2001-02 (table 8; graph 9). By energy content, bagasse contributed the highest amount, accounting for 91 PJ (or 49%) of total renewable energy use. Hydro-electricity accounted for 56 PJ (or 30%) and wood and woodwaste accounted for 29 PJ (or 16%) of total renewable energy used.
Similar amounts of renewable energy were used to generate electricity and for end-use purposes. Organic matter and biofuel use were reported only for end-use. Wood and woodwaste, biogas and bagasse were used for both electricity generation and for end-use. Due to difficulties in quantifying the use of hydro-power, wind power, and solar power for purposes other than in electricity generation, end-use of these energy sources was not collected in the ABS Energy Survey 2001-02.
Bagasse accounted for 77% (71 PJ) of renewable energy for end-use, while wood and woodwaste accounted for 20% (19 PJ; graph 9).
Renewable energy was used to generate both electricity for sale and electricity for own-use. Generation for own-use consumed 23 PJ of renewable energy - of this, 59% was from bagasse and 38% from wood and woodwaste. Inputs into electricity generation for sale used 70 PJ of renewable energy and inputs into electricity generated for own-use consumed 23 PJ.
TABLE 8. RENEWABLE ENERGY USE, by fuel type, Australia, 2001-02(a)
Renewable energy use by industry
The manufacturing industry was the main user of renewable energy. In 2001-02, the manufacturing industry used 114 PJ of renewable energy to generate electricity for own-use and for end-use (table 10). This represented 62% of total industry use of renewable energy.
Bagasse was used exclusively in food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing (ANZSIC Subdivision 21), which consumed 14 PJ to generate electricity for own-use, and 71 PJ for other purposes (typically as a heat source in sugar mills).
In 2001-02, the manufacturing industry used 27 PJ of wood and woodwaste. Of this, food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing (ANZSIC Subdivision 21) used 2 PJ and wood and paper product manufacturing (ANZSIC Subdivision 23) used 16 PJ for end-use purposes. Further, the manufacturing industry consumed 9 PJ of wood and woodwaste to generate electricity for own-use.
TABLE 10. RENEWABLE ENERGY USE BY THE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY, by fuel type, Australia, 2001-02(a)
3. USE OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS
There are a vast number of different petroleum products. They range from the common fuels, such as petrol, diesel and LPG, to less common fuels such as heating oil, kerosene, fuel oil, and aviation fuel (avgas and avtur). There are also some industry specific petroleum products such as refinery fuel, waste oils, crude oil and naptha. Additionally, there are petroleum products not normally used as a source of energy, for example bitumen and lubricants.
Transport activity, whether by land (called 'road transport activity' in this publication), sea or air, is obviously a major use of petroleum products. But petroleum is also used for other activities such as to generate electricity, create heat, and run equipment and machinery.
Petroleum products used in road transport activity
Over half of all petroleum products are used for road transport activity. In 2001-02, total road transport activity used 222 PJ (5,746 ML) of diesel, 148 PJ (4,336 ML) of petrol, and 17 PJ (647 ML) of LPG. The transport industry was the largest overall user of petroleum products for road transport activity, consuming 143 PJ of diesel, 8 PJ of petrol and 8 PJ of LPG.
In addition to the transport industry, diesel in road transport activity was most widely used in the construction (21 PJ), manufacturing (13 PJ), and wholesale and retail trade (11 PJ) industries.
Petrol was widely used for road transport activity in the wholesale and retail trade, construction and the service industries. In 2001-02, retail and wholesale trade used 38 PJ of petrol, construction used 26 PJ, and property and business services used 21 PJ. Manufacturing used 20 PJ of petrol, of which, machinery and equipment manufacturing (ANZSIC Subdivision 28) consumed 4 PJ.
LPG was the least used petroleum product for road transport activity. In 2001-02, the transport industry used 45% of all LPG used in road vehicles. Other large users were wholesale and retail trade (3 PJ), construction (2 PJ) and communication services (1 PJ).
Some comparisons can be made with the ABS Energy Survey 2001-02 and the 1986-87 National Energy Survey - Energy Consumption in Industry, Australia (ABS 1989). This early survey collected volumes of energy use, by fuel type (including LPG, petrol and diesel), by industry and by purpose (including electricity generation and road transport activity), therefore allowing direct comparisons with the ABS Energy Survey 2001-02.
Since 1986-87, diesel use for road transport activity has more than doubled. The transport industry has more than doubled its diesel use for road transport activity, from 65 PJ to 143 PJ, and the construction industry has, from a lower base, tripled its use of road transport diesel, from 7 PJ to 21 PJ (graph 11).
Industrial consumption of petrol in road vehicles, on the other hand, has increased from 120 PJ in 1986-87 to 148 PJ in 2001-02. The main increases have been in the construction and service industries. The construction industry's consumption of petrol in road transport activity has increased from 14 PJ to 26 PJ. Finance, property and government administration use of petrol in road transport activity has increased from 23 PJ to 32 PJ. The communication industry's use of petrol has doubled, but still remains small relative to other industries.
