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5422.0 - International Merchandise Trade, Australia, Dec 2002  
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Feature Article - Australia's Exporters and Importers, 2001–02

This article was published in International Merchandise Trade, Australia (ABS Catalogue No. 5422.0) December 2002.


INTRODUCTION

This article presents experimental statistics on Australia's exporters and importers for the 2001-02 financial year. It builds on an article, 'Experimental Statistics on Australia's Exporters and Importers', published in the June quarter 2002 issue of International Merchandise Trade, Australia (cat. no. 5422.0). That article contained estimates of Australia's exporters and importers for the six month period, July to December 2001. It also outlined the concepts and methodology used to compile the estimates.

The concepts and methodology outlined in the June quarter 2002 article have remained substantially unchanged for compiling the experimental estimates for the 2001-02 financial year in this article. There has however been some expansion of the analysis to enhance the information available about Australia's exporters and importers.

Estimates for exporters and importers of merchandise (businesses that trade in goods) are compiled from data sourced from the Australian Customs Service (Customs) and from the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) Australian Business Register. Where appropriate, estimates for exporters and importers of offshore services, compiled from the ABS Survey of International Trade in Services (SITS), are also included.

The statistics on goods exporters and importers included in this article are considered experimental because they are subject to limitations in terms of the data available and methodology applied.

Some of the key limitations with the estimate of the number of exporters are:

    a. businesses which exported goods totalling less than $10,000 in the year are excluded from the counts;

    b. the businesses included in the counts of exporters of services are those which provide services from their Australian base to services consumers offshore, i.e. supply modes 1 and 4 in the classification used by the World Trade Organisation (WTO). However, smaller and / or occasional exporters will not come to ABS notice and are therefore excluded from the counts. The number of these excluded businesses may be significant, but the value of their exports is not thought to be appreciable in the totality of services exports. The ABS continues to try to identify these businesses and incorporate them into surveys;
    c. the counts of services exporters exclude businesses that supply goods or services to foreign tourists or students in Australia only (supply mode 2), such as hotels, restaurants, retail, tourist facilities, transport, theatres, educational institutions, etc, - possibly hundreds of thousands of businesses in Australia;
    d. Australian-owned businesses located overseas supplying goods or services in the country in which they are located (usually called foreign affiliates trade - supply mode 3) are excluded from these estimates because their trade does not directly contribute to Australia's exports of goods / services, though the conditions under which they might be established and operate are subject to WTO negotiations;
    e. Australian businesses which supply goods or services to other businesses which undertake the exporting function are excluded. These businesses may be supplying goods or services which are subsequently exported. For example, many agricultural products are exported from Australia by wholesalers (such as commodity marketing boards) rather than by the producer; or some consultancy services which are exported may be composed of the work of a number of sub-consultants providing services to the principal consultant, who then exports the combined service.

Equivalent limitations apply to the counts of importers.

The ABS invites comments from users on the usefulness of these experimental statistics and the methodology applied. Comments should be directed to the Director, International Trade Section, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Locked Bag 10, BELCONNEN ACT 2617 or telephone (02) 6252 5501.


EXPORTERS

Number

The number of businesses exporting goods and services in the 2001-02 financial year (subject to the above limitations), was estimated to be 31,450, as shown in Table F1. The number of businesses exporting goods was estimated to be 30,240, while there were approximately 2,250 exporters of services.

The number of goods exporters has increased by 7,659 compared with the estimate for the first six months of the financial year (22,581). About two-thirds of the increase in the number of goods exporters came from businesses that did not export goods in the first half of the financial year. About one-third of the increase in goods exporters came from those that had less than $10,000 of exports in the first six months, but whose exports for the full year attained the minimum threshold of $10,000. The ABS was able to identify a net addition of 50 services exporters.

More than 45% (1,040) of businesses that engaged in services exports were also exporters of goods. By eliminating the double counting, the total number of businesses that exported goods and services was derived at 31,450 (30,240 plus 2,250 less 1,040).

The number of both goods and services exporters is subject to sampling and non-sampling error because of the methodology used.

As shown in table F1, Australia's goods exports were dominated by a relatively small number of exporters. There were 209 businesses with goods exports of $100m or more, accounting for almost 70% of the value of goods exports during the 2001-02 financial year. In total, about 4,400 businesses had exports valued at $1m or more, accounting for 95% of the total value of goods exports. There were a further 9,202 exporters with goods exports worth between $100,000 and $1m in the reference period (2.5% of the value of all goods exports).

