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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2007  
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Contents >> Manufacturing >> Manufacturing industry

MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION

The contribution of an industry to the overall production of goods and services in an economy is measured by gross value added (GVA). Information on the relationship between industry GVA and gross domestic product (GDP) is provided in the Industry structure and performance chapter.

Total production of the Manufacturing industry, as measured by industry GVA (in volume terms), increased in most years from 1984-85 to 2004-05 (graph 18.1). During this period, production increased by 42%. It has been steadily increasing since 1991-92 with a slight decrease (1%) in 2004-05.

18.1 MANUFACTURING PRODUCTION(a)(b) 18.1 MANUFACTURING PRODUCTION(a)(b)


Table 18.2 shows the industry GVA of the subdivisions (components) within the Manufacturing Division as defined in the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 1993 edition (1292.0). The table also shows the contribution of the Manufacturing industry to Australia's GDP in the period 2000-01 to 2004-05.

In this period, the Manufacturing industry GVA (in volume terms) rose by 5.8%, while its contribution to GDP (in current prices) declined marginally from 11.6% in 2000-01 to 11.3% in 2004-05. The largest increase in production in the period was for Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing (26%), followed by Other manufacturing (15%) and Machinery and equipment manufacturing (14%). Production for Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing and Machinery and equipment manufacturing had been growing progressively each year from 2000-01.

Production for Textile, clothing, footwear and leather manufacturing fell by 39%. It was the only industry subdivision that recorded a fall over this period. Production in this subdivision has been declining each year since 1998-99.

Between 2003-04 and 2004-05, production decreased for Textile, clothing, footwear and leather manufacturing (19%), Other manufacturing (8.1%), Metal product manufacturing (2.3%) and Printing, publishing and recorded media (2.1%). The largest increase was for Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing (5.2%).


18.2 MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY(a), Gross value added(b)

ANZSIC SubdivisionUnits
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
Percentage change
from 2000-01 to
2004-05

Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing$m
18,821
18,726
18,913
18,875
19,076
1.4
Textile, clothing, footwear and leather
manufacturing
$m
4,320
3,788
3,487
3,223
2,621
-39.3
Wood and paper product manufacturing$m
6,543
6,821
6,941
6,898
6,924
5.8
Printing, publishing and recorded media$m
9,613
9,783
10,016
10,310
10,095
5.0
Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated
product manufacturing
$m
12,521
12,639
13,377
12,773
12,817
2.4
Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing$m
3,863
4,111
4,456
4,611
4,852
25.6
Metal product manufacturing$m
16,025
17,228
17,843
17,888
17,483
9.1
Machinery and equipment manufacturing$m
16,002
16,038
17,198
18,072
18,185
13.6
Other manufacturing$m
3,567
3,908
4,181
4,453
4,092
14.7
Total manufacturing(c)$m
90,878
92,808
96,277
97,103
96,144
5.8
Contribution to GDP(d)%
11.6
11.0
11.5
11.6
11.3
. .

(a) Classified according to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 1993 edition.
(b) Volume measures. Reference year is 2003-04.
(c) Volume measures for years other than 2003-04 and 2004-05 are not additive.
(d) In current prices.
Source: Australian System of National Accounts, 2004-05 (5204.0).


The Manufacturing industry is the largest contributor to Australia's export earnings. Its value of exports based on industry of origin accounted for 49% of total exports in 2005-06.

STRUCTURE AND PERFORMANCE

The major source of statistics in this section is the annual Economic Activity Survey (EAS) of businesses, conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS).

Production of an industry can be measured in terms of industry value added (IVA), in much the same way as industry GVA. However, unlike industry GVA (the national accounts concept of production), IVA is not adjusted for a number of national accounting conventions, as the information to make these adjustments cannot be collected in the EAS. The advantage of IVA, however, is the availability of more detailed (component) industry and state estimates of manufacturing production.

Summary of operations in 2003-04

In 2003-04 manufacturing businesses paid $55 billion (b) in labour costs, and generated $316b of sales and services income, and $90b of IVA (table 18.3).

Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing was the largest contributor to total manufacturing sales and service income ($68b or 22%) and the second largest contributor to IVA ($18b or 19%). Machinery and equipment manufacturing contributed the most to total manufacturing IVA ($18b or 20%) and was the second largest contributor to total manufacturing sales and service income ($60b or 19%). Other industry subdivisions making major contributions were Metal product manufacturing (19% of sales and service income and 18% of IVA) and Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing (17% and 12%).


18.3 MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY(a), Selected performance measures - 2003–04

Labour
costs(b)
Sales and
service
income(c)
Industry
value
added
ANZSIC Subdivision
$m
$m
$m

Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing
10,155.3
68,470.4
17,609.3
Textile, clothing, footwear and leather
manufacturing
2,141.5
10,291.0
3,188.6
Wood and paper product manufacturing
3,423.5
18,626.8
6,522.9
Printing, publishing and recorded media
5,480.2
20,661.7
9,316.4
Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated
product manufacturing
6,557.6
52,832.8
11,257.7
Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing
2,498.2
13,645.5
4,810.7
Metal product manufacturing
9,084.2
58,742.9
15,902.5
Machinery and equipment manufacturing
12,614.7
59,843.5
17,789.9
Other manufacturing
2,721.8
12,490.0
4,036.3
Total manufacturing
54,677.0
315,604.6
90,434.4

(a) Classified according to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 1993 edition.
(b) Includes wages and salaries, payroll tax, fringe benefits taxes, workers compensation costs and employers contributions to superannuation.
(c) Includes rent, leasing and hiring income.
Source: Manufacturing Industry, Australia, 2003-04 (8221.0).


Contribution to state production

Graph 18.4 shows the Manufacturing industry's contribution to state production (in current prices) for 2004-05. The trend for the Manufacturing industry's share of total production in all states has generally been decreasing, even though Australian manufacturing production grew by 33% (in current prices) between 1997-98 and 2004-05. This is because the growth in manufacturing production has been at a slightly slower rate than the growth in other industries.

18.4 MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY'S CONTRIBUTION TO STATE PRODUCTION(a) - 2004-05 18.4 MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY'S CONTRIBUTION TO STATE PRODUCTION(a) - 2004-05


State distribution of activity

Graph 18.5 shows the relative contributions to overall manufacturing production by states and territories in 2003-04. New South Wales and Victoria continued to be the largest contributors to manufacturing production, accounting for 32% ($29b) and 31% ($28b) respectively.

18.5 MANUFACTURING PRODUCTION(a) - 2003-04 18.5 MANUFACTURING PRODUCTION(a) - 2003-04


Table 18.6 shows the production by Manufacturing industry subdivision by state and territory. In 2003-04, New South Wales contributed 38% of the total IVA of the Printing, publishing and recorded media industry ($9.3b) and between 29% and 36% of the total IVA of the remaining manufacturing industries. Victoria contributed 45% of the total IVA of the Textile, clothing, footwear and leather manufacturing industry ($3.2b), 38% of the total IVA of the Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing industry ($11.3b), and between 23% and 35% of the total IVA of the remaining manufacturing industries.

Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing, and Machinery and equipment manufacturing were the largest manufacturing industries in New South Wales and Victoria, accounting for 22% and 18% respectively of the manufacturing IVA for New South Wales, and 18% and 22% for Victoria.

Queensland contributed 20% of the total IVA for Metal product manufacturing which was also the largest manufacturing industry (23%) in this state. The contributions of South Australia and Western Australia to total manufacturing IVA were $8.0b and $8.4b respectively, although the structure of the Manufacturing industry was very different. Machinery and equipment manufacturing was the largest manufacturing industry in South Australia, accounting for 32% of state production and 14% of the total IVA for the industry. South Australia also contributed between 5% and 11% of the total IVA of the remaining manufacturing industries. Western Australia contributed 16% of total IVA for Metal product manufacturing and 13% of total IVA for Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing. Metal product manufacturing was the largest manufacturing industry in the state, accounting for 31% of state production.

Manufacturing was not as significant for the remaining state and territories. Tasmania, which accounted for $2.2b of total manufacturing IVA, contributed 9% of total IVA for Wood and paper product manufacturing. The total production for the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory were $0.7b and $0.4b respectively.


