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5302.0 - Balance of Payments and International Investment Position, Australia, Jun 2015 Quality Declaration 
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 01/09/2015   
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FEATURE ARTICLE: A COUNTRY CASE STUDY - CHINA

INTRODUCTION

This article is the first in a series of analytical studies intended to present a picture of the Australian economy and its interactions with the rest of the world. It focuses on the interactions between the Australian and Chinese economies, particularly with regard to international investment, trade in goods and services, demographic and immigration statistics.

China is considered to be a major trading partner of most developed economies and Australia is no exception. As such, the relationship between our interconnected economies is of increasing interest to policymakers. Australia has seen international investment increase and export markets expand as a result of diminishing trade barriers between the two economies.


INTERNATIONAL COMPARISON OF GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP)

According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) - World Economic Outlook, in 2014 China's GDP topped US$10 trillion, significantly larger than Australia's GDP of US$1.4 trillion. China is currently ranked second in the world, while Australia is ranked 12th. However, when assessing GDP per capita, Australia is ranked 5th in the world while China is ranked 80th.

GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT: Selected Countries, Current Prices

Country
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Rank on 2014


Gross Domestic Product, US $b

World
59,711
65,206
72,188
73,475
75,471
77,302
United States
14,419
14,964
15,518
16,163
16,768
17,419
1
China
5,106
5,950
7,314
8,387
9,469
10,380
2
Japan
5,035
5,495
5,906
5,954
4,920
4,616
3
Germany
3,422
3,418
3,756
3,535
3,731
3,860
4
United Kingdom
2,319
2,409
2,594
2,624
2,680
2,945
5
France
2,701
2,652
2,865
2,688
2,807
2,847
6
Brazil
1,667
2,209
2,613
2,412
2,391
2,353
7
Italy
2,192
2,131
2,280
2,076
2,138
2,148
8
India
1,365
1,708
1,843
1,836
1,875
2,050
9
Russia
1,223
1,525
1,905
2,015
2,079
1,857
10
Canada
1,371
1,614
1,789
1,833
1,839
1,789
11
Australia
996
1,248
1,500
1,556
1,502
1,444
12
Korea
902
1,094
1,202
1,223
1,304
1,417
13
Spain
1,503
1,434
1,496
1,356
1,393
1,407
14
Mexico
895
1,051
1,171
1,187
1,262
1,283
15
Indonesia
578
755
893
919
913
889
16
Netherlands
860
838
895
824
854
866
17
Turkey
614
732
775
789
822
806
18
Saudi Arabia
429
527
670
734
744
752
19
Switzerland
540
581
697
666
686
712
20

Gross Domestic Product, Per Capita, US $units
Luxembourg
100,906
102,938
113,612
105,970
110,307
111,716
1
Norway
79,787
87,309
100,172
101,169
102,496
97,013
2
Qatar
59,935
76,413
99,431
103,606
99,370
93,965
3
Switzerland
70,084
74,582
88,504
83,708
85,318
87,475
4
Australia
45,572
56,296
66,622
67,882
64,429
61,219
5
Denmark
58,018
57,783
61,414
57,750
59,950
60,564
6
Sweden
45,998
51,869
59,382
56,916
60,086
58,491
7
San Marino
77,167
69,452
66,214
57,659
57,315
56,820
8
Singapore
38,577
46,569
53,122
54,578
55,980
56,319
9
United States
46,909
48,309
49,725
51,409
52,939
54,597
10
Ireland
51,650
48,047
52,021
48,434
50,543
53,462
11
Netherlands
52,042
50,433
53,590
49,155
50,810
51,373
12
Austria
47,662
46,542
51,003
48,171
50,500
51,307
13
Iceland
40,154
41,750
46,053
44,380
47,630
51,262
14
Canada
40,822
47,531
52,145
52,818
52,393
50,398
15
Finland
47,116
46,186
50,715
47,331
49,214
49,497
16
Belgium
45,295
44,770
48,063
44,987
47,033
47,722
17
Germany
41,828
41,814
46,753
43,903
46,200
47,590
18
United Kingdom
37,526
38,698
40,991
41,194
41,820
45,653
19
France
43,234
42,249
45,430
42,417
44,104
44,538
20
China
3,826
4,437
5,429
6,194
6,959
7,589
80

Source: Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade from IMF - World Economic Outlook.


