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7 In some cases, a profile has not been produced for every region. This is usually because there is insufficient data for that region. For example, there have been no profiles produced for Other Territories (Jervis Bay, Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands).
8 Some values in the NRP have been randomly adjusted or suppressed to avoid the release of confidential data. Care should be taken when interpreting cells with small numbers. In some cases small cells have been randomly altered to zero. Caution should be exercised in deducing that there are no people or units with particular characteristics in a given area.
9 These Explanatory Notes have been presented using the ABS Topic Framework. Data are also presented using the Topic Framework within the National Regional Profile. The topics are: Economy (paragraphs 10 to 70), Population/People (paragraphs 71 to 112), Industry (paragraphs 113 to 142) and Environment/Energy (paragraphs 143 to 146).
Estimates of Unemployment
10 Unemployment estimates for small areas are produced by the Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (DEEWR) using the Structure Preserving Estimation (SPREE) methodology. The series used in the National Regional Profile is a four quarter smoothed series, at June quarter of each year. SPREE uses statistics from the Australian Government agency Centrelink of persons in receipt of Newstart and Youth Allowance and ABS Population Census and Labour Force Survey estimates by Labour Force Regions to estimate unemployment levels. Sampling and non-sampling errors in these collections will flow into the DEEWR estimates.
11 This methodology produces original, unadjusted estimates which can exhibit considerable variability. The SLA level data shown in the National Regional Profile have been 'smoothed' by averaging the original estimates over the four quarters to June for each year. Particular care should be taken when interpreting estimates for regions where the estimated labour force is smaller than 1000 persons.
12 SLA level data are as at first published by DEEWR for that quarter in the publication 'Small Area Labour Markets, Australia' which can be accessed at www.workplace.gov.au. State level data has been taken from ABS Labour Force statistics. These estimates are annual averages as first published in ABS Labour Force, Australia, Detailed - Electronic Delivery (cat. no. 6291.0.55.001).
13 DEEWR produced the unemployment estimates at SLA level for 2009 on ASGC 2006 geographic boundaries. Prior to 2009, DEEWR produced these estimates on ASGC 2001 geographic boundaries. The impact of these changes has caused inconsistencies in the time series between 2008 and 2009 for some of the regions presented. A summary of these changes can be found in the document 'Changes to the Australian Standards Geographical Classification and Small Area Labour Markets', which can be accessed from www.workplace.gov.au.
14 For all years, a geographic correspondence process has been used to present the data based on 2008 geographic boundaries (ASGC 2008) in the National Regional Profile. Further information on Geographic Correspondences and the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) can be found in paragraphs 149 to 153.
15 A detailed description of the methodology used in deriving the estimates is presented in the DEEWR quarterly publication 'Small Area Labour Markets, Australia' which can be accessed at www.workplace.gov.au
Selected Government Pensions and Allowances
16 Data on the number of individuals receiving selected Government pensions and allowances has been provided by Centrelink, the Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (FaHCSIA), and the Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA).
17 Selected Government Pensions and Allowances Data has been provided to the ABS on an aggregate basis, for Statistical Local Areas. Totals for most items are available for Australia, States and Territories. Some regions have missing data due to the need to protect privacy and confidentialise data in areas with small numbers of beneficiaries, or due to incompatible geographic boundaries (see para 29-33). Where possible, SLA data has been aggregated to form estimates for LGAs, SSDs and SDs.
18 Age pension is a payment for persons who have reached Age Pension age. Age Pension age depends on the individual's date of birth:
For men and women:
19 The majority of Age Pensions are paid by Centrelink. Age pensioners who also receive a Disability Pension from the Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA) have the choice of having their Age Pension paid by either the DVA or Centrelink. People who choose to receive the Age Pension through the DVA are not included in Centrelink data and therefore two separate data items - Age Pension (Centrelink) and Age Pension (DVA) - are published in the National Regional Profile.The Centrelink Age Pension data has been provided by FaHCSIA and includes overseas pension recipients in the total for Australia. Both Age Pension totals for Australia include persons whose address could not be coded to a specific region.
20 The purpose of Disability Support Pension (DSP) is to provide income support for people who have a permanent physical, intellectual or psychiatric impairment. DSP is designed to give people an adequate means of support if they are unable to work for at least 15 hours per week at or above the relevant minimum wage, independent of a program or support. DSP data has been provided by FaHCSIA and includes overseas pension recipients and persons whose address could not be coded to a specific region in the total for Australia.
21 Carer Payment is for people who are unable to support themselves through participation in the workforce while caring for someone with a disability, severe medical condition, or who is frail and aged. Carer Payment data has been provided by FaHCSIA and includes persons whose address could not be coded to a specific region in the total for Australia.
