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ENERGY CONVERSION AND SUPPLY LOSSES
The energy conversion sectors accounted for more than three quarters (4,465 PJ) of total domestic energy use in 2004-05 (diagram 17.4). The energy conversion sectors (including electricity generators, petroleum refiners, operators of coke ovens and blast furnaces, and gas manufacturers) transform primary energy products into more useful, higher value-added derived energy products. For example, petroleum refiners transform crude oil into petroleum products such as petrol and diesel.
The electricity generation and petroleum refining sectors are the two main users of energy. In 2004-05 these two conversion sectors used 2,439 PJ and 1,570 PJ respectively (table 17.12). Since 1999-2000, energy use by the electricity generation sector has increased by 19% and energy use by the petroleum refining sector has declined by 7%.
DERIVED ENERGY PRODUCTS
In 2004-05 Australia produced 2,446 PJ of derived energy products (diagram 17.4). These products included thermal electricity (850 PJ), automotive gasoline (613 PJ), diesel (495 PJ), aviation turbine fuel (196 PJ) and coal products (168 PJ) (table 17.13).
In the period 1999-2000 to 2004-05 production of derived energy increased from 2,383 PJ to 2,446 PJ (up 2.6%). In this period the production of thermal energy increased from 704 PJ to 850 PJ (up 21%). At the same time there has been a fall in the production of all coal products - coke (down 3%), coal by-products (down 12%), briquettes (down 69%) - and all petroleum products, except diesel (up 0.1%).
However, significant energy losses are involved in the process of transforming primary energy resources into derived energy products and in the delivery of derived energy products to the market. In 2004-05, over a third (2,019 PJ) of the total energy available for domestic use was lost through the conversion processes and the distribution and transmission systems (diagram 17.4).
ENERGY END-USE BY SECTOR
In 2004-05 Australia's end-users of energy, comprising households and industries (excluding the conversion sectors), used 3,822 PJ of energy (table 17.14). This is an increase of 7.9% since 1999-2000.
The transport sector (including household transport) is the largest end-user of energy, using 1,339 PJ in 2004-05. In 2004-05 road transport accounted for 78% (1,044 PJ) of the transport sectors energy use, with the remaining contributors being air transport (178 PJ), water transport (58 PJ), rail transport (38 PJ) and other (21 PJ). The manufacturing sector was the second highest user of energy (1,247 PJ) in 2004-05. Together with the transport sector, these two sectors account for 68% of total energy end-use.