Over half of the goods exporters (16,642), had exports valued between $10,000 and $100,000. These businesses represented just 0.5% of the value of goods exports and averaged six Customs entries each during the financial year.

TABLE F1: EXPORTERS -- 2001-02

Exporters
Customs entries
Average entries
Total exports
Total goods exports
no.
no.
no.
$m
%

Goods exporters
    $100m or more
209
412,410
1,973
83,633
69.1
    $1m and less than $100m
4,187
921,483
220
31,910
26.3
    $100,000 and less than $1m
9,202
265,527
29
3,026
2.5
    $10,000 and less than $100,000
16,642
102,056
6
661
0.5
    Other goods exporters(a)
. .
32,323
. .
1,876
1.5
    Total goods exporters
30,240
1,733,799
57
121,106
100.0
Service exporters
    Businesses exporting services(b)
2,250
. .
. .
16,428
. .
    Other service exporters(c)
. .
. .
. .
14,769
. .
    Total service exporters
2,250
. .
. .
31,197
. .
Total exporters (d)
31,450
152,303
. .

(a) Includes some identified overseas entities with large exports; aircraft and ships fuel and stores used in transit; exporters less than $10,000 (estimated at $66m).
(b) Excludes services to foreign tourists, students, etc. in Australia. See exclusions in the introduction to this article.
(c) Travel service exports, i.e. to foreign tourists, students, etc. in Australia.
(d) Total excludes duplication from businesses which export both goods and services.


Table F2 shows the export patterns of Australia's goods exporters. About 20% (6,442) of Australia's goods exporters above the $10,000 threshold only exported once or twice in the 2001-02 financial year. The majority (5,620) of these businesses had exports worth less than $100,000, and about 800 of these businesses had exports valued at $100,000 or more in the period studied. Conversely, about 2,400 (12%) of the estimated 19,575 businesses with goods exports valued at less than $10,000, exported goods three or more times during 2001-02, indicating they may be small scale but regular exporters.

TABLE F2: EXPORTS OF GOODS, VALUE OF EXPORTS BY NUMBER OF CUSTOMS ENTRIES -- 2001-02

NUMBER OF CUSTOMS ENTRIES

Value of exports
1-2
3-10
11-20
21-50
51 or more
Total

NUMBER OF EXPORTERS

$100m or more
0
(a)
9
17
183
209
$1m and less than $100m
**
279
264
679
2,934
4,187
$100,000 and less than $1m
791
2,253
2,359
2,225
1,574
9,202
$10,000 and less than $100,000
5,620
8,360
1,964
639
**
16,642
Total goods exporters
6,442
10,892
4,596
3,560
4,750
30,240
Exporters below $10,000 threshold
17,155
2,403
17
0
0
19,575

VALUE OF EXPORTS ($m)

$100m or more
0
(a)
1,293
8,501
73,839
83,633
$1m and less than $100m
345
498
2,534
6,728
21,805
31,910
$100,000 and less than $1m
232
286
897
1,376
235
3,026
$10,000 and less than $100,000
196
161
256
47
**
661
Less than $10,000
52
12
2
0
0
66
Other goods exporters(b)
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
1,809
Total goods exporters
825
957
4,983
16,652
95,879
121,106

(a) To protect data confidentiality exporters with fewer than 11 Customs entries have been included in the category '11-20 Customs entries'.
(b) Includes some identified overseas entities with large exports; aircraft and ships fuel and stores used in transit.


Industry

Industry estimates relate to the owner of the good at the time of export or import, not the producer of the good. The most significant exporting industries (of the owning business) were manufacturing (38% of the value of goods exports), mining (31%) and wholesale trade (21%), as shown in Table F3. These three industries accounted for $108.6b (90%) of goods exported from Australia in 2001-02. The next most significant industries were finance and insurance ($3.3b), and agriculture, forestry and fishing ($3.1b). This low value for agriculture, forestry and fishing reflects that most exports of agricultural commodities are made by commodity marketing authorities, which are classified as wholesalers.