22 Newstart Allowance is a payment for people who are looking for work and allows them to participate in activities designed to increase their chances of finding work. Persons must be aged 21 to 64 to qualify. Newstart Allowance data has been provided by Centrelink.
23 Youth Allowance is a payment for young people who are studying, undertaking training or an Australian Apprenticeship, looking for work, or sick. Persons must be aged 15 to 24 to qualify. Youth Allowance data has been provided by Centrelink.
24 Parenting Payment is a payment for persons who are primary carers of children. Parenting Payment data has been provided by Centrelink.
25 Family Tax Benefits are paid to help with the costs of raising children. Around 75% of all families with at least one dependent child aged under 16 are eligible to receive Family Tax Benefits. These payments should be viewed differently to other Centrelink payments which by their targeted nature can help to identify segments of the population considered to be disadvantaged. Family Tax Benefit data has been provided by FaHCSIA.
26 Family Tax Benefit Part A can be paid to a parent, guardian or an approved care organisation to help with the costs of raising children. There are eligibility requirements involving the age and educational status of the child, residency and income. Family Tax Benefit Part B is an extra payment for single parents and families with one main income to help with the costs of raising children. Part B is limited to families where the primary earner has an adjusted taxable income of $150,000 or less per financial year. There are also additional eligibility requirements. Approximately three-quarters of customers will appear in both categories as they are in receipt of both payments. Data presented in regard to Family Tax Benefits B refer only to fortnightly instalment customers paid directly by Centrelink. It excludes an additional 10% (approximately) who are paid by a lump sum which is claimable at the end of a financial year.
27 Baby Bonus may be paid to families following the birth (including stillbirth) or adoption of a child, where the eligibility requirements for family Tax Benefit for the child are met within 26 weeks of the child's birth (or, in the case of adoption, within 26 weeks of the child being entrusted into the claimant's care). Prior to 2008, Baby Bonus was known as Maternity Payment. From 1 January 2009 an income test was introduced for Baby Bonus. Customers must have an estimated income of $75,000 or less in the 6 months following the birth of the child. Baby Bonus data has been provided by FaHCSIA.
28 With the exception of Baby Bonus payments, all Government Pensions and allowances data refer to a point in time (i.e. the number of persons receiving payment as at the pay period closest to 30 June each year) and therefore do not represent all the customers in receipt of payments during the entire financial year. Customers who have been suspended or not paid at that point of time are not included in these data. Baby Bonus data is a cumulative dataset based on financial year (i.e. it is year-to-date). Customers may be granted more than one payment during a 12 month period (for two different births at two different ages), however they are counted only once in the total.
29 Centrelink data for 2009 was provided for Statistical Local Areas using 2008 geographic boundaries (ASGC 2008). Centrelink data for 2004 to 2008 was provided for Statistical Local Areas using 2006 geographic boundaries (ASGC 2006). All regions that have a value of less than 20, including zero, have been confidentialised for privacy reasons.
30 FaHCSIA data was provided for Statistical Local Areas using 2006 geographic boundaries (ASGC 2006). All regions that have a value of less than 5, including zero, have been confidentialised for privacy reasons.
31 Data has been provided by DVA for Statistical Local Areas and confidentialised where there were less than 4 persons in a region.
32 The NRP presents all data on 2008 geographic boundaries. Where data has been provided using 2006 geographic boundaries no attempt has been made to convert this to 2008 boundaries. Instead, data has only been provided for regions where the geographic boundary has remained unchanged between 2006 and 2008.
33 Where a person could not be allocated to a region within a state/territory, they have been shown in the totals for the state/territory.
34 More information about specific Centrelink payments can be accessed through the Centrelink website at www.centrelink.gov.au.
35 Taxable income data are sourced from the Australian Taxation Office's (ATO) Individual Income Tax Return Database and provided to the ABS by the ATO in aggregated form only, at the Statistical Local Area level. Information about individual taxpayers has not been released to the ABS. The statistics are based on individual income tax returns lodged for the financial year ended 30 June, and processed within sixteen months of the financial year to which they relate.
36 The main functions and responsibilities of the ATO are to administer taxation legislation and to collect a wide variety of taxes. The ATO therefore collects data from its reporting population as part of its processes to calculate income tax liability for those persons who are required to lodge an income tax return.
37 Individuals who submit an individual income tax return (Taxable Individuals) report their total income from various sources over a financial year. Their taxable income is the amount remaining after deducting from assessable income all deductions allowed under the Income Tax Assessment Act and is the amount to which tax rates are applied. Non-taxable Individuals are those individuals who submit a tax return, but for whom no tax is payable.
38 Data items include:
For further information, refer to 'Taxation Statistics' 2007-08 at www.ato.gov.au.