An alternate comparison between countries is on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis, these data are available from the International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook Database, April 2015.


INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENT

Chinese foreign direct investment in Australia has been increasing in recent years, more than doubling since 2011, to $30.0b in 2014. However, the United States of America continues to be the primary investor in Australia, with foreign direct investment of $163.4b in 2014.

In 2014, Chinese foreign direct investment equity in Australia increased $0.9b (8%) to a level of $12.1b, contributing 2% to total foreign direct investment equity. When comparing countries in 2014 for direct investment in Australia, equity capital and reinvested earnings, China is ranked 9th behind the United States of America, United Kingdom, Japan, Netherlands, Canada, Germany, Switzerland and Singapore.


Graph Image for FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT EQUITY IN AUSTRALIA(a) - Selected Countries

Footnote(s): (a) Foreign direct investment statistics are compiled consistently with other countries compilations and are classified by the country of the immediate partner country, which shows the immediate source of funding but may not show the country of the investor who ultimately controls the investment.

Source(s): ABS, International Investment Position, Australia: Supplementary Statistics, 2014 (cat. no. 5352.0).




Australian foreign direct investment in China has also been increasing, nearly doubling since 2011 to a level of $12.1b in 2014. This was driven by investment in equity capital and reinvested earnings which increased $5.7b (89%) between 2011 and 2014.

FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT: Australia and China, AU$m

2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014

Chinese direct investment in Australia
3,643
9,058
12,908
14,404
16,362
23,354
29,970
Equity capital and reinvested earnings
604
4,601
9,043
8,582
8,261
11,133
12,064
Other capital
3,040
4,458
3,865
5,822
8,101
12,221
17,906
Australian direct investment in China
np
-2,368
-6,720
-6,386
-8,461
-11,388
-12,074
Equity capital and reinvested earnings
-3,236
-2,294
-6,673
-6,361
-8,449
-11,386
-12,049
Other capital
np
-74
-46
-25
-12
-1
-25

np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated
Source: ABS, International Investment Position, Australia: Supplementary Statistics, 2014 (cat. no. 5352.0).


Investment income paid to Chinese residents (debits) has increased $0.4b (42%) between 2013 and 2014, while income received (credits) by Australian residents from Chinese residents has increased $0.6b (86%) to $1.3b in the same period.


Graph Image for INVESTMENT INCOME - Chinese Foreign Investment

Source(s): ABS, International Investment Position, Australia: Supplementary Statistics, 2014 (cat. no. 5352.0).




The mining industry has been the major recipient of investment from China. Investment in the mining industry accounted for 65% of Chinese foreign direct investment equity in Australia in 2014, compared with 78% in 2013.

DIRECT FOREIGN EQUITY INVESTMENT: Chinese Investment in Australia(a) - Selected Industries, AU$m

2011
2012
2013
2014

Total
8,582
8,261
11,133
12,064
Mining
8,082
7,211
8,734
7,814
Other industries
500
1,049
2,399
4,250

(a) Data prior to 2011 are not available for publication due to confidentially restrictions.
Source: ABS.


EXPORTS OF GOODS (CREDITS)

Over the past decade Australian exports of goods to China have grown more strongly than exports to any other country. In 2009, China became Australia's major destination for exports of goods, overtaking Japan's longstanding position. On an international merchandise trade basis, the divergence between exports of goods to China and other countries has continued to grow, with China receiving $89.4b, or 34%, of Australia's exports of goods in 2014. This was followed by Japan, that received $47.6b, or 18%, of Australia's exports of goods.