18.6 MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY(a), Value added - 2003–04

NSW
Vic.
Qld
SA
WA
Tas.
NT
ACT
Aust.
ANZSIC Subdivision
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing
6,316.1
5,020.9
2,832.9
1,707.5
1,177.8
476.9
41.4
35.8
17,609.3
Textile, clothing, footwear and leather
manufacturing
999.6
1,423.6
333.3
156.3
200.6
64.0
n.p.
n.p.
3,188.6
Wood and paper product manufacturing
1,945.4
1,844.4
974.6
743.9
390.6
583.3
5.2
35.4
6,522.9
Printing, publishing and recorded media
3,578.5
3,100.0
1,107.5
598.3
628.3
141.4
32.1
130.3
9,316.4
Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated
product manufacturing
3,478.2
4,278.6
1,417.8
685.6
1,219.2
152.3
18.2
7.9
11,257.7
Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing
1,549.2
1,262.0
820.5
388.0
610.4
106.9
46.6
27.1
4,810.7
Metal product manufacturing
4,685.1
3,597.6
3,153.5
950.1
2,586.1
420.6
n.p.
n.p.
15,902.5
Machinery and equipment manufacturing
5,122.4
6,265.0
2,313.0
2,540.4
1,205.5
217.1
43.3
83.3
17,789.9
Other manufacturing
1,319.6
1,198.3
819.7
265.8
354.0
45.5
n.p.
n.p.
4,036.3
Total manufacturing
28,994.1
27,990.3
13,772.6
8,036.0
8,372.6
2,208.1
686.6
374.1
90,434.4

(a) Classified according to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 1993 edition.
Source: Manufacturing Industry, Australia, 2003-04 (8221.0).

Employment

The number of full-time and part-time workers in each Manufacturing industry subdivision is provided in table 18.7. The table includes directors who are not paid a salary and self-employed people (such as contractors, owner/drivers, consultants and people paid solely by commission without a retainer).

In May 2006 the Manufacturing industry employed 10% (1,061,500) of all people employed in Australia (10,142,200). Males outnumbered females by a ratio of almost 3 to 1 (74% males and 26% females). The majority of people employed in the Manufacturing industry were employed full time (94% of males and 68% of females), which is higher than the proportion of people employed full time in all industries (85% of males and 54% of females).

The largest employers of males were Machinery and equipment manufacturing (198,300) and Metal product manufacturing (147,200). The largest employers of females were Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing (59,600) and Printing, publishing and recorded media (45,200).


18.7 MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY(a), Employment - May 2006

Males
Females
Persons



Full time
Part time
Total
Full time
Part time
Total
Full time
Part time
Total
ANZSIC Subdivision
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000
'000

Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing
109.6
9.0
118.6
41.3
18.3
59.6
150.9
27.2
178.2
Textile, clothing, footwear and leather
manufacturing
15.3
2.1
17.4
23.8
12.8
36.7
39.1
15.0
54.1
Wood and paper product manufacturing
56.2
2.4
58.6
6.0
3.2
9.2
62.2
5.5
67.8
Printing, publishing and recorded media
51.5
5.5
57.0
30.3
14.9
45.2
81.9
20.4
102.2
Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated
product manufacturing
54.9
2.6
57.5
21.0
5.5
26.5
75.9
8.1
84.0
Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing
32.4
2.7
35.2
6.9
2.9
9.8
39.3
5.7
45.0
Metal product manufacturing
141.9
5.4
147.2
13.1
7.8
20.9
155.0
13.1
168.1
Machinery and equipment manufacturing
187.4
10.9
198.3
27.7
10.5
38.2
215.1
21.4
236.5
Other manufacturing
46.8
5.7
52.6
8.9
5.7
14.7
55.8
11.5
67.2
Total manufacturing(b)
739.1
47.9
787.0
185.8
88.7
274.5
924.9
136.6
1,061.5

(a) Classified according to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 1993 edition.
(b) Includes 49,700 persons employed full time and 8,700 persons employed part time not classified to an industry subdivision.
Source: Labour Force Australia, Detailed - Electronic Delivery (6291.0.55.003); Australian Labour Statistics, July 2006 (6105.0).