39 Averages presented are calculated by dividing the total reported for an area by the total number of taxable taxpayers. For example, average taxable income is the total taxable income reported for an area divided by the total number of taxable individuals in that area.
40 The statistics are based on individual income tax returns lodged for the financial year ended 30 June, regardless of the year in which they were processed.
41 A geographic correspondence has been used by the Australian Taxation Office in order to present the original data on Australian Standard Geographical Classification 2008 boundaries. Further general information on Geographic Correspondences can be found in paragraphs 149 to 153.
Estimates of Personal Income
42 Estimates of Personal Income data are compiled from the Australian Taxation Office's (ATO) Individual Income Tax Return Database and provided to the ABS by the ATO in aggregated form only, at the Statistical Local Area level. Information about individual taxpayers has not been released to the ABS. Prior to being provided to the ABS, the statistics have been subjected to a confidentiality process that randomly adjusts table cells with small values. This includes altering some small cells to zero. The statistics are based on individual income tax returns lodged for the financial year ended 30 June, and processed within sixteen months of the financial year to which they relate.
43 The ATO database covers all individuals who submit an individual income tax return and includes persons with income from one or more of a range of sources such as wages and salaries, own business, investment, superannuation and annuity, and other income.
44 Wages and salaries are the main forms of payments made to employees for their work or services. Wage and salary income, as reported on the income tax return, includes:
45 Own unincorporated business income includes the following data items on the individual income tax return:
46 The data for Own unincorporated business income excludes distributions from trusts for non-primary production activities as this mainly includes income from a range of other activities (mainly investments). It also excludes the income of working directors/owners of incorporated businesses who are classified as employees and consequently their income is included under wage and salary income.
47 Investment income includes:
48 Superannuation and annuity income includes superannuation and similar pensions and annuities paid by an Australian superannuation fund, a retirement saving account provider, a registered organisation or life assurance company and pensions paid by a fund established for the benefit of Commonwealth, state or territory employees and their dependants. Also included in this category are bonuses from life insurance companies and friendly societies.
50 Other income (excluding Government pensions and allowances) is made up of selected sources of other income reported on the individual income tax return that were not allocated to one of the above categories. In the main these include attributed foreign income and all other income as reported in question 24 (supplementary section) of the 2007-08 income tax return.
51 Averages presented are calculated by dividing the total income reported for each income source by the total number of taxable taxpayers for that income source. For example, average Wage and salary income is the total Wage and salary income reported for an area divided by the total number of Wage and salary earners in that area.
52 A geographic correspondence has been used by the Australian Taxation Office in order to present the original data on Australian Standard Geographical Classification 2008 boundaries. Further general information on Geographic Correspondences can be found in paragraphs 149 to 153.
53 Further information on these statistics can be found in Estimates of Personal Income for Small Areas, Time Series, 2003-04 to 2007-08 (cat. no. 6524.0.55.002).
Wage and Salary Earners
54 Wage and salary earner data provides more detail on the Wage and salary earners in 'Estimates of Personal Income' series (paragraphs 42 to 53). The statistics are based on individual income tax returns lodged for the financial year ended 30 June, and processed within sixteen months of the financial year to which they relate.
55 Occupations are coded using the Australian Standard Classification of Occupations (ASCO) Second Edition (cat. no. 1220.0).
Estimates of Household Wealth
57 These estimates of household wealth for Statistical Local Areas (SLA) have been developed by the Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics (BITRE) by using synthetic estimation methods to disaggregate ABS survey estimates of household wealth. These estimates at SLA level can be found in the BITRE 2008 publication 'Household Wealth', Information Paper 63 and associated database (www.bitre.gov.au). As these statistics have been produced using estimation methods, users should note the assumptions in the methods and limitations of the data used.
58 Estimates of household wealth from the ABS Survey of Income and Housing (see Household Income and Income Distribution, Australia, 2003-04 (cat. no. 6523.0) and Household Wealth and Wealth Distribution, Australia, 2005-06 (cat. no. 6554.0)) are produced from a sample of the population and are available for broad areas such as capital city/balance of state, but are not available for small areas (see paragraph 62 for further details of the scope and coverage of the survey). BITRE have developed estimates of household wealth for small areas by applying small area estimation techniques to disaggregate components of wealth from the ABS Survey of Income and Housing (SIH) at capital city/balance of state level, to Statistical Local Area level.
59 BITRE have used two Broad Area Ratio Estimator (BARE) estimation methods to produce these estimates:
60 BITRE estimated fifteen components of wealth, of which thirteen had some auxiliary data. Examples of auxiliary data used in these estimates include: house prices, taxation statistics and 2001 Census data. BITRE have provided information on the auxiliary data used in the estimation process, and to which components of wealth they were applied in Chapter 3 of the Information Paper 63.