MERCHANDISE EXPORTS: Selected Countries - Original, Free on Board Value, AU$m

2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014

Merchandise Exports
117,773
139,080
163,753
168,386
222,341
196,556
231,143
261,697
247,749
261,958
265,923
China (excluding SARs and Taiwan)
11,014
16,129
20,373
23,792
32,337
42,527
58,420
71,451
72,974
94,344
89,434
Japan
22,219
28,460
32,442
31,932
50,765
38,240
43,590
50,441
47,795
47,052
47,618
Korea, Republic of
9,170
10,960
12,351
13,470
18,393
15,642
20,468
23,240
19,801
19,242
19,836
United States of America
9,546
9,262
10,081
10,032
12,127
9,593
9,244
9,773
9,379
9,272
11,254
India
5,430
6,978
8,816
9,294
13,516
14,472
16,424
15,247
12,214
9,502
8,819
New Zealand
8,769
9,002
8,941
9,474
9,345
7,928
8,007
7,680
7,414
7,326
7,983
Rest of the World
51,625
58,289
70,749
70,392
85,858
68,154
74,990
83,865
78,172
75,220
80,979

Source: ABS, International Trade in Goods and Services, Australia (cat. no. 5368.0), Table 14a.


Graph Image for MERCHANDISE EXPORTS - Selected Countries, Original, Free on Board Value

Source(s): ABS, International Trade in Goods and Services, Australia (cat. no. 5368.0), Table 14a.




On an international merchandise trade basis, using the Standard International Trade Classification (SITC), the main component contributing to the growth of exports to China was crude materials, inedible, except fuels (SITC 2), increasing $56.2b (1,074%) from $5.2b in 2004 to $61.4b in 2014.

Furthermore, exports of food and live animals (SITC 0) to China have been of growing importance, increasing $3.2b (474%) from $0.7b in 2004 to $3.9b in 2014. In 2014, exports of food and live animals (SITC 0) were driven by cereal grains and cereal preparations (SITC 04), with exports of $1.8b and meat and meat preparations (SITC 01), with exports of $1.2b.

MERCHANDISE EXPORTS TO CHINA: SITC Rev. 4(a) - Original, Free on Board Value, AU$m

2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014

0 Food and live animals
674
606
681
470
772
843
1,222
1,426
2,113
3,145
3,870
1 Beverages and tobacco
9
16
39
58
78
135
164
201
238
220
216
2 Crude materials, inedible, except fuels
5,232
9,586
12,627
14,822
24,365
27,775
42,403
53,805
48,391
64,396
61,423
3 Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials
995
902
979
964
1,280
6,613
7,027
7,454
9,251
10,052
8,362
4 Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes
147
109
109
183
269
173
181
204
124
75
89
5 Chemicals and related products, nes
295
369
478
550
486
575
742
834
1,108
904
578
6 Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material
898
878
1,315
1,304
1,141
2,243
1,855
2,138
1,761
2,871
2,416
7 Machinery and transport equipment
403
680
561
652
614
635
707
805
719
660
702
8 Miscellaneous manufactured articles
113
88
110
139
162
169
187
204
229
185
207
9 Commodities and transactions not classified elsewhere in the SITC
2,248
2,892
3,474
4,649
3,169
3,365
3,933
4,380
9,039
11,834
11,570

(a) From July 2008 reference month, data in the SITC series are presented on a SITC Rev. 3 basis for all data up to June 2005. Data from July 2005 onwards are presented on a SITC Rev. 4 basis. Please note that SITC Rev. 4 free standing descriptors are used to present data for all periods and care should be taken when interpreting free standing descriptors on data prior to July 2005. For full details about international trade statistics moving from SITC Rev. 3 to SITC Rev. 4, please refer to the Information Paper: Impact of introducing Revision 4 of the Standard International Trade Classification, 2008 (cat. no. 5368.0.55.10).
Source: ABS, ABS.Stat.


