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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2005  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 21/01/2005   
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Contents >> Energy >> Energy production

In examining Australia's energy production it is important to distinguish between primary and derived (or secondary) energy. Primary energy products are forms of energy obtained directly from nature, including non-renewable fuels such as coal, natural gas and crude oil, and renewable fuels such as wood, hydro-electricity and wind. Derived energy products are fuels produced from another fuel, commonly a primary energy product. Derived energy products include electricity, petroleum products such as petrol and diesel, and coke (Bush et al. 1999).

Primary energy production

Australia produces primary energy from a range of renewable and non-renewable sources (table 17.5). Non-renewable primary energy products produced in Australia include black coal (273,236 kilotonnes (kt) in 2001-02), brown coal (68,384 kt) and uranium (7 kt of uranium equivalent). Renewable primary energy products produced in 2001-02 include wood (5,678 kt) and hydro-electricity (15,567 gigawatt hours (GWh)).

In 2001-02, 862,635 terajoules (TJ) of natural gas and ethane, 415,404 TJ of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and 4,439 megalitres (ML) of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), were produced by the gas supply industries in Australia. Losses during the processing of raw gas (such as flaring) amounted to 37,974 TJ.



17.5 PRODUCTION OF PRIMARY ENERGY - 2001-02

Fuel
Units
Quantity

Black coal
kt
273,236
Brown coal
kt
68,384
Crude oil
ML
28,933
Condensate
ML
7,938
LPG(a)
ML
4,439
Natural gas(b)
TJ
862,635
Uranium
kt
7
Wood
kt
5,678
Bagasse
kt
8,316
Hydro-electricity
GWh
15,567
Wind
GWh
164

(a) Naturally occurring.
(b) Including ethane and excluding liquified natural gas.

Source: Detailed Energy Statistics (4648.0.55.001); ABARE electronic datasets Table H, Australian Petroleum Statistics.


Graph 17.6 shows the production of non-renewable and renewable energy sources from 1974-75 to 2001-02. During this period, the production of non-renewable fuels has shown an upward trend. In contrast, there has been little growth in the combined production of primary renewable energy sources (wood, bagasse, hydro-electricity and solar). Although production of renewable energy products increased from 204 PJ in 1974-75 to 241 PJ in 2001-02, its share of total primary energy production fell from around 6% to less than 2% over this period (ABARE 2004).

Graph 17.6: PRODUCTION OF PRIMARY FUELS

Derived energy production

Australia produces a variety of derived (or secondary) energy products. In 2001-02 petroleum refineries converted 44,907 ML of crude oil and other refinery feedstocks into petroleum fuels and non-fuel products, including 18,727 ML of petrol, 13,503 ML of diesel, and 5,212 ML of aviation turbine fuel. Operators of coke ovens and blast furnaces, typically part of the metal product manufacturing industry, converted 4,219 kt of black coal into 3,370 kt of coke (table 17.7).

In 2001-02 electricity generation was primarily undertaken by the electricity supply industry, but electricity was also generated by individual businesses. These businesses either directly use the electricity (called own-use) or sell the electricity to other users (called secondary generation). Total electricity generated in 2001-02 was 216,316 GWh. Of this 205,407 GWh (or 95%) was generated by the electricity supply industry and by secondary generators for sale, and 10,909 GWh (5%) was generated by other businesses for their own-use (table 17.7). Further statistics on the supply and use of electricity are provided in the section Energy use.


17.7 PRODUCTION OF DERIVED ENERGY - 2001-02

Fuel
Units
Quantity

Coal products
Coke
kt
3,370
Coke oven gas
kt
790
Blast furnace gas
kt
9,737
Other coal by-products
TJ
5,174
Petroleum products
Petrol(a)
ML
18,727
Aviation gasoline
ML
142
Aviation turbine fuel
ML
5,212
LPG
ML
2,271
Fuel oil
ML
2,059
Diesel(b)
ML
13,503
Heating oil and kerosene
TJ
7,725
Other petroleum products
TJ
50,868
Liquefied natural gas
TJ
415,404
Electricity
Generated for sale
GWh
205,407
Generated for own-use
GWh
10,909

(a) Includes unleaded and leaded.
(b) Includes automotive diesel oil and industrial and marine diesel fuel.

Source: Detailed Energy Statistics, Australia, 2001-02 (4648.0.55.001).


The electricity supply industry has undergone substantial structural change over the last decade. The 1991 decision to introduce a national electricity market has resulted in the replacement of the traditional state-owned vertically integrated monopolies with businesses that compete within the same marketplace. Employment, sales and turnover continue to be affected by the changes caused by industry restructuring. Employment increased by 551 persons (2%) to 33,435 persons in 2000-01 (table 17.8). Turnover in the electricity supply industry increased nationally by $2.0b (8%) to $27.4b. The majority of this increase was accounted for by a growth in the value of sales of goods and services of $1.5b (6%) to $25.4b although much of the increase was due to the statistical effects of industry restructuring rather than real growth.


17.8 SUMMARY OF OPERATIONS, ELECTRICITY INDUSTRY

Units
1998-99
1999-2000
2000-01

Employment at 30 June
no.
33,022
32,884
33,435
Sales of goods and services
$m
23,029.6
23,919.2
25,438.5
Turnover
$m
24,426.9
25,476.5
27,448.3

Source: Electricity, Gas, Water and Sewerage Operations, Australia (8226.0).


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