Table 18.8 presents information on average weekly earnings (i.e. ordinary time earnings plus overtime earnings) of employees in the Manufacturing industry compared with all industries. Between May 1986 and May 2006 the average earnings of all employees (male and female) increased by $592 (154%) in the Manufacturing industry. The increase in the Manufacturing industry was higher than the increase of $460 (126%) for all industries. The average earnings of full-time employees experienced similar changes between May 1986 and May 2006, increasing by $651 (157%) in the Manufacturing industry and $653 (150%) for all industries.
In the Manufacturing industry, the earnings of both male and female full-time employees increased but the increase for female employees was 15 percentage points more than the increase for male employees. Despite this increase, female earnings remain well below average male earnings. The difference, in percentage terms, between the earnings of males and females had decreased between May 1986 and May 2006. The average weekly earnings for male full-time employees at May 2006 was higher by $256 (30%) than for female full-time employees. In May 1986 male full-time employees were earning $120 (37%) more than female full-time employees.


18.8 MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY, Average weekly earnings(a)(b) - May

All employees
Full-time employees


1986
2006
Change from
1986 to 2006
1986
2006
Change from
1986 to 2006
$
$
%
$
$
%

Males
Manufacturing
417.20
1,069.80
156.4
439.30
1,118.50
154.6
All industries
425.50
985.10
131.5
465.90
1,165.20
150.1
Females
Manufacturing
286.40
719.40
151.2
319.70
862.60
169.8
All industries
278.20
651.00
134.0
364.90
948.10
159.8
Persons
Manufacturing
385.10
977.50
153.8
413.70
1,064.80
157.4
All industries
366.50
826.90
125.6
434.90
1,088.30
150.2

(a) Derived by dividing estimates of weekly total earnings (including overtime) by estimates of number of employees. Changes in average weekly earnings may be affected not only by changes in the level of earnings of employees but also by changes in the overall composition of the wage and salary earner segment of the labour force.
(b) The actual reference period is the last pay period ending on or before the third Friday of the middle month of the quarter.
Source: Average Weekly Earnings, Australia (6302.0).


Operating profit before tax (OPBT)

OPBT is a measure if profit before extraordinary items are brought to account and prior to the deduction of income tax and appropriations to owners (e.g. dividends paid).

Profits for six industry subdivisions were higher in 2003-04 than they were for 2002-03 (table 18.9). Manufacturing industries with lower profits in 2003-04 were Wood and paper product manufacturing (down 2.2% or $38 million (m)), Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing (down 8.3% or $230m) and Metal product manufacturing (down 6.2% or $284m). The Food, beverage and tobacco industry experienced the greatest increase in profits between 2002-03 and 2003-04 (59% or $2,230m). Other industries that experienced substantial profit growth in the last financial year include Textile, clothing, footwear and leather manufacturing (37% or $190m), Other manufacturing (37% or $257m) and Machinery and equipment manufacturing (17% or $495m). The OPBT for total manufacturing increased by 14% or $2,900m between 2002-03 and 2003-04.

Industries contributing most to total manufacturing industry profits for 2003-04 were Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing (25% of total manufacturing OPBT), Metal product manufacturing (18%), Machinery and equipment manufacturing (14%) and Printing, publishing and recorded media (12%).


18.9 MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY(a), Operating profit before tax

2002-03
2003-04
Change from
2002-03
to 2003-04
Subdivision
contribution to
total 2003-04
ANZSIC Subdivision
$m
$m
%
%

Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing
3,778.4
6,008.1
59.0
25.1
Textile, clothing, footwear and leather
manufacturing
514.8
704.8
36.9
2.9
Wood and paper product manufacturing
1,739.0
1,701.1
-2.2
7.1
Printing, publishing and recorded media
2,627.0
2,773.9
5.6
11.6
Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated
product manufacturing
2,789.3
2,559.1
-8.3
10.7
Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing
1,379.6
1,513.3
9.7
6.3
Metal product manufacturing
4,591.6
4,307.4
-6.2
18.0
Machinery and equipment manufacturing
2,944.0
3,439.2
16.8
14.3
Other manufacturing
703.4
959.9
36.5
4.0
Total manufacturing
21,067.1
23,967.0
13.8
100.0

(a) Classified according to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 1993 edition.
Source: Manufacturing Industry, Australia, 2003-04 - Data cubes (8221.0).


Capital expenditure

Overall, capital expenditure by the Manufacturing industry increased by $399m (3.1%) from 2002-03 to 2003-04 (table 18.10).