EXPORTS OF GOODS BY STATE

While all states have grown between 2004 and 2014, growth has been more prominent in Western Australia. In 2014, exports to China from Western Australia were $63.5b, this accounted for 71% of total exports to China. Queensland is the second major state of origin with exports of $10.2b in 2014.

MERCHANDISE EXPORTS TO CHINA: State of Origin - Original, Free on Board Value, AU$m

2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014

New South Wales
1,348
1,699
2,263
2,260
2,190
3,201
3,568
4,998
6,075
6,799
6,145
Victoria
1,867
1,825
1,872
2,139
2,307
2,240
2,606
3,431
3,555
4,321
4,155
Queensland
1,544
2,363
2,782
2,731
2,799
7,154
7,431
6,710
7,804
11,662
10,207
South Australia
392
586
569
759
973
1,184
1,647
2,301
2,131
2,769
3,012
Western Australia
4,996
8,657
11,723
14,513
21,969
26,881
41,044
52,066
51,062
66,212
63,497
Tasmania
217
210
264
321
275
542
548
628
717
594
576
Northern Territory
522
611
741
894
1,599
1,080
1,266
936
1,169
1,585
1,434
Australian Capital Territory
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
4
-
-
No state details(a)
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Re-exports
129
176
160
175
225
243
310
383
456
400
408

- nil or rounded to zero
(a) Includes exports which cannot yet be allocated by state. These shipments will be appropriately classified as more details become available.
Source: ABS, ABS.Stat.


Analysis at the Australian Harmonized Export Commodity Classification (AHECC) level, shows exports of iron ore to be the main commodity driving the crude materials, inedible, except fuels (SITC 2) component. In 2014, iron ore exports to China from Western Australia were $48.9b, contributing 77% of total exports from Western Australia to China for the year.


EXPORTS OF SERVICES (CREDITS)

The balance of trade in services to China has remained in surplus since 1999. In 2014, it was estimated at $6.0b, up $1.0b (21%) on the surplus in 2013. This has been a result of significant growth in exports of services to China which have more than tripled in the past decade.

In 2004, China was ranked as Australia’s 5th largest destination for international trade in services exports, totalling $2.7b, contributing 7% to total services credits. In 2010, China overtook the United States of America to be ranked as Australia’s major destination for exports of services and has maintained this position since. In 2014, exports of services to China were $8.2b, contributing 14% to total services credits, this is an increase of $5.5b (206%) between 2004 and 2014.

SERVICES CREDITS: Selected Countries - Original, Current Prices, AU$m

2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014

Services Credits
37,708
39,952
43,926
48,254
51,379
51,073
50,813
51,034
52,146
55,439
60,176
China (excluding SARs and Taiwan)
2,688
3,045
3,327
3,867
4,500
5,237
5,867
6,143
6,341
7,054
8,212
United States of America
4,419
4,584
5,419
5,575
5,839
5,479
5,115
5,338
5,497
6,245
6,620
United Kingdom
4,295
4,403
4,805
4,800
4,195
4,057
3,853
3,898
4,043
4,183
4,553
New Zealand
2,896
3,080
3,153
3,414
3,392
3,126
3,128
3,260
3,525
3,726
4,005
Singapore
2,323
2,643
2,893
3,235
4,010
3,094
2,696
3,239
3,296
3,610
3,670
India
816
1,206
1,487
1,971
2,827
3,395
3,093
2,574
2,046
1,929
2,498
Rest of the World
20,271
20,991
22,842
25,392
26,616
26,685
27,061
26,582
27,398
28,692
30,618

Source: ABS, International Trade in Services by Country, by State and by Detailed Services Category, Calendar Year, 2014 (cat. no. 5368.0.55.004).

