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6273.0 - Employment in Culture, Australia, 2006 Quality Declaration 
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 27/02/2008   
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INTRODUCTION

This publication presents summary data on selected cultural occupations and industries from the 2006 Census of Population and Housing. The tables show the number and selected characteristics, such as age, income and hours worked, of persons in Australia employed in cultural occupations and cultural industries for their main job.

Occupations and industries are considered as 'cultural' based on inclusion in the Australian Culture and Leisure Classifications (ACLC) (cat. no. 4902.0).

For the 2006 Census, occupation and industry were dual coded, as new occupation and industry classifications have been introduced since the 2001 Census. The use of these classifications for this publication are discussed in this section.


OCCUPATION CLASSIFICATIONS - ASCO AND ANZSCO

Occupation is collected in the Census for all employed people aged 15 years and over. The Australian Standard Classification of Occupations (ASCO) First Edition was published in 1986 and was used in both the 1986 and 1991 Censuses. ASCO Second Edition was used for the 1996 and 2001 Censuses. The 2006 Census saw the introduction of a new occupation classification called the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO).

For the 2006 Census, occupation data was dual coded. This gives users of occupation data the option to use either classification (ANZSCO or ASCO Second Edition) when analysing occupation data. However occupation data in standard Census output products will be ANZSCO based. Chapter 2 in this publication looks at cultural employment over time. As the 1996 and 2001 Censuses used ASCO Second Edition this classification is used for the time series comparisons in chapter 2. However, later chapters (3 and 4) use ANZSCO to classify occupations. The use of different classifications leads to a difference in the number of people classified as working in cultural occupations. Unless comparing data over time, the 2006 figure using ANZSCO should be reported.

For more information please refer to ANZSCO - Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations, First Edition, 2006 (cat. no. 1220.0).


INDUSTRY CLASSIFICATIONS - ANZSIC 1993 AND ANZSIC 2006

This describes the industries in which employed people aged 15 years and over work. The Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) was used in classifying the responses given to the industry questions for the 2006 Census. ANZSIC was first published in 1993 and has been revised for 2006.

Industry of employment data from the 2006 Census was dual coded. This gives users of industry data the option to use either classification (ANZSIC 1993 or ANZSIC 2006) when analysing industry data. Chapter 2 in this publication looks at cultural employment over time. As the 1996 and 2001 Censuses used ANZSIC 1993 this classification is used for the time series comparisons in chapter 2. However, later chapters (3 and 5) use ANZSIC 2006 to classify industry of employment. The use of different classifications leads to a difference in the number of people classified as working in cultural industries. Unless comparing data over time, the 2006 figure using ANZSIC 2006 should be reported.

For more information please refer to Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (cat. no. 1292.0).


CULTURAL EMPLOYMENT OVER TIME - 1996, 2001 AND 2006

In 2006, the Census of Population and Housing collected information on the type of paid work people did in their main job, that is, the one in which they usually worked the most hours. This chapter presents information about persons employed in a cultural occupation (as classified by the Australian Standard Classification of Occupations (ASCO), Second Edition 1997) or a cultural industry (as classified by the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) 1993) for their main job.

This chapter focusses on the percentage change in employment in cultural occupations and industries between 1996, 2001 and 2006. Details about the number of people employed in cultural occupations and industries in 2006 should be reported from chapters 4 and 5.

The number of people employed in cultural occupations for their main job increased by 6.8% between 2001 and 2006. This followed an increase of 13.3% between 1996 and 2001. (Table 2.1)

The number of females employed in cultural occupations increased 10.8% between 2001 and 2006, while the number of males increased by 3.6%. (Table 2.1)

The number of people employed in cultural industries for their main job decreased between 2001 and 2006 by 1.0%, following an 11.3% increase between 1996 and 2001. (Table 2.2)

Interestingly, the number of females employed in cultural industries increased by 1.0% from 2001 to 2006, while the number of males decreased by 3.0%. (Table 2.2)

The cultural occupations which recorded a percentage increase in main job employment greater than 35% were Technical directors, Interior designers, Book editors, Make up artists, Media producers, Urban and regional planners, and Architectural associates. (Table 2.1)