Six of the nine Manufacturing industry subdivisions recorded increases in capital expenditure in this period. The largest increases in percentage terms were in Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing (35% or $588m), Wood and paper product manufacturing (33% or $243m), and Other manufacturing (26% or $70m). These increases were partly offset by decreases in expenditure in Machinery and equipment manufacturing (26% or $609m) and Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing (16% or $525m).

The manufacturing industries with largest capital expenditure were Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing (21% of total manufacturing capital expenditure), Metal product manufacturing (20%), Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing (17%) and Machinery and equipment manufacturing (13%).


18.10 MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY(a), Capital expenditure

2002-03
2003-04
Change from
2002-03
to 2003-04
Subdivision
contribution to
total 2003-04
ANZSIC Subdivision
$m
$m
%
%

Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing
3,349.3
2,824.7
-15.7
21.4
Textile, clothing, footwear and leather
manufacturing
300.9
348.1
15.7
2.6
Wood and paper product manufacturing
738.8
981.5
32.9
7.4
Printing, publishing and recorded media
1,096.0
978.1
-10.8
7.4
Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated
product manufacturing
1,697.3
2,284.9
34.6
17.3
Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing
856.9
1,060.7
23.8
8.0
Metal product manufacturing
2,171.5
2,669.6
22.9
20.2
Machinery and equipment manufacturing
2,338.9
1,730.4
-26.0
13.1
Other manufacturing
269.7
339.9
26.0
2.6
Total manufacturing
12,819.2
13,217.9
3.1
100.0

(a) Classified according to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 1993 edition.
Source: Manufacturing Industry, Australia, 2003-04 - Data cubes (8221.0).


RESEARCH AND EXPERIMENTAL DEVELOPMENT (R&D)

In the business context R&D is defined as systematic investigation or experimentation involving innovation or technical risk, the outcome of which is new knowledge, with or without a specific practical application or new or improved products, processes, materials, devices or services. R&D activity also extends to modifications to existing products and processes. Surveys conducted by the ABS of R&D are based on a complete enumeration of businesses identified as likely R&D performers. Businesses mainly engaged in the Agriculture, forestry and fishing industry are excluded.

Total R&D expenditure by the Manufacturing industry increased by $125m (4%) in 2004-05 (table 18.11). Industries contributing the most to manufacturing R&D expenditure in 2004-05 were Motor vehicle and part and other transport equipment manufacturing (27%), Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing (17%), Metal product manufacturing (12%) and Electronic and electrical equipment and appliance manufacturing (10%). Together, these industries accounted for 66% of total R&D expenditure by the Manufacturing industry and 27% of the total R&D expenditure by all industries.


18.11 MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY(a), R&D expenditure

2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
ANZSIC Subdivision
$m
$m
$m

Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing
273
292
323
Textile, clothing, footwear and leather
manufacturing
28
41
35
Wood and paper product manufacturing
98
126
115
Printing, publishing and recorded media
25
45
71
Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated
product manufacturing
476
550
587
Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing
87
97
70
Metal product manufacturing
321
362
414
Motor vehicle and part and other transport
equipment manufacturing
744
891
916
Photographic and scientific equipment
manufacturing
293
303
304
Electronic and electrical equipment and
appliance manufacturing
338
378
349
Industrial machinery and equipment
manufacturing
165
201
206
Other manufacturing
21
40
61
Total manufacturing
2,868
3,326
3,451

(a) Classified according to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 1993 edition.
Source: Research and Experimental Development, Businesses, Australia (8104.0).


Of Manufacturing industry total R&D expenditure in 2004-05, 7% was on capital expenditure, 45% on labour costs and 48% on other current expenditure (table 18.12). The Motor vehicle and part and other transport equipment manufacturing industry contributed the largest expenditure on R&D by the Manufacturing industry for each of labour costs (29%), and other current expenditure (24%). The Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated product manufacturing industry was the largest contributor for capital expenditure (24%) with Motor vehicle and part and other transport equipment manufacturing being the second largest contributor (23%). Manufacturing accounted for 45% of the capital expenditure, 43% of the labour costs, and 39% of other current expenditure on R&D by all industries.