SERVICES CREDITS: Selected Countries - Original, Current Prices

2004 Ranking
Contribution %
2014 Ranking
Contribution %

China (excluding SARs and Taiwan)
5
7
1
14
United States of America
1
12
2
11
United Kingdom
2
11
3
8
New Zealand
4
8
4
7
Singapore
6
6
5
6
India
12
2
6
4

Source: ABS, International Trade in Services by Country, by State and by Detailed Services Category, Calendar Year, 2014 (cat. no. 5368.0.55.004).


The main component contributing to the increased trade in services credits with China was exports of travel services. Since 2004, exports of travel services have increased by $4.8b (208%) to $7.1b in 2014. This was primarily driven by personal travel services, mainly education-related travel. Education-related travel services increased by $2.7b (158%) from $1.7b in 2004 to $4.4b in 2014.

SERVICES CREDITS: Exports to China - Original, Current Prices, AU$m

2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014

Manufacturing services on physical inputs owned by others
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Maintenance and repair services n.i.e.
2
7
5
3
3
3
4
1
1
1
-
Transport(a)
160
202
207
233
251
215
231
240
257
303
390
Travel(a)
2,298
2,622
2,866
3,367
3,960
4,696
5,222
5,516
5,661
6,177
7,076
Business
182
156
161
204
181
216
283
403
351
449
531
Personal
2,115
2,465
2,705
3,163
3,779
4,480
4,939
5,113
5,311
5,728
6,545
Education
1,711
2,074
2,262
2,580
3,131
3,674
3,995
4,052
3,939
4,039
4,408
Other
404
391
442
583
648
806
944
1,061
1,372
1,689
2,136
Other services(a)
228
214
249
264
286
323
410
386
422
573
746

- nil or rounded to zero
(a) Cells in this table may have been perturbed to protect confidentiality.
Source: ABS, International Trade in Services by Country, by State and by Detailed Services Category, Calendar Year, 2014 (cat. no. 5368.0.55.004).


Movements in the education-related travel series are largely driven by changes in international student counts. Counts of Chinese student visa holders in Australia, published by the Department of Immigration and Border Protection in Student Visa and Temporary Graduate Program Trends, 2013-14, shows a peak in student numbers at 30 June 2010, with 79,861 student visa holders. This was followed by a modest fall in counts through more recent years, but has recovered somewhat as at 30 June 2014. China continues to be the prime country of residence of international students with 60,315 student visas granted to Chinese residents in the 2013-14 financial year.


Graph Image for STUDENT VISAS - Held by Chinese Residents

Source(s): Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Student Visa and Temporary Graduate Programme Trends, 2013-14.




IMPORTS OF GOODS (DEBITS)

Annual imports of goods from China have grown fairly consistently over the past decade. China became the primary source of Australian imports in 2006, overtaking the United States of America which experienced more subdued growth over the period. In 2014, imports of goods from China were $52.0b, contributing 21% to total imports. This was followed by United States of America at $26.4b (10%) and Japan at $17.2b (7%).

MERCHANDISE IMPORTS: Selected Countries - Original, Customs Value, AU$m

2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014

Merchandise Imports
141,247
155,727
176,089
187,873
225,946
200,600
210,489
226,898
241,812
240,781
252,377
China (excluding SARs and Taiwan)
17,923
21,365
25,484
29,015
35,256
35,780
39,228
42,000
44,442
47,158
51,976
United States of America
20,526
21,398
24,570
23,651
26,698
22,272
22,682
25,339
27,809
24,571
26,419
Japan
16,671
17,117
17,275
18,047
20,231
16,688
18,191
18,003
19,045
18,941
17,178
Singapore
6,203
8,627
10,708
10,475
16,182
11,171
10,620
14,109
14,468
12,900
12,567
Korea, Republic of
4,930
5,170
6,905
5,941
6,427
6,628
7,144
7,112
9,830
10,332
11,931
Germany
8,195
8,703
8,991
9,737
11,351
10,615
10,493
10,618
11,208
11,428
11,851
Rest of the World
66,799
73,347
82,156
91,007
109,801
97,446
102,131
109,717
115,010
115,451
120,455

Source: ABS, International Trade in Goods and Services, Australia (cat. no. 5368.0), Table 14b.