61 Of the components of wealth estimated by BITRE, the following summary data items are presented in these profiles. Further information about these data items can be found in the BITRE Information Paper 63 (www.bitre.gov.au).
62 The scope of the ABS Survey of Income and Housing, and limitations of the auxiliary data available, have limited the SLAs for which an estimate of wealth could be produced by BITRE. The SIH collects information from usual residents of private dwellings in urban and rural areas of Australia, covering about 98% of the people living in Australia. The survey excludes residents of non-private dwellings, households which contain members of non-Australian defence forces stationed in Australia, households which contain diplomatic personnel of overseas governments, and households in collection districts in the Northern Territory defined as very remote or Indigenous Communities (which account for about 23% of the territory's population).
63 BITRE have produced data on 2001 geographical boundaries. In 2001, there were around 1350 SLAs, however, data was not produced for very remote SLAs, discrete indigenous communities, or regions with less than 500 households. BITRE have produced estimates for 1135 Statistical Local Areas (SLA), on the Australian Standard Geographical Classification boundaries for 2001. The National Regional Profile presents data for 984 SLAs where boundaries have not changed significantly between 2001 and 2008. Detailed data for all 1135 SLAs are available from the BITRE Household Wealth Database (www.bitre.gov.au).
Counts of Businesses, Entries and Exits
64 Counts of businesses, entries and exits data are based on snapshots of actively trading businesses as at June in each reference year, from the Australian Bureau of Statistics Business Register.
65 Most businesses in Australia need to obtain an Australian Business Number (ABN). These businesses are then included on the whole-of government register of businesses, the Australian Business Register (ABR), which is maintained by the Australian Taxation Office. The ABS uses information from the ABR to populate its internal register of businesses, the Australian Bureau of Statistics Business Register (ABSBR), which is used as a source for business survey frames and business counts.
66 Counts of businesses produced from the ABSBR comprise actively trading businesses in the Australian economy. The population includes employing and non-employing, single location and multiple location businesses. It should be noted that it is not currently possible to account for those businesses which operate out of multiple locations, other than at their main location. This is particularly relevant for larger businesses, which commonly establish outlets in numerous states and regions across Australia. The reason for this is that data pertaining to individual business locations are not currently available from the ABSBR. Users should therefore be aware of this limitation when using counts of businesses.
67 Excluded from these counts are entities which are not considered to be actively trading in the market sector, such as social and sporting clubs, charitable institutions, and government entities. Businesses which have not submitted a Business Activity Statement and/or have reported zero dollar amounts over five consecutive quarters have been excluded.
68 The data published has been confidentialised using random rounding so as not to release the identity of any business units. The confidentialising process used in this release also means that data presented at these detailed levels will not always be additive. That is, opening stock from the beginning of the financial year, plus entries, minus exits, may not equal the closing stock for the end of the financial year.
69 These data have been produced on 2006 geographic boundaries (ASGC 2006). Given that this edition of the National Regional Profile presents all data based on 2008 geographic boundaries, where the boundary has changed between 2006 and 2008, data has not been included in these profiles for those regions.
70 Further information can be found in Counts of Australian Businesses, including Entries and Exits, Jun 2003 to Jun 2007 (cat. no. 8165.0).
Estimated Resident Population
71 Population data in the profiles, unless otherwise stated, are the estimated resident population (ERP) counts for the selected region as at 30 June for the year shown. Data are shown to the nearest whole number without rounding, but accuracy to the last digit is not claimed and should not be assumed. Data for 2009 are preliminary estimates.
72 A geographic correspondence process has been used to present the 2009 data on 2008 geographic boundaries (ASGC 2008). As a result of this process, the sum of the individual data items may not equal the total ERP count.
73 The concept of ERP links people to a place of usual residence within Australia. Usual residence is defined as that place where each person has lived or intends to live for six months or more in the reference year.
74 In Census years the ERP as at 30 June for a region is based on usual residence census counts, with an allowance for net census undercount and the number of residents temporarily overseas at the census date. Overseas visitors in Australia are excluded from this calculation. As the Census is held at a date other than 30 June (8 August in 2006), further adjustments taking into account births, deaths and net migration for the intervening period are made to obtain the ERP at 30 June.
75 For post-censal years, estimates at the Australian level take into account natural increase and net overseas migration, while estimates for states and territories also use estimated interstate movements involving a change of usual residence.