TABLE F3: EXPORTS OF GOODS, INDUSTRY OF EXPORTER -- 2001-02
Exporters(a)
Customs entries
Total goods exports
Total goods exports
Industry of exporter
no.
no.
$m
%

Agriculture, forestry and fishing
    Agriculture
540
20,083
767
0.6
    Services to agriculture; hunting and trapping
120
8,528
1,254
1.0
    Forestry and logging
29
1,464
424
0.4
    Commercial fishing
158
7,317
618
0.5
    Total
847
37,392
3,063
2.5
Mining
    Coal mining
49
4,252
11,307
9.3
    Oil and gas extraction
32
2,530
5,449
4.5
    Metal ore mining
64
17,153
14,612
12.1
    Other mining
86
2,974
1,155
1.0
    Services to mining
123
20,404
4,784
4.0
    Total
354
47,313
37,307
30.8
Manufacturing
    Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing
841
325,961
11,557
9.5
    Textile, clothing, footwear and
    leather manufacturing
706
41,124
1,617
1.3
    Wood and paper product manufacturing
228
24,484
927
0.8
    Printing, publishing and recorded media
444
18,305
314
0.3
    Petroleum, coal, chemical and
    associated product manufacturing
1,084
74,592
6,443
5.3
    Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing
217
16,084
306
0.3
    Metal product manufacturing
831
63,375
13,668
11.3
    Machinery and equipment manufacturing
2,441
196,241
10,184
8.4
    Other manufacturing
764
24,239
699
0.6
    Total
7,556
784,405
45,717
37.7
Electricity, gas and water supply
49
1,404
241
0.2
Construction
638
12,832
294
0.2
Wholesale trade
    Basic material wholesaling
1,255
84,567
16,317
13.5
    Machinery and motor vehicle wholesaling
2,704
131,913
2,702
2.2
    Personal and household good wholesaling
4,010
245,792
6,517
5.4
    Total
7,969
462,272
25,536
21.1
Retail trade
    Food retailing
191
8,149
103
0.1
    Personal and household good retailing
1,678
59,899
884
0.7
    Motor vehicle retailing and services
309
7,025
114
0.1
    Total
2,178
75,073
1,100
0.9
Accommodation, cafes and restaurants
87
3,684
28
0.0
Transport and storage
932
41,897
2,008
1.7
Communication services
159
4,599
203
0.2
Finance and insurance
629
31,806
3,256
2.7
Property and business services
1,956
55,921
1,733
1.4
Government administration and defence
80
4,201
257
0.2
Education
89
1,564
14
0.0
Health and community services
139
3,500
62
0.1
Cultural and recreational services
275
5,170
76
0.1
Personal and other services
197
6,073
117
0.1
Other
35
1,686
91
0.1
Industry not known(b)
6,071
153,007
(b)
(b)
Total goods exporters
30,240
1,733,799
121,106
100.0

(a) Includes only those businesses that exported at least $10,000 of goods.
(b) The value of exports with 'Industry not known' was $2.4 billion. These exports were prorated across the industries that exported the same commodities.


Using sampling techniques, it has been possible to estimate the broad industry of businesses that did not report an ABN on their export Customs entries. As shown in Graph F1, the industries with the highest number of goods exporters in 2001-02 were wholesale trade (9,670), manufacturing (8,850), retail trade (3,030) and property and business services (2,615). The average value of exports per business in these industries were, respectively $2.6m, $5.2m, $363,000 and $663,000 in the financial year. The industry with the highest average exports per business was the mining industry. Its 495 exporters averaged $75m worth of exports each in 2001-02.

Image - Graph F1: Number of goods exporters(a) by industry-2001-02


Table F4 compares the industry of the exporter with the industry of origin of the commodity. This shows that mining commodities had the highest proportion of exports (87%) by the industry that generally produced them i.e. the mining industry. By comparison, only 13% of Australia's $13.4b of agricultural, forestry and fishing commodity exports were exported directly by the agriculture, forestry and fishing industries. Most were exported by wholesalers (78%).

Exports of manufactured goods were $72.1b, of which $42.5b (59%) were exported by the manufacturing industry, $12.9b (18%) by the wholesale trade industry, and $8.6b (12%) by the mining industry. In regard to mining, users should note that semi-processed materials (e.g. alumina) are considered manufactures.