Graph Image for MERCHANDISE IMPORTS - Selected Countries, Original, Customs Value

Source(s): ABS, International Trade in Goods and Services, Australia (cat. no. 5368.0), Table 14b.




On an international merchandise trade basis, using the SITC, the main component contributing to the growth of imports from China was machinery and transport equipment (SITC 7), increasing $15.7b (226%) from $6.9b in 2004 to $22.6b in 2014. This was followed by imports of miscellaneous manufactured articles (SITC 8), increasing $8.8b (133%) from $6.6b in 2004 to $15.5b in 2014.

MERCHANDISE IMPORTS FROM CHINA: SITC Rev. 4(a) - Original, Customs Value, AU$m

2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014

0 Food and live animals
310
344
450
517
625
670
662
747
759
842
948
1 Beverages and tobacco
21
28
33
31
42
47
39
37
38
42
55
2 Crude materials, inedible, except fuels
81
88
99
120
152
129
131
184
148
166
191
3 Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials
265
253
248
60
135
180
161
174
122
133
554
4 Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes
4
5
6
5
6
7
7
9
11
13
17
5 Chemicals and related products, nes
656
821
905
1,246
1,912
1,559
1,760
1,839
2,002
2,268
2,565
6 Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material
2,861
3,361
3,917
4,664
5,760
5,251
6,001
6,480
7,492
7,833
8,842
7 Machinery and transport equipment
6,932
8,564
10,589
12,433
14,511
15,772
18,020
19,709
20,264
21,323
22,613
8 Miscellaneous manufactured articles
6,635
7,625
8,821
9,447
11,277
11,675
11,910
12,103
12,732
13,836
15,478
9 Commodities and transactions not classified elsewhere in the SITC
158
276
415
491
837
490
537
716
873
700
714

(a) From July 2008 reference month, data in the SITC series are presented on a SITC Rev. 3 basis for all data up to June 2005. Data from July 2005 onwards are presented on a SITC Rev. 4 basis. Please note that SITC Rev. 4 free standing descriptors are used to present data for all periods and care should be taken when interpreting free standing descriptors on data prior to July 2005. For full details about international trade statistics moving from SITC Rev. 3 to SITC Rev. 4, please refer to the Information Paper: Impact of introducing Revision 4 of the Standard International Trade Classification, 2008 (cat. no. 5368.0.55.10).
Source: ABS, ABS.Stat.


Analysis at the 2 digit SITC level, shows telecommunications and sound recording and reproducing apparatus and equipment (SITC 76) and office machines and automatic data processing machines (SITC 75) to be the main contributors to the machinery and transport equipment (SITC 7) import series.

In 2014, imports of telecommunications and sound recording and reproducing apparatus and equipment (SITC 76) from China were $6.7b. This was driven by telecommunications equipment, nes and parts, nes and accessories of apparatus falling within division 76 (SITC 764), with imports of $5.6b in 2014.

Equally significant, in 2014, were imports of office machines and automatic data processing machines (SITC 75) from China of $6.2b. This was driven by automatic data processing machines and units thereof, nes (SITC 752), with imports of $4.9b in 2014.


IMPORTS OF GOODS BY STATE

In 2014, the majority of Australian imports of goods from China were destined for New South Wales, with imports of $24.8b. This was followed by Victoria and Queensland with imports of $14.9b and $6.1b respectively.

Similar to the total level, imports into New South Wales were driven by machinery and transport equipment (SITC 7), with imports of $14.1b in 2014. This was followed by miscellaneous manufactured articles (SITC 8), with imports of $6.1b.

