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5422.0 - International Merchandise Trade, Australia, Sep 1996  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 25/11/1996   
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Feature Article - ANZSIC and TREC - Two views of trade

(This article was published in the September quarter 1996 issue of International Merchandise Trade, Australia (ABS Catalogue Number 5422.0))

INTRODUCTION

The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), as the national statistical agency, is the primary source of statistical information on Australia's merchandise trade. ABS international merchandise trade data is sourced from individual transactions submitted by exporters and importers or their agents to the Australian Customs Service (ACS). The individual transactions are edited by the ABS to ensure accuracy and consistency with international standards for merchandise trade statistics, before being aggregated for inclusion in various output. Other departments and agencies, such as the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) and Austrade, do not collect their own data but use the data which the ABS produces and disseminates.

2. The ABS presents international merchandise trade statistics using a number of different classifications, enabling the statistics to be examined from different perspectives and at different levels of aggregation depending on the requirements of the user. For example, data can be provided on a 'commodity basis', an 'industry basis', or a 'broad economic category basis'. These classifications follow exactly, or are closely comparable with, the internationally recognised classifications developed by bodies such as the United Nations (UN) and the World Customs Organisation (WCO). While other organisations also present international merchandise trade statistics in other ways, often for their own use, they do not always use internationally recognised classifications. As a result, the statistics they publish may not always be comparable with those produced by the ABS or by statistical organisations overseas.

3. The purpose of this article is to examine how two different classifications may be used to present the same body of data, in this case international merchandise trade statistics, and to explain the background to each classification and the differences therein. The classifications under examination are the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), used by the ABS to present merchandise trade statistics on an industry of origin basis, and the Trade Exports Classification (TREC), used by DFAT to distinguish commodities according to the amount of processing they have undergone, irrespective of the industry in which the commodities are typically produced.


BACKGROUND TO THE ARTICLE

4. The production of this article was prompted in part by requests from clients for an explanation of the differences between the ABS and DFAT systems of presenting international merchandise trade statistics. These differences were the subject of recent publicity following the production of the Asian Business Centre Working Paper 2/95 Is Australia Exporting Enough? by Helen Hughes and Hisako Toguchi of the University of Melbourne. The publicity surrounding this paper made it clear that an explanation of the different presentations of trade data by the ABS and DFAT would be useful for analysts interested in Australia's international merchandise trade statistics on an industry of origin or level of processing basis.

5. While the international merchandise trade statistics which the ABS presents classified by industry of origin and those which DFAT presents classified by TREC are compiled using the same source data, the two systems are based on different classifications designed for different purposes. This article will focus on the differences between the ABS ANZSIC and DFAT TREC presentation of statistics, to assist users in the accurate interpretation of the data and in recognising and understanding the limitations of each presentation.


INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATIONS

6. In producing data on international merchandise trade, the ABS follows the UN recommendations for the compilation of international trade statistics, as set out in the UN publication International Trade Statistics, Concepts and Definitions, Statistical Papers, Series M, No. 52, Rev. 1 (1982). As most other countries also follow the UN statistical standards and use internationally recognised classifications for international merchandise trade statistics, those statistics will not only be compiled using compatible concepts but can also be presented using commodity classifications suited to the needs of trade analysts making broad comparisons between countries.

7. The classifications used by the ABS to produce international merchandise trade statistics are either the internationally-recognised classifications recommended for use in that field of statistics, or a locally developed classification which is closely comparable with the international standard. The main classifications used by the ABS in compiling statistics on merchandise trade are as follows:

Commodity based statistics

  • The Harmonized System (HS) is a detailed classification developed by the WCO and designed primarily for Customs purposes. It is used by most countries to record their trade, and is the most detailed international commodity classification. In the HS, goods produced from the same material are grouped together and ordered according to the degree of processing, with raw materials or less manufactured products appearing before finished or more highly manufactured products. The HS is a 6-digit classification, with some 5,000 separate subheadings. For imports, the ACS adds 2 further digits (to make the classification more relevant for Australian trade purposes), and the ABS adds an additional 2 digits (for statistical purposes), resulting in over 9,200 10-digit Harmonized Tariff Item Statistical Codes (HTISC). For exports, the ABS adds 2 further digits to the HS classification to result in approximately 6,200 8-digit Australian Harmonized Export Commodity Classification (AHECC) codes.
  • The Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) Revision 3 (SITC Rev3) is the UN developed trade classification for statistical purposes. SITC is an international classification which groups comparable HS commodities to show the nature of the goods and the materials used in their production. At its most detailed level (5 digits) it consists of 3,120 codes. SITC commodity codes are ideal for a broader assessment of commodity trading patterns, and for comparative purposes, SITC Rev3 can be linked with the HS classification.