76 The absence of migration data at the Statistical Local Area (SLA) level means that it is not possible to estimate SLA populations by taking into account natural increase and net migration. Instead, ERP for most areas are calculated using a mathematical model, where a relationship is established between changes in population and changes in other indicators between the two most recent censuses. The choice of indicators varies across the states and territories, depending on indicative ability, and includes dwelling approvals, Medicare enrolments and Australian electoral roll counts. Changes in these indicators are then used to estimate changes in the population of each area since the last census. Local knowledge, including that advised by local governments, may be used to adjust the outcome of the model for a particular SLA.
77 More information about population concepts and the ERP methodology as adopted by the ABS for official population estimates, is in Information Paper: Population Concepts, 2008 (cat. no. 3107.0.55.006), Demographic Estimates and Projections: Concepts, Sources and Methods (cat. no. 3228.0) and Methods and Procedures for Estimating Small Area Populations in Australia (cat. no. 3121.0).
78 Further information on regional ERP data can be found in Regional Population Growth, Australia (cat. no. 3218.0) and Population by Age and Sex, Regions of Australia (cat. no. 3235.0).
Indigenous Estimated Resident Population
79 Indigenous Estimated Resident Population estimates are based on 2006 Census of Population and Housing Counts of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians adjusted for net undercount as measured by the Census Post Enumeration Survey.
80 These data have been produced on 2006 geographic boundaries (ASGC 2006). Given that all data in this edition of the NRP is presented on 2008 geographic boundaries (see paragraphs 147 to 153), where the boundary has changed between 2006 and 2008, data have not been included in these profiles.
81 Further information on these estimates can be found in Experimental Estimates of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, 2006 (cat. no. 3238.0.55.001).
Population Density (Estimated Resident Population)
82 The population density for a region is calculated by dividing the Estimated Resident Population (paragraphs 71 to 78) by the Land Area (paragraph 143) to obtain the number of persons per square kilometre.
Census 2006 (2006 Census of Population and Housing)
83 The National Regional Profile presents a summary of population characteristics from the 2006 Census of Population and Housing. More detailed data are available from the Census page on the ABS website. All Census data in the National Regional Profile are presented on a usual residence basis. The data relates to where the persons usually are resident, rather than where they were counted on Census night (8 August 2006).
84 For more information about the Census, see How Australia Takes a Census (cat. no. 2903.0) and 2006 Census of Population and Housing: Nature and Content (cat. no. 2008.0). For information about Census data items see Census Dictionary, 2006 (cat. no. 2901.0).
85 The Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC) (cat. no 1269.0) was used to classify responses for birthplace of individuals. This classification used the current names of countries, so if a person uses a former name the current name is coded. For example, Siam would be coded to Thailand. If an individual's birthplace was not stated on the Census form, an attempt was made to derive it from other answers.
86 The data shown exclude overseas visitors, persons at sea at the time of the Census, and persons whose responses on the Census form inadequately described their country of birth or for whom the birthplace was not stated (and could not be derived).
Census 2006 - Speaks language other than English
87 These data identify the language spoken at home, and are coded using the Australian Standard Classification of Languages (ASCL) (cat. no. 1267.0). Only one language is coded for each person.
Census 2006 - Post School Qualifications
88 These data show the level of education based on the highest completed non-school qualification of persons (eg. bachelor degree, diploma).
89 The full classification for levels of education and fields of study, together with an explanation of the conceptual basis of the classification, can be found in the publication Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED), 2001 (cat. no. 1272.0).
Census 2006 - Occupation
90 These data include all employed people aged 15 years and over. Two occupation questions are used in the Census. The first of these asks for occupation title, while the second asks for the main tasks usually performed by the person in their occupation. Collecting both occupation title and task information ensures more accurate coding of occupations.
91 Occupations are coded using the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO) (cat. no. 1220.0). The Occupation code assigned is based on the main job held during the week prior to Census Night.
Census 2006 - Households
92 These data describe the type of household within a dwelling. Family households can contain non-family members (unrelated persons and visitors). A maximum of three families can be coded to a household. Lone person households can contain visitors.
Census 2006 - Families
93 Families have been classified in terms of the relationships that exist between a single family reference person and each other member of that family. Different types of families are distinguished based on the presence or absence of couple relationships, parent-child relationships, child dependency relationships or other blood relationships, in that order of preference.
94 The family type is derived from people enumerated in the household who usually reside there and who share a familial relationship. Partners and dependent children usually present but temporarily absent are also included in this derivation. Boarders and other non-family members are excluded.
Census 2006 - Internal Migration
95 Internal migration is the movement of people from one defined area to another within a country. The Census asked if the person had a different address one year ago, and five years ago.
96 The percentage of persons in a region who lived at a different address within Australia (one year ago, five years ago) is calculated as a proportion of the persons usually resident in the region.