MERCHANDISE IMPORTS FROM CHINA: State of Final Destination - Original, Customs Value, AU$m

2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014

New South Wales
8,720
10,661
12,500
14,105
17,015
17,490
19,958
20,648
21,101
22,547
24,818
Victoria
5,960
6,689
8,011
8,989
10,779
10,634
11,191
11,931
12,230
13,256
14,922
Queensland
1,983
2,263
2,754
3,108
3,941
3,574
4,101
4,660
5,465
5,837
6,062
South Australia
445
610
756
980
1,134
972
1,063
1,243
1,273
1,318
1,446
Western Australia
753
1,046
1,352
1,679
2,177
2,971
2,773
3,302
4,081
3,887
4,224
Tasmania
40
58
51
67
110
71
70
82
97
97
126
Northern Territory
21
37
59
86
101
68
71
130
195
212
377
Australian Capital Territory
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
4
-
No state details(a)
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

- nil or rounded to zero
(a) Includes imports which cannot yet be allocated by state. These shipments will be appropriately classified as more details become available.
Source: ABS, ABS.Stat.


IMPORTS OF SERVICES (DEBITS)

Total services debits have nearly doubled since 2004, increasing by $31.9b (83%) from $38.5b in 2004 to $70.4b in 2014. Australia’s imports of services from China have also seen similar growth over the period. Australia's imports of services from China increased $1.0b, from $1.2b in 2004 to $2.2b in 2014. Although imports from China have increased, China's ranking fell from 7th in 2004 to 8th in 2014. During this time the United States of America remained the major source for Australia's imports of services.

SERVICES DEBITS: Selected Countries - Original, Current Prices, AU$m

2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014

Services Debits
38,531
40,677
44,129
50,130
58,400
54,145
56,196
60,698
64,448
70,560
70,395
United States of America
6,238
6,479
7,140
8,980
10,315
9,496
9,375
10,944
11,381
12,865
13,187
United Kingdom
4,455
4,558
4,135
4,439
5,077
4,986
4,927
5,606
5,534
6,116
6,315
Singapore
2,568
3,024
4,043
4,337
4,911
3,489
3,539
4,084
4,486
5,252
5,389
New Zealand
1,989
1,989
2,252
2,618
2,893
3,007
2,787
3,000
2,927
3,193
3,379
Japan
1,759
1,852
1,819
1,955
2,631
2,201
2,270
2,172
2,295
2,463
2,733
Indonesia
965
884
566
795
1,203
1,528
1,892
2,298
2,268
2,488
2,574
Hong Kong
1,571
1,668
1,686
1,773
1,958
1,736
1,923
2,027
2,020
2,401
2,515
China (excluding SARs and Taiwan)
1,205
1,377
1,271
1,433
1,690
1,619
1,775
1,907
1,975
2,057
2,178
Rest of the World
19,352
20,514
22,903
25,573
29,680
27,819
29,631
30,687
33,582
36,126
34,640

Source: ABS, International Trade in Services by Country, by State and by Detailed Services Category, Calendar Year, 2014 (cat. no. 5368.0.55.004).

SERVICES DEBITS: Selected Countries - Original, Current Prices, AU$m

2004 Ranking
Contribution %
2014 Ranking
Contribution %

United States of America
1
16
1
19
United Kingdom
2
12
2
9
Singapore
3
7
3
8
New Zealand
4
5
4
5
Japan
5
5
5
4
Indonesia
9
3
6
4
Hong Kong
6
4
7
4
China (excluding SARs and Taiwan)
7
3
8
3

Source: ABS, International Trade in Services by Country, by State and by Detailed Services Category, Calendar Year, 2014 (cat. no. 5368.0.55.004).


The main component contributing to the rise in imports of services from China was travel services, which increased $0.5b (89%) from $0.6b in 2004 to $1.1b in 2014. The personal, other travel services component has been the main contributor to the travel services debits series and was the main driver to the overall growth of travel services debits. The personal, other travel services component consists primarily of tourism-related travel. Growth in this series is supported by overseas arrivals and departures data, with record numbers of Australian residents undertaking short-term travel to China, citing holiday or visiting friends/family as the main purpose for their journey.