TABLE F4: EXPORTS OF GOODS, INDUSTRY OF EXPORTER BY COMMODITY INDUSTRY OF ORIGIN -- 2001-02
COMMODITY INDUSTRY OF ORIGIN

Agriculture,
Total
Industry of exporter
forestry and fishing
Mining
Manufacturing
Other
goods exports

$ MILLION

Agriculture, forestry and fishing
1,706
n.p.
1,180
n.p.
3,063
Mining
0
28,612
8,648
46
37,307
Manufacturing
461
1,676
42,532
1,048
45,717
Wholesale trade
10,441
1,862
12,902
331
25,536
Finance and insurance
380
493
1,866
517
3,256
Property and business services
161
n.p.
1,282
n.p.
1,733
Other
268
193
3,640
392
4,493
Total goods exports
13,417
33,090
72,051
2,549
121,106

PERCENT

Agriculture, forestry and fishing
12.7
n.p.
1.6
n.p.
2.5
Mining
0.0
86.5
12.0
1.8
30.8
Manufacturing
3.4
5.1
59.0
41.1
37.7
Wholesale trade
77.8
5.6
17.9
13.0
21.1
Finance and insurance
2.8
1.5
2.6
20.3
2.7
Property and business services
1.2
n.p.
1.8
n.p.
1.4
Other
2.0
0.6
5.1
15.4
3.7
Total goods exports
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0



Size of Business

Two different size measures are used for goods exporters in this article. They are the value of exports (see Table F1) and size of the business (Table F5). Traditionally, the ABS has only used employment to determine the size of a business because this has been the only sizing variable generally available. Many significant exporters were found not to have large employment. For the purpose of this experimental analysis, the size of a business has been defined in terms of three variables - employment, estimated annual turnover (both from the Australian Taxation Office business registers) and value of exports (from Customs):
  • small businesses - having fewer than 20 employees and estimated annual turnover less than $1m and exports of less than $1m during 2001-02;
  • large businesses - having 200 or more employees or estimated annual turnover of $20m or more or exports of $20m or more during 2001-02; and
  • medium businesses - all businesses other than those defined as small or large.

There were 4,229 large businesses identified as goods exporters in this study, accounting for $109.9b (91%) of merchandise exports during the reference period. Approximately 600 of these exported goods valued at $20m or more in the financial year. Mining industry exports were the most dominated by large business, accounting for over 99% of mining industry exports and constituting almost half the number of exporting businesses in that industry. Property and business services had the lowest proportion of exports of goods by large businesses (58%).

The 13,942 medium sized exporters identified in the study accounted for $10.1b (8%) of goods exports. They were most prevalent in the manufacturing and wholesale industries, accounting for almost 55% of exporters in each of these industries.

In 2001-02, 40% (12,069) of Australia's goods exporters were small businesses. They contributed $1.1b (1%) to Australia's total goods exports.

TABLE F5: EXPORTS OF GOODS, SIZE OF BUSINESS BY INDUSTRY OF EXPORTER -- 2001-02
NUMBER OF EXPORTERS(a)
VALUE OF EXPORTS


Large
Medium
Small
Total
Large
Medium
Small
Total
Industry of exporter
no.
no.
no.
no.
$m
$m
$m
$m

Agriculture, forestry and fishing
74
370
403
847
2,448
555
60
3,063
Mining
167
94
93
354
37,105
184
19
37,307
Manufacturing
1,328
4,106
2,122
7,556
41,943
3,528
247
45,717
Wholesale trade
985
4,243
2,741
7,969
21,604
3,552
380
25,536
Finance and insurance
90
166
373
629
2,837
366
54
3,256
Property and business services
189
778
989
1,956
1,010
593
130
1,733
Other
728
2,010
2,120
4,858
2,924
1,312
257
4,493
Industry not known
668
2,175
3,228
6,071
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
Total goods exporters
4,229
13,942
12,069
30,240
109,871
10,089
1,146
121,106

PERCENT

Agriculture, forestry and fishing
8.7
43.7
47.6
100.0
79.9
18.1
2.0
100.0
Mining
47.2
26.6
26.3
100.0
99.5
0.5
0.1
100.0
Manufacturing
17.6
54.3
28.1
100.0
91.7
7.7
0.5
100.0
Wholesale trade
12.4
53.2
34.4
100.0
84.6
13.9
1.5
100.0
Finance and insurance
14.3
26.4
59.3
100.0
87.1
11.2
1.6
100.0
Property and business services
9.7
39.8
50.6
100.0
58.3
34.2
7.5
100.0
Other
15.0
41.4
43.6
100.0
65.1
29.2
5.7
100.0
Industry not known
11.0
35.8
53.2
100.0
(b)
(b)
(b)
(b)
Total goods exporters
14.0
46.1
39.9
100.0
90.7
8.3
0.9
100.0

(a) Includes only those businesses that exported at least $10,000 of goods.
(b) The value of exports with 'Industry not known' was $2.4 billion. These exports were prorated across the industries that exported the same commodities.