Petroleum products used in electricity generation
Petroleum products are used to generate electricity, both for sale and for own-use. Compared to other sources of energy, such as coal, petroleum products play a marginal role in electricity generation (table 1). Petroleum products typically fill niche roles such as in back-up generation, in remote communities not connected to a public electricity grid, or where they are more cost effective than other sources.
In 2001-02, diesel was the most widely used petroleum product for electricity generation (graph 12). In 2001-02, 10 PJ of diesel was consumed to generate electricity for sale, and another 14 PJ was consumed to generate electricity for own-use. The mining industry alone used 12 PJ of diesel to generate electricity for own-use, and of this, metal ore mining (ANZSIC Subdivision 13) accounted for 10 PJ. Metal product manufacturing (ANZSIC Subdivision 27) used 1 PJ of diesel to generate electricity for own-use.
Other uses of petroleum products
In addition to road transport activity and electricity generation, petroleum products are used by industry for a number of other purposes, such as to run equipment and machinery, for heating and for lighting. In 2001-02, Australian industry used 153 PJ of diesel, 67 PJ of refinery fuel, and 30 PJ of fuel oil for other purposes (graph 13).
The mining industry was the largest user of diesel for other purposes, consuming 76 PJ of diesel in 2001-02. The construction industry and the transport industry each used 20 PJ of diesel for other purposes. Petroleum refineries were the only user of refinery fuel, consuming 67 PJ in 2001-02.
LPG was commonly used by food related manufacturing and service industries. In 2001-02, food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing (ANZSIC Subdivision 21) consumed 2 PJ of LPG for other purposes, as did the combined service industries (accommodation, cafes, and restaurants; cultural and recreational services; and personal and other services; respectively ANZSIC Divisions H,P,Q). Wholesale and retail trade used 1 PJ of LPG.
The relative proportions of diesel used by industry for other purposes has changed between 1986-87 and 2001-02 (graph 14). For example, diesel use by the mining industry and the construction industry has doubled over this period. However, diesel use for other purposes has fallen by 33% in the transport industry (although this may be because the 2001-02 data exclude water transport) and by 75% in the combined other services industries (graph 14).
4. ELECTRICITY GENERATED FOR OWN-USE
Most businesses purchase electricity. However, for reasons such as fuel costs, geographical isolation, and security of supply, some Australian businesses meet part or all of their electricity demand by using their own generators. This process is referred to as electricity generated for own-use or self-generation.
In 2001-02, Australian industry consumed 140 PJ of energy inputs to generate 10,909 GWh (or 39 PJ) of electricity for own-use, representing a thermal efficiency of 27.8%. This rate was lower than the 30.9% thermal efficiency for electricity generated for sale.
Electricity generated for own-use accounts for 5% of total electricity generated but uses 6% (140 PJ) of all fuels used to generate electricity (table 15). As a comparison, electricity generated for own-use accounted for 7% of all electricity generated by OECD countries in 2001 (IEA 2003).
TABLE 15. INPUTS INTO ELECTRICITY GENERATION, Australia, 2001-02
Inputs into electricity generated for own-use
In 2001-02, natural gas accounted for 46% (63 PJ) of the total energy inputs into generation for own-use (graph 16). Coal and coal by-products contributed 25% (35 PJ), comprising 14 PJ of black coal, 12 PJ of brown coal, 7 PJ of blast furnace gas, and 2 PJ of coke oven gas. Renewable sources, particularly bagasse (14 PJ) and wood and woodwaste (9 PJ) accounted for 16% of total inputs.
Electricity generated for own-use, by industry
Manufacturing and mining were the two main industries which generated electricity for own-use. In 2001-02, the manufacturing industry generated 23 PJ (6,357 GWh) and the mining industry generated 15 PJ (4,288 GWh). However, the mix of fuels each industry used to generate electricity displays marked differences (graph 17). The mining industry relied on natural gas and diesel, whereas the manufacturing industry used significant amounts of black coal.
Of the other industries, the health and community services industry generated 0.2 PJ (85 GWh) and education generated 0.1 PJ (26 GWh). Both of these industries used diesel as the main fuel to generate electricity.
Other points relating to electricity generated for own-use by industry in 2001-02, are:
1. The ABS Energy Survey 2001-02 collected data in volume units, such as kWh of electricity, tonnes of solids fuels, MJ of gaseous fuels and litres of liquid fuels. To enable further analysis, some data have been converted into PJ using indicative energy conversion factors found in Bush et al., 1999. Since indicative conversion factors were used, there may be differences between ABS data and other sources.
2. Caution should be taken when comparing end-use and supply data as presented in this publication. No attempt has been made to balance the figures, and scope and coverage issues will only partially explain the discrepancies. Fully balanced supply and use estimates will be published by the ABARE and the ABS at a later date.
ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) 1989, 1986-87 National Energy Survey - Energy Consumption in Industry, Australia, cat. no. 8217.0, ABS, Canberra.
AGO (Australian Greenhouse Office) 2004, What is renewable energy? Last viewed on 2 March 2004. <http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/renewable/overview.html>.
Bush S, Dickson A, Harman J, and Anderson J, 1999, Australian Energy: Market Developments and Projections to 2014-15, ABARE Research Report 99.4, Canberra.
IEA (International Energy Agency), 2003, Electricity Information (2003 Edition).
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