97 Data collected in the Census only reflect movements which coincide with these particular points in time (i.e. one year ago and five years ago) in the intercensal period, even though there may have been multiple movements during this period.
98 Persons temporarily absent, visitors, and households containing only visitors, are excluded from these data.
Census 2006 - Proportion of Population in Remoteness Area
99 The Remoteness Structure of the Australian Standard Geographical Classification provides a standard geographical structure describing Australia in terms of a measurement of remoteness or distance from services. It is designed to classify Census Collection Districts which share common characteristics or remoteness into broad geographic regions called Remoteness Areas (RA).
100 The Remoteness Structure is based upon the Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA) which was developed for the former Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care (now the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing) by the National Key Centre for Social Applications of Geographical Information Systems, now known as the National Centre for Social Applications of Geographic Information Systems (GISCA). ARIA measures the remoteness of a point based on the road distances to the nearest town (service centre) in each of five population size classes. The basic premises of ARIA are that there are more services available in larger towns than small towns and that remoteness is a factor of the relative distance one must travel to access a full range of services.
101 With a state/territory, each RA represents an aggregation of non-contiguous geographical areas which share common characteristics of remoteness. The Remoteness Structure contains the following categories which provide a measurement of whether geographic distances impose restrictions on the accessibility to the widest range of goods, services and opportunities for social interaction:
102 The percentages shown are the proportion of persons counted in the 2006 Census of Population and Housing, by each category of Remoteness for the selected region. The proportions are based on where people usually resided as at the 2006 Census (8 August 2006).
103 Further information about the Remoteness Structure can be found in Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC), Jul 2008 (cat. no. 1216.0). A map illustrating the 2006 Remoteness Structure can be found under 'Remoteness Structure' in the Geography portal of the ABS website.
Census 2006 - Proportion of Population by Section of State
104 The Section of State (SOS) structure uses population counts from the Census of Population and Housing to class Census Collection Districts as urban or rural.
105 Within a state or territory, each SOS represents an aggregation of non-contiguous geographical areas of a particular urban/rural type. The categories are:
106 The percentages shown are the proportion of persons counted in the 2006 Census, by each category of the Section of State Structure for the selected regions. The proportions are based on where people usually resided as at the 2006 Census (8 August 2006).
107 Further information about the Section of State structure can be found in Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC), Jul 2008 (cat. no. 1216.0)
Census 2006 - Unpaid Work
108 Data on unpaid work show the proportion of persons usually resident in the region who did any voluntary work in the last twelve months, or any unpaid work (caring for own children, caring for other children, caring for family members or others) in the last two weeks.
Census 2006 - Access to Internet at Home
109 These data show the proportion of occupied private dwellings in the region that have access to the internet.
110 The categories of access are: 'broadband', 'dial-up' and 'other'. Broadband access includes ADSL, cable, wireless and satellite connections. Dial-up includes analog modem and ISDN connections. Other includes access through mobile phones, set-top boxes, games machines, or connections other than dial-up and broadband.
111 Data on births are presented on the basis of the usual residence of the mother regardless of where in Australia the birth occurred or was registered. The data refer to live births registered during the calendar year shown, and are supplied to the Australian Bureau of Statistics by each state/territory Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages for compilation into the aggregate statistics in this publication. For more information refer to Births, Australia (cat. no. 3301.0).
112 Data on deaths are presented on the basis of the usual residence of the deceased regardless of where in Australia the death occurred or was registered. The data refer to deaths registered during the calendar year shown, and are supplied to the Australian Bureau of Statistics by each state/territory Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages for compilation into the aggregate statistics in this publication. For more information refer to Deaths, Australia (cat. no 3302.0).
113 Data for building work approvals are compiled from:
114 The data included in this profile relate to all residential building approvals valued at $10,000 or more and all approved non-residential building jobs valued at $50,000 or more.
115 Construction activity not defined as building (eg. construction of roads, bridges, railways etc) is excluded from building statistics.
116 The data are as at the June 2010 issue of Building Approvals, Australia, and refer to each financial year ended 30 June. For further information see Building Approvals, Australia (cat. no. 8731.0).
Motor Vehicle Census
117 Motor Vehicle Census data refer to vehicles registered with a motor vehicle registration authority at 31 March in the reference year.
118 The Motor Vehicle Census includes all vehicles registered with a state, territory or other government motor vehicle registry for unrestricted use on public roads with the following exceptions:
119 Vehicles on register are those vehicles registered at the date of the census, or had registration expire less than one month before that date.
120 Motor Vehicle Census data are presented by region of owner, and based on the postcode of the owner. A geographic correspondence has been used in order to present the postcode data on Australian Standard Geographical Classification 2008 boundaries. Due to rounding, the sum of the individual components of vehicles will not necessarily add up to total registered motor vehicles. Further information on Geographic Correspondences can be found in paragraphs 149 to 153.