SERVICES DEBITS: Imports from China - Original, Current Prices, AU$m

2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014

Services Debits(a)
1,205
1,377
1,271
1,433
1,690
1,619
1,775
1,907
1,975
2,057
2,178
Manufacturing services on physical inputs owned by others
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Maintenance and repair services n.i.e.
1
1
-
-
1
1
1
1
5
2
7
Transport(a)
432
400
301
342
462
408
505
502
486
439
513
Travel(a)
596
752
801
895
1,012
1,000
1,067
1,135
1,160
1,241
1,129
Business
209
277
289
277
270
271
249
239
264
314
300
Personal
386
475
512
617
742
729
819
896
896
927
830
Education
51
45
55
54
64
59
74
59
75
68
83
Other
336
430
458
563
678
670
745
837
821
859
747
Other services(a)
176
224
169
196
215
210
202
269
324
375
529

- nil or rounded to zero
(a) Cells in this table may have been perturbed to protect confidentiality.
Source: ABS, International Trade in Services by Country, by State and by Detailed Services Category, Calendar Year, 2014 (cat. no. 5368.0.55.004).


Graph Image for AUSTRALIAN RESIDENTS SHORT-TERM TRAVEL TO CHINA - Selected Reason for Journey

Source(s): ABS.




DEMOGRAPHY - AUSTRALIA'S POPULATION BY COUNTRY OF BIRTH

People born in China made up 1.9% of Australia’s population at 30 June 2014. This is the third largest group of Australian residents born overseas, following people born in the United Kingdom (5.2%) and New Zealand (2.6%).


Graph Image for COUNTRY OF BIRTH - Selected Countries, Proportion of Australia's Population(a)

Footnote(s): (a) Based on the top 10 countries of birth (excluding Australia) at 30 June 2014. (b) Includes Channel Islands and Isle of Man. (c) Estimates for 1992-2011 have been recast and estimates from June quarter 2013 onwards are preliminary - see paragraph 9 of the Explanatory Notes in Migration, Australia, 2013-14 (cat. no. 3412.0).

Source(s): ABS, Migration, Australia, 2013-14 (cat. no. 3412.0).




Over the past decade, the proportion of the Australian population that were born in China increased from 1.0% in 2004 to 1.9% in 2014. Over the same period, proportions increased for people born in New Zealand (from 2.1% to 2.6%) and India (from 0.7% to 1.7%), however decreased for people born in the United Kingdom (from 5.6% to 5.2%).

The number of Australian residents born in China more than doubled from 205,200 persons in 2004 to 447,400 persons in 2014. In 2014, Chinese-born Australian resident women outnumbered men, with 81.9 males for every 100 females. It was a different story at the time of Federation in 1901, when there were just over 29,900 Chinese-born Australian residents. Of these, around 29,500 were males and 400 were females.

CHINESE BORN AUSTRALIAN RESIDENTS: By Gender

1996
2001
2006
2011

Number of Persons

Total, China
118,640
153,360
251,960
387,420
Male
57,980
72,840
115,690
174,520
Female
60,660
80,530
136,270
212,900


Contribution %

Males
49
47
46
45
Females
51
53
54
55

Source: ABS, ABS.Stat.


The median age of Australian residents born in China is 35.5 years, this is compared with the median age of Australian born residents of 33.6 years. The Chinese-born median is younger than the other top ten source countries except India (33.2 years).


Graph Image for AUSTRALIAN RESIDENTS BORN IN CHINA - by Age and Gender

Source(s): ABS, Migration, Australia, 2013-14 (cat. no. 3412.0).





FURTHER INFORMATION

This article has presented analysis on a calendar year basis, however, a number of these data series are available monthly or quarterly. The following ABS publications and sources were used to compile this article:
For further information on exports, imports and international investment with other countries contact the International Accounts Director on Canberra (02) 6251 7988 or email balance.of.payments@abs.gov.au.



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