Industry based statistics
  • The Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) is the standard classification used by the ABS for the presentation and analysis of industry statistics. It provides a framework for classifying businesses to industries according to the predominant activities undertaken by a business. ANZSIC is closely based on the UN's International Standard Industrial Classification Revision 3 (ISIC Rev3). At its most detailed level ANZSIC contains 465 industry classes. It is used in international merchandise trade statistics to provide an indication of the industry which is most likely to have produced the goods which are exported or imported. ANZSIC allows for comparisons of the value of Australia's domestic production with exports and imports of goods on an industry by industry basis, and can also be used to analyse trends within an industry over time.

Broad economic category statistics
  • The classification of Broad Economic Categories (BEC) was introduced by the UN Statistical Office in the early 1970s and is a 3-digit classification that allows for the presentation of merchandise trade data according to the main end-use of the commodities covered. The BEC groups the SITC Rev3 commodities into 19 basic economic categories. The three broad categories: consumption goods; capital goods; and intermediate goods are derived from 16 of the basic categories to facilitate economic analysis in terms of national accounts concepts.

8. As a signatory to the Harmonized System Convention, Australia is obliged to collect and publish merchandise trade statistics according to all codes of the HS. The ABS also follows the UN guidelines on the use of the SITC Rev3, with additional codes to take account of Australia's treatment of gold coin, whether or not legal tender, and other legal tender coin, and confidential items. This is an extension of, not a deviation from, the international standard. The ABS usage of BEC also conforms to UN recommendations. Where the ABS does not follow exactly the internationally-recognised classifications for merchandise trade, it differs only where the international classification is inappropriate for local conditions and requirements. In developing ANZSIC greater emphasis was placed on alignment with the international standards than had been the case with the previous classification, the Australian Standard Industrial Classification (ASIC). To achieve this, ISIC Rev3, was used as the international standard for reference purposes.


ABS MERCHANDISE TRADE STATISTICS BY INDUSTRY OF ORIGIN

9. The ABS, since December quarter 1993, has produced international merchandise trade statistics classified by industry of origin according to ANZSIC. This classification replaced the ASIC and the New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (NZSIC). ANZSIC was developed to improve the alignment with ISIC Rev3 and to reflect the significant changes that have taken place in the world economy over the past three decades. The international merchandise trade statistics published by the ABS using ANZSIC are not, however, directly comparable with the previously published ASIC based series. To assist users in overcoming the discontinuities created by the change, historical series, classified by ANZSIC, were recompiled back to 1988.

Derivation of industry of origin statistics
10. Most of the ABS statistical collections which produce data by industry do so by determining the industry class to which individual reporting units belong and surveying those units. International merchandise trade statistics, however, are compiled indirectly as a by-product of commodity information submitted by exporters and importers or their agents to the ACS. International merchandise trade statistics by industry are compiled by allocating statistical items of the AHECC and HTISC to the ANZSIC with which the production of the commodities is primarily associated.


11. The application of ANZSIC to international merchandise trade statistics involves some practical issues requiring special rules. These rules relate to commodities which cannot be primarily associated with a particular industry. For example, the commodities included in HS code 9508 Roundabouts, swings, shooting galleries and other fairground amusements; travelling circuses, travelling menageries and travelling theatres, are produced by a number of industries, with no single industry predominating. For commodities such as these, a special ANZSIC class, 9889 Sum of items not readily classified, was created.

12. In addition, commodities which have confidentiality restrictions imposed upon them are not allocated to a specific industry. Instead they are allocated to ANZSIC class 9899 Sum of confidential items not more specifically classified. Commodities concorded to ANZSIC classes 9889 and 9899 comprise the 'Other Industries' category of the industry of origin tables for international merchandise trade statistics.