For cultural industries, the largest percentage increases in main job employment occurred in the Performing arts venues industry (46.3%), Photographic studios industry (45.0%), and the Recorded media manufacturing and publishing industry (39.5%). (Table 2.2)


EMPLOYMENT IN CULTURAL OCCUPATIONS BY CULTURAL INDUSTRIES - 2006

In 2006, the Census of Population and Housing collected information on the type of paid work people did in their main job, that is, the one in which they usually worked the most hours. This chapter presents information about persons employed in a cultural occupation (as classified by the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations, First Edition (cat. no. 1220.0)) or a cultural industry (as classified by the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) 2006 (cat. no. 1292.0)) for their main job.

The Census found that 3.1% (284,793 persons) of employed persons in Australia worked in a cultural occupation. The Census also found that some 3.8% (345,950 persons) of employed people worked in a cultural industry. (Table 3.1)

The following diagram summarises ways in which people can be 'culturally' employed. They can either work in a cultural occupation in a cultural industry; in a cultural occupation but not in a cultural industry; or in a non-cultural occupation but in a cultural industry. In 2006, a large proportion of the people who were employed in a cultural occupation worked in a non-cultural industry (44.8% or 127,602 persons). (Table 3.1) A librarian employed in a law firm is an example of a cultural occupation within a non-cultural industry.

Around half of the people employed in a cultural industry worked in a non-cultural occupation (54.6% or 188,759 persons). (Table 3.1) A cleaner employed in a museum is an example of a non-cultural occupation within a cultural industry. The relationship between employment in cultural occupations and cultural industries is illustrated by the diagram below.

CULTURAL EMPLOYMENT SUMMARY - 2006
Diagram: Cultural Employment Summary – 2006



Some cultural industries are dominated by people employed in cultural occupations, while for others the percentage of cultural occupations is relatively small. Approximately 82.3% of those employed in the Creative artists industry (includes creative artists, musicians, writers and performers), 76.8% of those employed in the Arts education industry, and 74.9% of those employed in the Libraries and archives industry worked in a cultural occupation. On the other hand, just 0.8% of persons working in the Newspaper and book retailing industry and 1.3% of persons working in the Video and other electronic media rental industry were employed in a cultural occupation. (Table 3.1)

Some cultural occupations are predominantly in cultural industries while others fall mainly in non-cultural industries. A high percentage of persons employed as Motion picture projectionists (96.8%) or as Television journalists (96.0%) worked in cultural industries. By comparison, a very small percentage of those employed as Antique dealers (0.4%) or Interpreters (1.4%) worked in cultural industries. (A table showing individual occupations by industries is available in spreadsheet format as an attachment to this publication.)

People working in cultural occupations or industries on a voluntary basis without remuneration are excluded from the tables and analysis presented in this publication.


EMPLOYMENT IN CULTURAL OCCUPATIONS - 2006

In 2006, the Census of Population and Housing collected information on the type of paid work people did in their main job, that is, the one in which they usually worked the most hours. This chapter presents information about persons employed in a cultural occupation for their main job, as classified by the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations, First Edition, 2006 (cat. no. 1220.0). The cultural occupations included were selected on the basis of inclusion in the Australian Culture and Leisure Classifications (ACLC) (cat. no. 4902.0).

Of all those employed in Australia in the week prior to the 2006 Census, 284,793 (3.1%) persons had their main job in a cultural occupation. Of those employed in a cultural occupation, the largest numbers were Graphic designers (22,338) Ministers of religion (14,784) and Architects (13,283). (Table 4.1)


SEX

Of all persons employed in cultural occupations for their main job in 2006, 54.7% (155,785) were males, while 45.3% (129,008) were females. (Table 4.1)

There were considerably more males than females employed in the Broadcasting, film and recorded media equipment operators cultural occupation group. More than 90% of all Broadcast transmitter operators, Camera operators, Light and Sound technicians and Television equipment operators were male. Females were noticeably predominant in other cultural occupations. For example, around 85% of all Library and archive workers were female. (Table 4.1)