State Of Origin

It is not currently possible to compile data about exporters based on their state of operation. Instead, it is possible to estimate the number of businesses that exported goods produced in a given state. Many businesses exported goods produced in more than one state. In 2001-02, half of all Australia's exporters exported some goods produced in New South Wales, and 40% exported some goods produced in Victoria.

The number of businesses that exported goods in 2001-02, by their state of production, were in descending order, New South Wales (15,140), Victoria (12,250), Queensland (7,700), Western Australia (3,830), South Australia (2,970), Tasmania (575) and Northern Territory (400). The manufacturing and wholesale trade industries contributed the highest number of businesses exporting goods from each state and the Northern Territory. It is known that some businesses have difficulty in identifying the state of production of some of their exports. This may disproportionately impact on the smaller states.

Almost half (14,580) of Australia's exporters re-exported goods in 2001-02, with a total value of $7.6b. Of these, it is estimated that approximately 1,200 businesses only re-exported goods. Re-exports are goods that are imported and then exported in the same condition or after undergoing repair or minor alterations which leave them essentially unchanged. Minor alterations include blending, packaging and cleaning.

Graph F2: Number of goods exporters(a) by state of origin of commodity(b) - 2001-02



One-quarter of Australia's goods exports came from Western Australia, followed by Queensland with almost 20%. These two States accounted for 74% ($27.7b) of exports by the mining industry. New South Wales and Victoria each accounted for 18% (about $22.0b) of Australia's exports, most of which were by the manufacturing industry.

TABLE F6: EXPORTS OF GOODS, INDUSTRY OF EXPORTER BY STATE OF ORIGIN OF COMMODITY(a) -- 2001-02
New South
South
Western
Northern
Total goods
Wales
Victoria
Queensland
Australia
Australia
Tasmania
Territory
Re-exports
exports(b)
Industry of exporter
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

Agriculture, forestry and fishing
792
329
717
402
254
375
n.p.
n.p.
3,063
Mining
3,858
936
11,400
1,392
16,281
909
2,180
350
37,307
Manufacturing
10,208
13,260
5,230
4,402
8,831
787
n.p.
n.p.
45,717
Wholesale trade
5,559
5,566
4,840
2,792
4,277
183
158
2,161
25,536
Finance and insurance
636
853
189
90
833
n.p.
n.p.
557
3,256
Property and business services
424
244
387
75
204
n.p.
n.p.
371
1,733
Other
866
651
590
112
596
45
21
1,612
4,493
Total goods exports
22,344
21,839
23,353
9,265
31,277
2,328
3,051
7,640
121,106

(a) State estimates in this table differ slightly from those published in the December 2002 issue of ABS publication International Merchandise Trade, Australia (cat. no. 5422.0) because the estimation system used to allocate data with no ABN ($2.4 billion) is based on industry not state.
(b) Includes exports from the Australian Capital Territory.



IMPORTERS

Number

In 2001-02, there were estimated to be 55,355 businesses that imported goods or services into Australia, excluding those with imports worth less than $10,000 and other key limitations referred to in the introduction of this article. The number of businesses importing goods was estimated to be 54,385, while there were approximately 2,300 importers of services. Almost 60% (1,330) of businesses that engaged in service imports were also importers of goods. By eliminating the double counting, the total number of businesses that imported goods and services was derived at 55,355 (54,385 plus 2,300 less 1,330). Analysis of the SITS population indicated there were approximately 1,760 businesses that undertake both the export and import of services, and 540 that only import services.

The estimate of the number of services importers for 2001-02 is lower than that published in the experimental article for the period July to December 2001. This is due to a refinement of the methodology used to derive the number of importers. The estimate is subject to both sampling and non-sampling error. It also does not include the large number of businesses overseas that provide services to Australians travelling abroad.