TABLE A. ANZSIC DIVISIONS/SUBDIVISIONS USED IN MERCHANDISE TRADE INDUSTRY OF ORIGIN STATISTICS
    Division
        Subdivision

    A Agriculture, forestry and fishing
    01
      Agriculture
    02
      Services to agriculture; hunting and trapping
    03
      Forestry and logging
    04
      Commercial fishing
    B Mining
    11
      Coal mining
    12
      Oil and gas extraction
    13
      Metal ore mining
    14
      Other mining
    C Manufacturing
    21
      Food, beverage and tobacco
    22
      Textile, clothing, footwear and leather
    23
      Wood and paper products
    24
      Printing, publishing and recorded media
    25
      Petroleum, coal, chemical and associate products
    26
      Non-metallic mineral products
    27
      Metal products
    28
      Machinery and equipment
    29
      Other manufacturing
    Other industries


Interpretation and use of industry of origin statistics
13. As in any system of presentation involving some method of classification, the underlying framework of the structure has to be understood as do the limitations inherent within that structure before an analysis of the data can be attempted. Clients seeking to analyse international merchandise trade statistics on an industry of origin basis, should be aware of the method used to derive the data and the limitations of this mode of presentation.


14. International merchandise trade statistics by industry of origin are published at the 2-digit (Subdivision) level for three Divisions of the goods producing industries: Divisions A, Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing; B, Mining; and C, Manufacturing. Trade in commodities which are not allocated to a specific industry are grouped in the residual category described as Other Industries. (See Table A.)

15. Each of the HS codes are linked to the appropriate class within ANZSIC to provide an indication of the industry in which the commodity typically originates, and to which the activity of producing the commodity is designated as primary. For example, exports of commodity HS 080610, Fresh grapes, are classified for industry of origin purposes to ANZSIC class 0114, Grape growing, under the division of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing.

16. In practice, commodities may be produced by industries to which their production is not primary. Other statistics presented using ANZSIC incorporate the value of any secondary production activities undertaken by the establishments involved, while the commodity concordances applied to international merchandise trade data only assign items to the industry in which they are primarily classified. This may not necessarily be the industry in which the items are actually produced. For example, a business primarily concerned with the production of fresh grapes, classified under the Agricultural, Forestry and Fishing Division, may also produce a small quantity of wine for export. So, for merchandise exports statistics the wine would be classified to ANZSIC 2183, the wine manufacturing industry, even though the wine may have been produced by a unit in the grape growing industry, ANZSIC 0114. The recorded value of merchandise exports for a particular ANZSIC class may, therefore, be overstated or understated in comparison to the value of domestic production if the bulk of that commodity has been produced as a secondary activity and is included with another ANZSIC industry.

17. The presentation of international merchandise trade statistics using the ANZSIC industry of origin system has meant that, of the three divisions of the ANZSIC for which statistics are shown in International Merchandise Trade, Australia (Cat. No. 5422.0), the largest value of exports and imports is represented by goods which are primary to the Manufacturing Division. This characteristic of the industry of origin statistics, particularly where exports are concerned, may seem at odds with other representations of international merchandise trade and Australia's history as a primary producer, but it is a direct result of the way the ANZSIC classification is used to present international merchandise trade data. While some analysts may question the validity of classifying a product such as canned tomatoes as a 'manufactured' export, the rationale for producing international merchandise trade statistics on an industry of origin basis, is to give an indication of which industry is most likely to have produced the final item either imported or exported. The use of a different classification, such as SITC or TREC to present the same data, will inevitably yield a different result.


THE DFAT TREC SYSTEM

18. DFAT produces statistics on Australia's international merchandise trade using the Trade Exports Classification (TREC). TREC was developed by the former Commonwealth Department of Trade in 1978 to classify merchandise exports according to their degree of processing. TREC was derived from the 7-digit Australian Exports Commodity Classification (AECC), the Australian expansion of the 5-digit SITC Rev 2. With the move from AECC to AHECC in 1988, the TREC codes were concorded to the new system so that TREC data were available in time series from July 1977.

19. Under the UN's SITC Rev 2, all commodities in Sections 0-4 are broadly defined as 'Primary Products' and in Sections 5-8 are broadly defined as 'Manufactures'. In developing TREC, the Department used SITC Rev 2 as a starting point and then applied the UN's BEC classification - which classifies commodities according to their main or end use - to further break down items according to their degree of processing.

20. Manufactures were divided into Simply Transformed Manufactures (STMs) and Elaborately Transformed Manufactures (ETMs). In broad terms, the scope of ETMs was designed to cover finished goods with a high degree of manufacturing value added. This definition facilitates the identification of goods deemed to be promotable in overseas markets. Simply Transformed Manufactures (STMs) comprise the residual of Australia's manufactures exports.