AGE

The cultural occupation group with the highest percentage (16.7%) of workers aged 20 to 24 years of age was Broadcasting, film and recorded media equipment operators. By contrast, 68.9% of persons employed as a Civil celebrant were aged 55 years or more. (Table 4.2)


BIRTHPLACE AND INDIGENOUS STATUS

Some 72.1% (205,296) of persons employed in cultural occupations were born in Australia. Another 12.8% (36,510) of those employed in cultural occupations were born in the main English speaking countries and 13.4% (38,131) were from non main English speaking countries. (Table 4.3) Similarly for all employed persons, 73.0% were born in Australia, 10.5% were born in the main English speaking countries and 14.4% were born in non main English speaking countries.

Indigenous Australians made up 1.0% (2,930) of all persons employed in cultural occupations for their main job. Relatively high numbers of Indigenous Australians were employed as Visual arts and crafts professionals (676) including occupations such as Painters (visual arts) (190) and Visual arts and crafts professionals n.e.c. (406). Other common cultural occupations of Indigenous Australians were Park rangers (282) and Social Professionals n.e.c. (167). (Table 4.3)


INCOME

Over a third (37.2%) of workers in cultural occupations received less than $600 per week while 29.7% received a gross weekly income of more than $1,000 per week. Some 17.1% of those employed in cultural occupations received a gross weekly income of $600 to $799, and 14.6% received between $800 and $999. (Table 4.4)

The median gross weekly income for persons working in cultural occupations was $741 compared with $718 for all employed persons.

A majority of Potters and ceramic artists (63.6%), Dance teachers (private tuition) (55.8%), and Music teachers (private tuition) (50.9%) received an income of less than $400 per week. In contrast, a high percentage of Environmental managers (81.8%), and Technical directors (77.5%) received an income of $1,000 or more per week. (Table 4.4)


HOURS WORKED

Around 64% of those employed in cultural occupations for their main job worked full time (35 hours or more in the week prior to the Census). In 2006, there were 63.8% (181,652) of persons employed in cultural occupations working at least 35 hours per week, while 19.0% (54,191) reported that they worked between 16 and 34 hours, and 12.1% (34,584) between 1 and 15 hours. (Table 4.5)

Over 85% of Technical directors, Environmental managers, Advertising specialists and Printing machinists worked for 35 hours or more per week in 2006. A large proportion of Music teachers (private tuition) (47.1%), Civil celebrants (45.7%), Dance teachers (private tuition) (43.6%), Drama teachers (private tuition) (42.7%), and Art teachers (private tuition) (39.8%) worked for between 1 and 15 hours per week in all jobs. (Table 4.5)

Approximately 31.2% of those employed in a cultural occupation worked part time (between 1 and 34 hours per week). (Table 4.5) By comparison, 29.5% of all employed persons worked part time.


REGION

Some 3.1% of employed usual residents of Australia were employed in a cultural occupation for their main job. Over 3% of employed usual residents of Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales and Victoria worked in a cultural occupation for their main job, while the remaining states and territories each had under 3%. (Table 4.6)


EMPLOYMENT IN CULTURAL INDUSTRIES - 2006

In 2006, the Census of Population and Housing collected information on the type of paid work people did in their main job, that is, the one in which they usually worked the most hours. This chapter presents information about persons employed in a cultural industry, as classified by the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) 2006 (cat. no. 1220.0), for their main job. The cultural industries were chosen by selecting those ANZSIC codes with a major concordance to the Industry Classification of the Australian Culture and Leisure Classifications (ACLC), 2008 (cat. no. 4902.0).

