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BUSINESS RESOURCES DEVOTED TO RESEARCH AND EXPERIMENTAL DEVELOPMENT (R&D)
Subsequent expenditure figures and supporting commentary relate to current price terms.
BERD as a proportion of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) decreased from 1.19% in 2013-14 to 1.01% in 2015-16.
BUSINESS EXPENDITURE ON R&D (BERD)
Manufacturing remained the largest contributor to total BERD, contributing $3,908 million (23%) in 2015-16. Professional, Scientific and Technical Services ($3,751 million or 23%), Financial and Insurance Services ($3,215 million or 19%) and Mining ($1,876 million or 11%) were the next largest contributors. Together, these four industries accounted for more than three quarters (77%) of total BERD in 2015-16.
(a) Ranked by 2015-16 BERD
Mining showed the largest decrease in BERD from 2013-14 down $954 million (34%), followed by Manufacturing down $936 million (19%). Financial and Insurance Services showed the largest increase in BERD from 2013-14 up $122 million (4%), followed by Information, Media and Telecommunications up $72 million (13%).
BERD for all employment size groups decreased in 2015-16. Businesses with 200 or more employees had the largest decrease down $1,572 million (14%), followed by; businesses with 20-199 employees down $552 million (12%), businesses with 0-4 employees down $41 million (4%) and businesses with 5-19 employees down $25 million (1%).
LOCATION OF EXPENDITURE
Location of expenditure relates to the region in which the R&D activity was performed (refer to the Explanatory Notes for more information). New South Wales and Victoria continued to have the highest levels of BERD in 2015-16, with $6,421 million (39% of total BERD) and $4,275 million (26% of total BERD) respectively.
In 2015-16, BERD in Queensland showed the largest decrease down $744 million (28%), followed by Western Australia down $650 million (24%). Overseas as a location of expenditure showed the largest growth in BERD, up $176 million (28%), followed by Tasmania up $37 million (25%).
BERD AND GROSS STATE PRODUCT (GSP)
In 2015-16, the state or territory with the highest level of BERD as a proportion of GSP was New South Wales (1.19%). Tasmania was the only state that showed an increase in the BERD/GSP ratio (up 0.12 percentage points to 0.70% in 2015-16). The Northern Territory showed the largest decrease (down 0.68 percentage points) from 1.00% in 2013-14 to 0.31% in 2015-16.
TYPE OF ACTIVITY
In 2015-16, businesses continued to direct the majority of BERD into Experimental development ($10,855 million or 65% of total BERD) and Applied research ($4,796 million or 29% of total BERD). All types of activity decreased between 2013-14 and 2015-16. Applied research decreased $1,339 million (22%), Experimental development decreased $667 million (6%), Strategic basic research decreased $137 million (13%). Pure basic research recorded the lowest decrease down $48 million (28%).
FIELDS OF RESEARCH
By Fields of Research, Information and Computing Sciences ($6,634 million or 40% of total BERD) and Engineering ($5,538 million or 33% of total BERD) accounted for almost three quarters (73%) of total BERD in 2015-16. Engineering showed the largest decrease, down $1,936 million (26%). Information and Computing Sciences showed the largest increase, up $561 million (9%) from 2013-14.
By Socio-economic Objective, Manufacturing ($4,419 million or 27% of total BERD), Commercial Services and Tourism ($3,580 million or 21% of total BERD) and Information and Communication Services ($2,965 million or 18% of total BERD), accounted for two thirds (66%) of total BERD in 2015-16. Mineral Resources showed the largest decrease in BERD down $795 million (39%). Information and Communication Services showed the largest increase up $166 million (6%) from 2013-14.
BUSINESS HUMAN RESOURCES DEVOTED TO R&D
In 2015-16, the industry divisions of Professional, Scientific and Technical Services, Manufacturing and Financial and Insurance Services were the main contributors to total human resources devoted to R&D, at 21,364 (30%), 14,358 (20%) and 14,029 (20%) person years of effort (PYE) respectively.
(a) ranked by 2015-16 total human resources devoted to R&D
Manufacturing showed the largest decrease in human resources devoted to R&D in 2015-16, down 5,596 PYE (28%).
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