21. At a broad level, there is a concordance between TREC and SITC Rev3. This concordance allows comparisons of TREC data for Australia's major trading partners. Globally, ETMs comprise the major component of world merchandise trade.

22. In 1994 DFAT recognised an emerging demand for the presentation and analysis of imports data using TREC. However, as the TREC is based on AHECC the presentation of imports data could only be done using higher level concordance based on SITC Rev 2 data at the 3-digit level. This concordance only provides publication quality detail at the level shown in Tables C and E. A future revision of TREC will address this deficiency to present a fully comparable detailed presentation of TREC for both exports and imports.


ANZSIC AND TREC - A COMPARISON

23. The main difference between TREC and ANZSIC statistics is that TREC is a commodity classification, while ANZSIC is an industry classification. When merchandise exports and imports statistics are presented according to the TREC, goods are grouped according to the degree of processing or transformation they have undergone. In contrast, when they are presented according to ANZSIC, commodities are grouped according to their 'industry of origin', that is the industry with which the goods are most closely associated: in the case of exports, this is the industry which is most likely to produce those goods; and in the case of imports, this is the domestic industry which is most likely to have produced goods equivalent to those imported. Therefore, it is not valid to compare detailed data out of the two systems of classification. The differences are clearly illustrated in Tables B and C. The tables show that while both ANZSIC industry of origin statistics and TREC use the same basic trade data collected by the ABS, the aims and results of each are different. For exports of manufactured goods, for example, TREC statistics show manufactured products originating in any industry, and ANZSIC statistics show all products typically originating in the manufacturing industry.

24. Tables D and E present international merchandise trade statistics for the period 1989/90 to 1995/96 using the ANZSIC and TREC classifications at a broader level of aggregation than was shown in Tables B and C. This method of presentation can be used by analysts interested in changes over time to merchandise exports and imports on an industry basis using ANZSIC or the extent of processing using TREC.

25. International merchandise trade statistics on an ANZSIC basis provide a broad overview of Australia's exports and imports at the industry level. They can be used to compare information on the total value of production of an industry group or class and estimates of the percentage of goods exported from that same industry, and how that proportion may have changed over time. Similarly, details of imports classified by ANZSIC can be used to identify and compare changes over time in the industry groups or classes which are subject to the highest level of import competition, providing an indication as to where efforts at import substitution might be aimed.

26. These 'industry based' statistics, however, do not relate to the commodity origin. Commodities classified by ANZSIC may have come in the first instance from the primary sector of the economy, but may be classified as 'manufactured' because they underwent a minor manufacturing process. Exports and imports classified by ANZSIC are most effectively used as a guide to the industries most likely to have produced the commodities, and are therefore suited mainly to broad level analyses of international merchandise trade. However, ANZSIC information is also available on a country or state of origin and regional basis.

27. Focusing mainly on exports, TREC was designed in part to overcome the limitations of industry-based classifications, and to assist the analysis of Australia's trade performance from a different perspective. The main purpose of TREC was to distinguish between commodities according to their level of processing - this led to the categories of 'unprocessed' and 'processed' within primary products, and 'simply transformed' and 'elaborately transformed' within manufactures. Classification of commodities within these categories is done by assessing the degree of manufacturing value added in the final export value of each commodity. Although this process is somewhat subjective, the resulting TREC estimates do provide users with an additional basis for measuring Australia's success in increasing the sophistication of its exports.

28. The TREC uses an appreciably narrower definition of manufacturing in comparison to that used in ABS industry of origin statistics. As a result, a number of commodities classed as primary products in the TREC (e.g. meat and cheese) are classified to the manufacturing division in ANZSIC industry of origin statistics. This is because these commodities undergo some manufacturing or treatment processes which result in a transformation of the product. While at times these instances may seem at variance with the way one would expect these commodities to be treated, their classification under ANZSIC to the manufacturing industry conforms with international standards, specifically the ISIC.

29. The ANZSIC industry of origin and TREC systems of classification allow two different views of Australia's merchandise trade. These classifications provide different, though not conflicting perspectives. The trade data used by DFAT is compiled and published by the ABS, and DFAT recompiles this data using TREC. The statistics that result are presented using an Australian specific, not an international standard, classification.


