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1301.0 - Year Book Australia, 2007  
Previous ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 24/01/2007   
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Contents >> Industry Structure and Performance >> Industry productivity

INDUSTRY PRODUCTIVITY

Multifactor productivity (MFP) statistics provide a measure of changes in the efficiency of production. These measures are used by both government and private organisations to help gauge the effect of changes in work practices, technology, education and training.

MFP is the ratio of a measure of economic output to a combination of two or more factor inputs. In simple terms, MFP represents that part of the change in production that cannot be explained by changes in the measured inputs.

MFP statistics use industry GVA (in volume terms) as the measure of economic output. Two inputs are used - labour (hours worked) and capital. The capital input used is a measure of different capital assets such as dwellings, other buildings and structures, and machinery and equipment, along with livestock, intangibles and non-agricultural land.

This means that MFP largely represents the effects of technical progress, improvements in the work force, improvements in management practices, and economies of scale. MFP can also be affected in the short to medium term by other factors such as the weather, and by variations in capacity utilisation associated with the business cycle.

MFP measures are calculated for the market sector, an industry grouping comprising the following industries: Agriculture, forestry and fishing; Mining; Manufacturing; Electricity, gas and water supply; Construction; Wholesale trade; Retail trade; Accommodation, cafes and restaurants; Transport and storage; Communication services; Finance and insurance; and the Cultural and recreational services industries. These are industries with marketed activities for which there are satisfactory estimates of the growth in the volume of output.

MFP estimates are subject to growth in the business cycle. It is for this reason that MFP growth is generally analysed as average growth rates from the peak of one growth cycle to the peak of another. This analysis assumes that labour is being utilised to the same degree at each peak in the growth cycle.

MFP statistics are available only for the market sector as a whole. During the period 1998-99 to 2003-04 (the last business growth cycle), the average annual rate of growth in MFP of the market sector (on an hours worked basis) was 1%, less than half that for the period 1993-94 to 1998-99 (the previous business growth cycle) (graph 13.11).

13.11 MULTIFACTOR PRODUCTIVITY OF THE MARKET SECTOR(a)(b) - 1993-94 to 2004-05 13.11 MULTIFACTOR PRODUCTIVITY OF THE MARKET SECTOR(a)(b) - 1993-94 to 2004-05


Although MFP is the more comprehensive measure of productivity, the ABS also produces industry labour productivity indexes. One measure of labour productivity, an index of industry GVA in volume measures per hour worked, is useful because it is available for each market sector industry.

Labour productivity is constant if there is no change in the amount produced (volume GVA) per hour worked. Changes in this ratio reflect changes in the average skill or productivity level of the workforce. This measure reflects not only the contribution of labour to changes in production but also the contribution of capital and other factors (e.g. technological changes and managerial efficiency).

Movements in employment and hours worked tend to lag movements in GDP. The implication being, in the period of the growth cycle when the growth in output starts to decline, indexes of labour productivity are likely to decline sharply, particularly if rapid growth in GDP is abruptly ended. Conversely, labour productivity indexes are likely to grow strongly when the economy comes out of a cyclical trough.

Graph 13.12 shows the average annual rate of growth in the amount produced per hour worked for market sector industries over the previous two business growth cycles (1993-94 to 1998-99, and 1998-99 to 2003-04). Over these periods, the average annual growth rate of the market sector as a whole was 2.3%, and 1.9% respectively.

Most of the market sector industries increased their productivity per hour worked. In the last business cycle (1998-99 to 2003-04) the industries with the highest average annual productivity growth rates were Agriculture, forestry and fishing (5.8%), Manufacturing (3.9%), Wholesale trade (3.4%) and Transport and storage (3.4%). Negative growth is seen only in the Electricity, gas and water supply (-2.5%) and Mining (-0.3%) industries.

In the previous business growth cycle (1993-94 to 1998-99) Electricity, gas and water supply (7.2%), Wholesale trade (5.9%) and Communication services were the top three industries in terms of growth in amount produced per hour worked. In the previous cycle, negative growth in amount produced per hour worked was only seen in the Cultural and recreational services industry (-1.8%).

The average annual rate of growth for a large number of market sector industries had fallen between the two business cycles (1993-94 to 1998-99 and 1998-99 to 2003-04). The largest decreases were in the Electricity, gas and water supply (-9.7 percentage points), Mining (-3.7 percentage points) and Communication services (-3.6 percentage points) industries.

13.12 AVERAGE ANNUAL RATE OF GROWTH IN AMOUNT PRODUCED PER HOUR WORKED(a), Market sector industries - 1993-94 to 2003-04 13.12 AVERAGE ANNUAL RATE OF GROWTH IN AMOUNT PRODUCED PER HOUR WORKED(a), Market sector industries - 1993-93 to 2003-04

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