The 163 largest goods importers, each with imports worth $100m or more, accounted for $56.3b (47%) of Australia's goods imports in 2001-02. There were 8,192 businesses that imported goods worth $1m or more, together accounting for $112.6b (94%) of goods imports. Another 16,864 businesses imported goods valued between $100,000 and $1m, accounting for $5.8b (5%) of goods imports in 2001-02.

Just over half (29,329) of Australia's goods importers had imports valued between $10,000 and $100,000 during 2001-02, accounting for less than 1% of goods imports in that period.

TABLE F7: IMPORTERS -- 2001-02

Importers
Customs entries
Average entries
Total imports
Total goods imports
no.
no.
no.
$m
%

Goods importers
    $100m or more
163
1,384,619
8,495
56,309
47.1
    $1m and less than $100m
8,029
3,300,705
411
56,325
47.1
    $100,000 and less than $1m
16,864
703,902
42
5,765
4.8
    $10,000 and less than $100,000
29,329
235,780
8
1,058
0.9
    Other goods importers
. .
143,181
. .
193
0.2
    Total goods importers
54,385
5,768,187
106
119,649
100.0
Service importers
    Businesses importing services(a)
2,300
. .
. .
21,108
. .
    Other service importers(b)
. .
. .
. .
10,934
. .
    Total service importers
2,300
. .
. .
32,042
. .
Total importers(c)
55,355
151,691
. .

(a) Excludes services to Australian tourists, etc. overseas. See exclusions in the introduction of this article.
(c) Travel service imports, i.e. to Australian tourists, etc. overseas.
(d) Total excludes duplication from businesses which import both goods and services.


Industry

Most goods imports were by the wholesale trade (46% by value) and manufacturing (36%) industries. Together these accounted for $98.3b (82%) of Australia's $119.6b goods imports during 2001-02. The next most significant industry was retail trade with $6.9b (6%) of goods imports.

Imports by machinery and equipment manufacturers, and machinery and motor vehicle wholesalers, were significant, together accounting for $46.2b (39%) of Australia's goods imports.

TABLE F8: IMPORTS OF GOODS, INDUSTRY OF IMPORTER -- 2001-02
Importers(a)
Customs entries
Total goods imports
Total goods imports
Industry of Importer
no.
no.
$m
%

Agriculture, forestry and fishing
    Agriculture
625
7,417
188
0.2
    Services to agriculture; hunting and trapping
146
2,918
n.p.
n.p.
    Forestry and logging
39
1,665
n.p.
n.p.
    Commercial fishing
118
1,661
132
0.1
    Total
928
13,661
455
0.4
Mining
    Coal mining
16
138
n.p.
n.p.
    Oil and gas extraction
35
7,684
n.p.
n.p.
    Metal ore mining
51
2,182
637
0.5
    Other mining
57
1,635
198
0.2
    Services to mining
123
16,261
308
0.3
    Total
282
27,900
4,407
3.7
Manufacturing
    Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing
761
60,861
2,833
2.4
    Textile, clothing, footwear and
    leather manufacturing
1,246
118,956
1,968
1.6
    Wood and paper product manufacturing
428
28,424
1,256
1.0
    Printing, publishing and recorded media
673
51,595
1,269
1.1
    Petroleum, coal, chemical and
    associated product manufacturing
1,204
198,164
12,485
10.4
    Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing
375
20,235
357
0.3
    Metal product manufacturing
1,105
84,384
4,263
3.6
    Machinery and equipment manufacturing
3,201
895,497
17,906
15.0
    Other manufacturing
1,120
73,343
1,226
1.0
    Total
10,113
1,531,459
43,563
36.4
Electricity, gas and water supply
104
3,091
132
0.1
Construction
1,232
46,584
1,061
0.9
Wholesale trade
    Basic material wholesaling
2,126
257,740
8,097
6.8
    Machinery and motor vehicle wholesaling
5,099
1,514,534
28,292
23.6
    Personal and household good wholesaling
8,602
1,104,332
18,299
15.3
    Total
15,827
2,876,606
54,687
45.7
Retail trade
    Food retailing
373
36,209
468
0.4
    Personal and household good retailing
5,734
596,453
5,560
4.6
    Motor vehicle retailing and services
896
65,227
886
0.7
    Total
7,003
697,889
6,914
5.8
Accommodation, cafes and restaurants
230
6,349
42
0.0
Transport and storage
717
64,254
2,943
2.5
Communication services
252
24,651
371
0.3
Finance and insurance
933
47,565
1,344
1.1
Property and business services
3,409
152,891
1,876
1.6
Government administration and defence
176
23,344
n.p.
n.p.
Education
173
8,834
50
0.0
Health and community services
386
11,441
171
0.1
Cultural and recreational services
619
14,860
207
0.2
Personal and other services
509
16,062
184
0.2
Other
54
1,744
n.p.
n.p.
Industry not known
11,438
199,002
(b)
(b)
Total goods importers
54,385
5,768,187
119,649
100.0