REVISIONS TO TREC

30. DFAT has proposed changes to TREC which would result in the inclusion of a third manufactures category - 'moderately transformed manufactures' (MTMs). The resulting 'manufactures' will align much more closely with the definition of 'manufacturing' in ANZSIC. In particular, the revised TREC will expand the Primary Products category to show a distinction between manufactured commodities (e.g. flour) and non-manufactured commodities (e.g. wheat). As a result the overall TREC definition of 'manufactures' will include all commodities which have undergone any significant transformation process. The categorisation of Primary Product Manufactures (formerly Processed Primary Products) into STMs, MTMs and ETMs will provide a more detailed basis for analysing changes in the manufacturing value-added content of all of Australia's merchandise exports.

31. Once DFAT completes its revision of TREC and begins publication using the revised TREC the ABS will review the inclusion of TREC tables in International Merchandise Trade, Australia (Cat. No. 5422.0). Users would then be able to analyse and interpret international merchandise trade data according to both ANZSIC and TREC.


CONCLUSION

32. The above discussion briefly highlights the differences between the ANZSIC and TREC systems of presenting international merchandise trade statistics. It summarises the basis of the two classifications and it describes some types of analysis which may be more appropriately undertaken using one or other of these classifications. The different presentations by each agency are complementary and designed to serve different purposes.

33. Clients who require more information about any of the ABS international trade classifications should contact Jan Gatenby on (02) 6252 5310 and clients who require more information about TREC should contact Neil Batty on (02) 6261 2231.


REFERENCES

ABS, A Guide to Major ABS Classifications (1291.0)

ABS and Statistics New Zealand, Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (1292.0)

DFAT, Composition of Trade, Australia 1994-95

DFAT, Exports of Primary and Manufactured Products, Australia 1994-95

United Nations, International Trade Statistics, Concepts and Definitions, Statistical Papers, Series M, No. 52, Rev. 1


TABLE B. MERCHANDISE EXPORTS BY ANZSIC AND TREC, 1995-96
($ million)


      Exports by ANZSIC
    Exports by TREC

A
      Agriculture, forestry and fishing
    Primary products
      01 Agriculture
7,686
    Rural
      02 Services to agriculture; hunting and trapping
821
    Unprocessed food
7,154
      03 Forestry and logging
45
    Processed food
9,177
      04 Commercial fishing
567
    Other primary products, unprocessed
4,885
    Other primary products, processed
157
      Total
9,119
    Total
21,373
    Minerals and fuels
B
      Mining
    Minerals
9,101
      11 Coal mining
7,784
    Fuels
12,610
      12 Oil and gas extraction
3,162
    Total
21,711
      13 Metal ore mining
5,343
      14 Other mining
250
    Total
43,084
      Total
16,539
    Manufactures
    Simply transformed
C
      Manufacturing
    Minerals and metals
5,627
      21 Food beverage and tobacco
10,963
    Chemicals
1,622
      22 Textile, clothing, footwear and leather
2,721
    Other
508
      23 Wood and paper products
989
    Total
7,757
      24 Printing, publishing and recorded media
413
    Elaborately transformed
      25 Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated products
5,102
    Minerals and metals
1,995
      26 Non-metallic mineral products
391
    Chemicals
2,399
      27 Metal products
16,522
    Engineering products
10,629
      28 Machinery and equipment
10,942
    Other
2,876
      29 Other manufacturing
739
    Total
17,899
      Total
48,782
    Total
25,656
      Other industries (a)
1,603
    Gold, non-monetary
5,625
    Confidential items
1,058
      Total merchandise exports
76,043
    Miscellaneous
620
    Total merchandise exports
76,043

Source: ABS; DFAT.
(a) Includes commodities subject to a 'No Commodity Details' restriction.



TABLE C. MERCHANDISE IMPORTS BY ANZSIC AND TREC, 1995-96
($ million)