The total number of persons employed in a cultural industry for their main job in the week prior to the 2006 Census was 345,950. This was 3.8% of all employed people. The 2006 Census showed that the two largest cultural industries were the Printing industry (37,542 employed persons) and the Architectural services industry (30,088 employed persons). Other large cultural industries, in terms of persons employed, included the Newspaper and book retailing industry (28,011 employed persons) and the Advertising industry (27,653 employed persons). (Table 5.1)


SEX

Of all persons employed in cultural industries for their main job in 2006, 175,714 (50.8%) were males and 170,239 (49.2%) were females. By comparison, of all employed persons, 53.9% were males and 46.1% were females. (Table 5.1)

Cultural industries that attracted a significantly higher percentage of males than females included Music and other sound recording activities (73.5% were males), Nature reserves and conservation parks operation (67.7%) and Printing (67.3%). Cultural industries where females were noticeably predominant were Libraries and archives (76.2% were females), Arts education (73.8%) and Newspaper and book retailing (64.0%). (Table 5.1)


AGE

The age profile of workers in cultural industries was very similar to that of all employed persons in Australia.

The cultural industries with the highest percentage of workers 15 to 19 years of age were Video and other electronic media rental (41.9%) and Motion picture exhibition (38.3%). Persons aged 55 years and over were more likely to be employed in the Other cultural industries, with 31.8% of persons employed in Funeral, crematorium and cemetery services and 31.1% of persons employed in the Religious services industry aged 55 years and over. (Table 5.2)


BIRTHPLACE AND INDIGENOUS STATUS

Of all persons employed in cultural industries, 73.8% (255,171) were born in Australia. Another 12.3% (42,642) were born in main English speaking countries and 12.2% (42,188) were from non main English speaking countries. By comparison, for all employed persons, 73.0% were born in Australia, 10.5% were born in the main English speaking countries and 14.4% were born in non main English speaking countries. (Table 5.3)

Indigenous Australians made up 0.7% (2,538) of all persons employed in cultural industries for their main job. The cultural industries employing the highest numbers of Indigenous Australians were the Nature reserves and conservation parks operation industry (441), the Religious services industry (198), the Creative artists, musicians, writers and performers industry (182) and the Newspaper and book retailing industry (169). (Table 5.3)


INCOME

Approximately 42.1% of workers employed in cultural industries received a gross weekly income of less than $600 per week. Some 16.3% of those employed in cultural industries received a gross weekly income in the $600 to $799 range, 12.6% received between $800 and $999, and 27.6% received $1,000 or more. (Table 5.4)

The median gross weekly income for persons working in cultural industries was $688 compared with $718 for all employed persons.

The majority of persons employed in the Video and other electronic media rental industry (69.3%) and the Motion Picture Exhibition industry (60.9%) received an income of less than $400 per week. Other industries with a large percentage of employees receiving an income of less than $400 per week were the Arts education industry (48.9%) and the Newspaper and book retailing industry (47.1%). A relatively high percentage of those employed in the Free-to-air television broadcasting industry (58.2%) and the Internet publishing and broadcasting industry (48.4%) received an income of $1,000 or more per week. (Table 5.4)


HOURS WORKED

The majority of those employed in cultural industries for their main job in 2006 (61.1% or 211,366 persons) worked full time in the week prior to the Census (35 hours or more per week in all jobs). About 19.0% (65,883) reported that they worked 16 to 34 hours per week, and 15.2% (52,548) worked between 1 and 15 hours. (Table 5.5)

Approximately 82.9% of those employed in the Reproduction of recorded media industry and 80.1% of those in the Printing industry worked 35 hours or more in the week prior to the 2006 Census. The majority of persons working in the Arts education (71.9%), Video and other electronic media rental industry (70.0%), Motion picture exhibition (65.1%) and Newspaper and book retailing (51.0%) industries were part time workers (i.e. worked 1 to 34 hours per week in all jobs). (Table 5.5)

Some 15.2% of those employed in cultural industries worked between 1 and 15 hours per week (Table 5.5), compared with 10.8% of all employed persons.


STATE AND TERRITORY

Some 3.8% of employed usual residents of Australia were employed in a cultural industry for their main job. For states and territories, the proportion was largest in New South Wales where 4.4% of employed usual residents (or 129,029 persons) were employed in a cultural industry for their main job. The Australian Capital Territory and Victoria also employed over 4% in cultural industries, while Western Australia and Northern Territory had the lowest levels of employment in cultural industries (3.0% and 2.8% respectively). (Table 5.6)

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