121 Note: The Australia total includes records that could not be allocated to a state or territory. Therefore aggregating state and territory totals will not equal the Australia total.
122 Further information can be found in Motor Vehicle Census, Australia (cat. no. 9309.0). Note that data in that release are by state of registration, and so state/territory totals will not be the same as in this National Regional Profile (which is presented by state of owner).
Tourist Accommodation Establishments
123 Data on the number of tourist accommodation establishments are derived from the quarterly Survey of Tourist Accommodation (STA). The STA is a mailout collection that completely enumerates all in-scope accommodation establishments within Australia.
124 For the years presented in this profile, in-scope establishments include: hotels, motels and guest houses and serviced apartments with 5 or more rooms or units; holiday flats, units and houses of letting entities with 15 or more rooms or units; caravan parks with 40 or more powered sites and visitor hostels with 25 or more bed spaces.
125 The main source of coverage is from the Australian Automobile Association through AAA Tourism Pty Ltd. This is supplemented by notification of new tourism developments and their likely opening dates in selected guides, major tourism journals and periodicals and newspapers. Periodic comparison with lists of accommodation establishments provided by the various tourism organisations and industry associations is also undertaken.
128 Data for 2009 have been classified according to ASGC 2008. Data for 2008 have been provided using ASGC 2007 geographic boundaries. Data for 2007 have been provided using ASGC 2006 geographic boundaries. Where data has been provided on boundaries other than ASGC 2008, no attempt has been made to convert these to 2008 boundaries. Instead, data has only been provided for regions where the boundary has remained unchanged from ASGC 2008.
129 Further information on these statistics can be found in Tourist Accommodation, Small Area Data, Australia (cat. no. 8635.1.55.001 - 8635.8.55.001).
130 Agricultural Commodities data are estimates obtained from the 2005-06 Agricultural Census. Data were collected from agricultural businesses on the ABS' Business Register, which is based on the Australian Business Register maintained by the Australian Tax Office. The size cut-off for the collection was all businesses with an Estimated Value of Agricultural Operations over $5,000, or a derived value based on Business Activity Statement turnover over $5,000.
131 During the processing phase of the collection, data checking was undertaken to ensure key priority outputs were produced to high quality standards. As a result, some estimates will have been checked more comprehensively than others. It is not feasible to check every item reported by every business, and therefore some anomalies may arise, particularly for small area estimates (i.e. Statistical Local Area (SLA) and below). To present these items geographically, agricultural businesses are allocated to a mesh block based on where the business reports the location of their 'main agricultural property'. Anomalies can occur if location details for agricultural businesses are not reported precisely enough to accurately code their geographic location. In addition, some businesses operate more than one property, and some large farms may operate across mesh block and SLA boundaries, but are coded to a single location. As a result, in some cases, a particular activity may not necessarily occur in the area specified and the Area of Holding and other estimates of agricultural activity may exceed or not account for all activities within that area. For these reasons, the quality of estimates may be lower for some SLAs and other small area geographies.
132 The estimates are subject to sampling variability because not all selected units responded to the Census; that is, the estimates may differ from the figures that would have been produced if all agricultural businesses had responded. One measure of the likely difference is given by the Standard Error (SE). There are about two chances in three that a sample estimate will differ by less than one SE from the figure that would have been obtained if all farms had responded, and about nineteen chances in twenty that the difference will be less than two SEs.
133 In Agriculture data, sampling variability of the estimates is measured by the Relative Standard Error (RSE) which is obtained by expressing the Standard Error as a percentage of the estimate to which it refers. In the National Regional Profile, Agriculture data with an RSE greater than 50% are not presented. Information on RSEs can be found in Agricultural Commodities, Small Area Data, Australia (cat. no. 7125.0).
134 Agriculture Census data have been produced on 2006 geographic boundaries (ASGC 2006). Given that all data in this edition of the NRP is presented on 2008 geographic boundaries (see paragraphs 147 to 153), where the boundary has changed between 2006 and 2008, data have not been included in these profiles.
135 For further information see Agricultural Commodities, Australia (cat. no. 7121.0) and Agricultural Commodities, Small Area Data, Australia (cat. no. 7125.0).
Value of Agricultural Production
136 The value of agricultural production estimates are derived by the multiplication of price and quantity of individual agricultural commodities. Quantity data for commodities were collected in the 2005-06 Agricultural Census, other ABS collections and non-ABS sources. Price information used is the average unit value of a given commodity realised in the market place. Price information is obtained from a wide range of both ABS and non-ABS sources, including marketing authorities and industry sources.