(a) Includes only those businesses that imported at least $10,000 of goods.
(b) The value of imports with 'Industry not known' was $1.2 billion. These imports were prorated across the industries that imported the same commodities.


Table F9 compares the industry of the importer with the industry of origin of the commodities imported. This shows that in 2001-02, 93% of Australia's imports were manufactured commodities of which 36% ($40.4b) were imported by the manufacturing industry, and 47% ($52.1b) by the wholesale trade industry. The high value of imports of manufactured goods by the manufacturing industry is largely because many Australian businesses manufacture some of their commodities in Australia and import others in their product line from overseas. An example is the motor vehicle industry.

TABLE F9: IMPORTS OF GOODS, INDUSTRY OF IMPORTER BY COMMODITY INDUSTRY OF ORIGIN -- 2001-02
COMMODITY INDUSTRY OF ORIGIN

Agriculture,
Total
Industry of importer
forestry and fishing
Mining
Manufacturing
Other
goods imports

$ MILLION

Agriculture, forestry and fishing
133
4
317
1
455
Mining
0
n.p.
2,251
n.p.
4,407
Manufacturing
156
n.p.
40,449
n.p.
43,563
Wholesale trade
354
n.p.
52,149
n.p.
54,687
Finance and insurance
36
2
1,296
10
1,344
Property and business services
13
1
1,852
9
1,876
Other
58
13
13,150
96
13,316
Total goods imports
750
7,259
111,464
176
119,649

PERCENT

Agriculture, forestry and fishing
17.7
0.1
0.3
0.7
0.4
Mining
0.0
n.p
2.0
n.p
3.7
Manufacturing
20.8
n.p
36.3
n.p
36.4
Wholesale trade
47.2
n.p
46.8
n.p
45.7
Finance and insurance
4.8
0.0
1.2
5.7
1.1
Property and business services
1.8
0.0
1.7
5.3
1.6
Other
7.7
0.2
11.8
54.5
11.1
Total goods imports
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0




OVERLAP BETWEEN IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS


Of the 30,240 businesses with goods exports worth $10,000 or more in 2001-02, 13,608 (45%) also imported goods valued at $10,000 or more. Over 40% (1,789) of those with goods exports worth $1m or more, also imported goods valued at $1m or more in 2001-02. Businesses with exports valued between $10,000 and $100,000 were the least likely to have also imported goods with about 6,000 (36%) of these also having imported goods worth $10,000 or more in 2001-02.

TABLE F10: OVERLAP BETWEEN GOODS IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS -- 2001-02

VALUE OF IMPORTS

$100m or
$1m and less
$100,000 and
$10,000 and less
Total goods
more
than $100m
less than $1m
than $100,000
Other(a)
exporters
n.o.
n.o.
n.o.
n.o.
n.o.
n.o.

Value of exports
    $100m or more
30
61
19
14
85
209
    $1m and less than $100m
107
1,591
615
374
1,500
4,187
    $100,000 and less than $1m
14
2,114
1,621
1,034
4,419
9,202
    $10,000 and less than $100,000
5
1,652
2,596
1,761
10,628
16,642
    Other(b)
7
2,611
12,013
26,146
. .
. .
Total goods importers
163
8,029
16,864
29,329
. .
(c)

(a) Includes businesses whose imports are not known or valued at less than $10,000.
(b) Includes businesses whose exports are not known or valued at less than $10,000.
(c) Total goods exporters were 30,240 and total goods importers were 54,385.


SYMBOLS AND OTHER USAGE

The following symbols and abbreviations have been used in this article:
. .not applicable
n.p.not available for publication
**Subject to sampling error too high for most practical purposes; relative standard error greater than 40%.




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