      Imports by ANZSIC
    Imports by TREC

A
      Agriculture, forestry and fishing
    Primary products
      01 Agriculture
715
    Rural
      02 Services to agriculture; hunting and trapping
9
    Unprocessed food
845
      03 Forestry and logging
5
    Processed food
2,812
      04 Commercial fishing
65
    Other rural
1,196
    Total
4,853
      Total
794
    Minerals and fuels
    Minerals
328
B
      Mining
    Fuels
4,358
      11 Coal mining
12
    Total
4,686
      12 Oil and gas extraction
2,907
      13 Metal ore mining
129
    Total
9,539
      14 Other mining
150
      Total
3,198
    Manufactures
    Simply transformed
8,473
C
      Manufacturing
    Elaborately transformed
58,762
      21 Food beverage and tobacco
3,263
      22 Textile, clothing, footwear and leather
5,283
    Total
67,235
      23 Wood and paper products
2,695
      24 Printing, publishing and recorded media
1,627
      25 Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated products
12,507
    Other(a)
1,018
      26 Non-metallic mineral products
1,011
      27 Metal products
5,073
      28 Machinery and equipment
40,142
      29 Other manufacturing
1,945
    Total merchandise imports
77,792
      Total
73,546
      Other industries (a)
254
      Total merchandise imports
77,792

Source: ABS; DFAT.
(a) Includes commodities subject to a 'No Commodity Details' restriction.




TABLE D. MERCHANDISE EXPORTS BY ANZSIC AND TREC, 1989-90 TO 1995-96
($ million)

1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
1992-93
1993-94
1994-95
1995-96

EXPORTS BY ANZSIC
    A Agriculture, forestry and fishing
7,600
5,829
6,469
6,641
7,011
6,958
9,119
    B Mining
11,892
14,268
14,629
15,456
14,553
14,922
16,539
    C Manufacturing
28,117
31,275
32,855
37,551
41,478
43,793
48,782
    Other industries (a)
1,469
1,027
1,074
1,054
1,506
1,375
1,603
    Total merchandise exports
49,078
52,399
55,027
60,702
64,548
67,048
76,043

EXPORTS BY TREC
    Primary products
    Unprocessed food
4,306
3,520
3,622
4,586
4,966
4,403
7,154
    Processed food
5,985
6,221
6,645
7,774
8,826
9,077
9,177
    Other rural
5,734
4,620
5,464
4,893
4,862
5,667
5,042
    Minerals
7,597
8,559
7,942
7,941
7,672
7,971
9,101
    Fuels
8,421
10,708
10,874
12,199
11,122
11,251
12,610
    Total
32,043
33,628
34,547
37,393
37,448
38,369
43,084
    Manufactures
    Simply transformed manufactures
5,296
5,353
5,493
5,844
6,320
7,148
7,757
    Elaborately transformed manufactures
7,243
8,513
9,713
11,984
13,804
15,318
17,899
    Total
12,539
13,866
15,206
17,828
20,124
22,466
25,656
    Other exports(a)
4,496
4,905
5,274
5,481
6,976
6,213
7,303
    Total merchandise exports
49,078
52,399
55,027
60,702
64,548
67,048
76,043

Source: ABS; DFAT.
(a) Includes commodities subject to a 'No Commodity Details' restriction.




TABLE E. MERCHANDISE IMPORTS BY ANZSIC AND TREC, 1989-90 TO 1995-96
($ million)

1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
1992-93
1993-94
1994-95
1995-96


IMPORTS BY ANZSIC
    A Agriculture, forestry and fishing
506
457
464
479
559
848
794
    B Mining
1,441
1,724
1,804
2,558
2,572
2,805
3,198
    C Manufacturing
48,458
46,266
48,471
56,306
61,103
70,733
73,546
    Other industries (a)
928
465
245
232
236
233
254
    Total merchandise imports
51,333
48,912
50,984
59,984
59,575
74,619
77,792

IMPORTS BY TREC
    Primary products
    Unprocessed food
656
589
649
620
754
903
845
    Processed food
1,754
1,835
1,951
2,239
2,394
2,657
2,812
    Other rural
1,114
931
963
1,132
1,246
1,369
1,196
    Minerals
376
250
268
311
282
350
328
    Fuels
2,566
3,157
2,765
3,893
3,484
3,712
4,358
    Total
6,466
6,762
6,596
8,195
8,160
8,991
9,539
    Manufactures
    Simply transformed manufactures
5,979
5,546
5,898
6,541
6,966
8,112
8,473
    Elaborately transformed manufactures
37,784
35,558
37,251
43,627
48,155
56,450
58,762
    Total
43,763
41,104
43,149
50,168
55,121
64,562
67,235
    Other imports(a)
1,104
1,046
1,239
1,212
1,189
1,066
1,018
    Total merchandise imports
51,333
48,912
50,984
59,575
64,470
74,619
77,792

Source: ABS, DFAT.
(a) Includes commodities subject to a 'No Commodity Details' restriction.


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