18.12 MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY(a), Type of expenditure on R&D - 2004-05

Capital
expenditure
Labour
costs
Other current
expenditure
Total
ANZSIC Subdivision
$m
$m
$m
$m

Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing
33
149
142
323
Textile, clothing, footwear and leather
manufacturing
3
17
15
35
Wood and paper product manufacturing
3
31
81
115
Printing, publishing and recorded media
4
34
33
71
Petroleum, coal, chemical and associated
product manufacturing
57
231
299
587
Non-metallic mineral product manufacturing
12
23
34
70
Metal product manufacturing
31
129
253
414
Motor vehicle and part and other transport
equipment manufacturing
54
459
403
916
Photographic and scientific equipment
manufacturing
10
162
132
304
Electronic and electrical equipment and
appliance manufacturing
17
209
123
349
Industrial machinery and equipment
manufacturing
11
96
100
206
Other manufacturing
2
19
40
61
Total manufacturing
237
1,558
1,656
3,451

(a) Classified according to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 1993 edition.
Source: Research and Experimental Development, Businesses, Australia, 2004-05 (8104.0).


PRICE INDEXES

The ABS compiles two price indexes relating to the Manufacturing industry - the Price Index of Materials Used in Manufacturing Industries and the Price Index of Articles Produced by Manufacturing Industries. Information on recent trends in the prices of materials used and articles produced in individual manufacturing industries is provided in the section Producer price indexes in the Prices chapter.

INTERNATIONAL TRADE

The Manufacturing industry dominates Australia's value of exports by industry of origin, accounting for 49% of total exports in 2005-06 (table 18.13). The value of manufacturing exports was 55% higher in 2005-06 than in 1996-97. However, the Manufacturing industry share of total value of exports has been trending down over this period.


18.13 VALUE OF MERCHANDISE EXPORTS OF GOODS, By industry of origin(a)

Manufacturing
All
industries
Manufacturing share
of total exports
$m
$m
%

1996-97
48,494
78,932
61.4
1997-98
53,301
87,768
60.7
1998-99
52,073
85,991
60.6
1999-2000
57,982
97,286
59.6
2000-01
69,128
119,539
57.8
2001-02
69,111
121,108
57.1
2002-03
65,810
115,479
57.0
2003-04
62,442
109,049
57.3
2004-05
67,496
126,823
53.2
2005-06
74,958
151,792
49.4

(a) On a free-on-board basis.
Source: ABS data available on request, International Trade.


Graph 18.14 shows the five main destinations for manufacturing commodities exported from Australia, during the period 1999-2000 to 2005-06. Of these, the key destinations were Japan, New Zealand (NZ) and the United States of America (USA). In 2005-06, the value of exports to Japan was $8.0b, compared with $7.4b for both USA and NZ. Over the period 1999-2000 to 2005-06 the value of exports to China has almost tripled from $1.3b to $3.6b.

18.14 MANUFACTURING EXPORTS, Main destinations



More than 90% of Australia's total value of imports during the period 1996-97 to 2005-06 were manufactured goods (table 18.15). The value of Australia's imports of manufactured goods more than doubled over this period, from $74b to $153b.


18.15 VALUE OF MERCHANDISE IMPORTS OF GOODS, By industry of origin(a)

Manufacturing
All
industries
Manufacturing share
of total imports
$m
$m
%

1996-97
73,747
78,998
93.4
1997-98
85,746
90,684
94.6
1998-99
92,437
97,611
94.7
1999-2000
102,382
110,078
93.0
2000-01
108,331
118,317
91.6
2001-02
111,162
119,649
92.9
2002-03
123,041
133,129
92.4
2003-04
122,844
130,997
93.8
2004-05
138,011
149,469
92.3
2005-06
152,904
167,603
91.2

(a) Customs value.
Source: ABS data available on request, International Trade.


Graph 18.16 shows the value of manufacturing commodities imported from five main countries to Australia, in the period 1999-2000 to 2005-06. From 1999-2000 to 2004-05 Australia imported more manufactured goods from the USA than from any other country. However, in 2005-06, China overtook the USA as the country providing the largest amount of imports. The value of imports from China grew more than three times from $7.3b in 1999-2000 to $22.6b in 2005-06.

18.16 MANUFACTURING IMPORTS(a), Selected countries


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