137 The values used here are "gross value of agricultural commodities produced" and represent the value placed on recorded production at the wholesale prices realised in the market place. Market place, in general, is the metropolitan market in each state. In cases where commodities are consumed locally, or where they become raw material for a secondary industry, these points are presumed to be the market place.
138 The method of collection of relevant prices for agricultural commodities and the costs of marketing these commodities vary considerably between states and between commodities. Where a statutory authority handles marketing of the whole or a portion of a product, price data are usually obtained from this source. Price information is also obtained from marketing reports, wholesalers, brokers and auctioneers. For all commodities, values are in respect of production during the year (or season) irrespective of when payments are made.
139 Estimates for small areas such as Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) and Local Government Areas (LGAs) are only available for years in which an Agricultural Census is conducted. The most recent Agricultural Census was conducted in respect of 2005-06.
140 Value of agricultural production estimates are subject to standard error. In the National Regional Profile, Agriculture data with a relative standard error (RSE) greater than 50% are not presented.
141 Agriculture Census data have been produced on 2006 geographic boundaries (ASGC 2006). Given that this edition of the National Regional Profile presents all data presented on 2008 geographic boundaries, where the boundary has changed between 2006 and 2008, data has not been included in these profiles for those regions.
142 Further information on Value of Agricultural Production can be obtained in the ABS publication Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia (cat. no. 7503.0).
143 The land area data are based upon the boundaries of the Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) in the 2008 edition of the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The areas of the SLAs were calculated using ABS standard Geographic Information Systems software from the digital boundaries of the SLAs. Higher level spatial unit area figures are aggregations of the SLA areas.
Water Use on Australian Farms
144 Water use data are collected in the Agricultural Resource Management Survey. Data was collected from agricultural businesses on the ABS' Business Register with an Estimated Value of Agricultural Operations over $5,000.
145 The estimates are based on responses to the Agricultural Resource Management Survey and are subject to sampling variability. That is, estimates may differ from figures that would be produced if all agricultural businesses had been included in the survey. Errors other than those due to sampling may occur because of the deficiencies in the lists of businesses from which the sample was selected, non-response, and errors in reporting by providers.
146 For further information see Water Use on Australian Farms (cat. no. 4618.0).
147 The Australian Standard Geographic Classification (ASGC) is used by the ABS for the collection and dissemination of geographically classified statistics. It is an essential reference for understanding and interpreting the geographic context of statistics published, not only by the ABS but also by other organisations, and its use enables comparability across datasets.
148 This edition of the National Regional Profile uses ASGC 2008. Some data based on postcodes or earlier editions of the ASGC have been converted to data for Local Government Areas (LGA) and Statistical Local Areas (SLA) as defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC), Jul 2008 (cat. no. 1216.0).
149 The use of geographic correspondences enables the conversion of data from one type of geographic region to another. These geographic correspondences are generally used to convert data for 'non-standard areas' to data for standard areas used by the ABS. Geographic correspondences (or conversions) are expressed as conversion factors based on population.
150 The correspondences process:
151 When analysing data produced by correspondences, the following limitations of this methodology need to be taken into account:
152 While care was taken in producing the correspondences the ABS will not guarantee the accuracy of data produced by correspondences.
153 In some series data is not presented for all Local Government Areas. Where data has been provided at Statistical Local Area level and can be matched or aggregated to Local Government Areas, it has been presented in the profiles.
154 The statistics in this electronic release and accompanying data cubes are presented according to the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC), 2008. Under this classification, statistical areas below Australia and state/territory level are defined as follows:
Transformed Data Sets
156 As explained above all data presented in this edition of the NRP has been presented on the same geographic basis, using 2008 geographic boundaries. In order to achieve this some data sets have been transformed to match the 2008 boundaries, and this transformation process can introduce error (see paragraph 151). In some cases, a decision has been made not to transform data sets, but rather to suppress data where the boundaries have changed. In other cases, data had been produced on 2008 boundaries and no transformation was required. The following table summarises how each data set has been supplied and, where applicable, transformed to 2008 boundaries.
Table 1. Supply and Treatment of Data
157 Where data was originally produced on an earlier geographical boundary, and the data has not been transformed to 2008 boundaries, data is not presented where the earlier boundaries differ significantly from the 2008 geographic boundaries (that is, the boundary changes involve populations being in different regions, not just the land area encompassed by the boundary changes). The following table provides a summary of the number of Statistical Local Areas and Local Government Areas in 2001, 2006 and 2008, and the number of Statistical Local Areas that were deemed to have boundary changes so significant that data was not able to be transformed for those regions.
Table 2. Number of Statistical Local Areas and Local Government Areas 2001, 2006 and 2008
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